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Chamar

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Chamar
Leather-bottle makers. - Tashrih al-aqvam (1825), f.360v - BL Add. 27255.jpg
Leather-bottle makers (Presumably members of the ‘Chamaar’ caste), Tashrih al-aqvam (1825)
Regions with significant populations
India • Pakistan
Languages
PunjabiUrduHindi
Related ethnic groups
other Ramdasia Ravidassia Julaha

Chamar is one of the untouchable communities, or dalits, who are now classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's system of positive discrimination. As untouchables, they were traditionally considered outside the Hindu ritual ranking system of castes known as varna, they are found mainly in the northern states of India and in Pakistan[1][2] and Nepal.

Ramnarayan Rawat posits that the association of the Chamar community with a traditional occupation of tanning was constructed, and that the Chamars were instead historically agriculturists.[3]

The term chamar has also been used as a pejorative word for anyone whom the describer considers to be of low standing.[4]

Demographics

According to the 2001 census of India, the Chamars comprise around 14 per cent of the population in the state of Uttar Pradesh[5] and 12 percent of that in Punjab.[6]

Chamar population in India by State, 2001
State Population State Population % Notes
Bengal[7] 999,756 1.25%
Bihar[8] 4,090,070 5%
Delhi[9] 893,384 6.45%
Chandigarh[10] 48,159 5.3%
Chhattisgarh[11] 1,659,303 8%
Gujarat[12] 1,041,886 2%

In Gujarat they are known as Rohit (caste) and Bhambi Khalpa

Haryana[13] 2,079,132 9.84%
Himachal Pradesh[14] 414,669 6.8%
Jammu & Kashmir[15] 488,257 4.82%
Jharkhand[16] 837,333 3.1%
Madhya Pradesh[17] 5,603,723 9.3% Chamars are primarily concentrated in Sagar, Morena, Rewa, Bhind and Chattarpur districts. Chamars work in land measurement are described as Balahi.[18] Balahi have major concentration in Ujjain, West Nimar and Dewas districts.[17]
Maharashtra[19] 1,234,874 1.28%
Punjab[20] 2,800,000 11.9% The Chamar caste cluster (34.93%) consists of two castes of Chamars and Ad-dharmis. Chamar—an umbrella caste category—includes Chamars, Jatia Chamars, Rehgars, Raigars, Ramdasias, and Ravidassias. [21]
Rajasthan[22] 6,100,236 10.8% Chamars in Rajasthan can only be identified in the districts adjoining to the states of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The districts of Bikaner, Shriganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu, Alwar, Bharatpur and Dhaulpur are inhabited by Chamars. In the districts of Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and parts of Alwar (adjoining to Bharatpur) they are known as Meghwal[23][page needed] Raigar (leather tanners) and Mochi (shoe makers) are other two castes related to the leather profession.[citation needed]In Bikaner region, they are known as Balai.[24]
Uttar Pradesh[25] 19,803,106 14%
Uttaranchal[26] 444,535 5%

The 2011 Census of India for Uttar Pradesh combined the Chamar, Dhusia, Jhusia, Jatava Scheduled Caste communities and returned a population of 22,496,047.[27]

Occupations

Chamars who have adopted the weaving profession and abandoned tanning and leathercraft, identify themselves as Julaha Chamar; R. K. Pruthi suggests this is in the hope that they might in future be considered as Julaha by other communities in the future.. They believe that leatherwork is "degrading" when compared to weaving.[28]

Military

Sikh Light Infantry

The Sikh Chamar Ramdasia has a history of military service, including in the Sikh Light Infantry (composed of lower caste- Majhabi and Ramdasia Sikhs).[29]

Chamar Regiment

The 1st Chamar Regiment was an infantry regiment formed by the British during World War II. Officially, it was created on 1 March 1943, as the 27th Battalion 2nd Punjab Regiment was converted.[30][full citation needed] The Chamar Regiment which was involved in the Pacific War Japanese front and was awarded the Battle Honor of Kohima for theirs distinguished role in the Battle of Kohima,[31] the Regiment was disbanded in 1946.[32] Recently, several politicians have demanded that The Chamar Regiment be revived.[32]

Notable people

  • Kanshi Ram (1934–2006), founder of Bahujan Samaj Party and mentor of Mayawati Kumari[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Pakistan's caste system: the untouchable's struggle". Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  2. ^ "Socio-Economic Position of Leatherworkers in Gulbarga City" (PDF). Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  3. ^ Yadav, Bhupendra (21 February 2012). "Aspirations of Chamars in North India". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 14 January 2013. 
  4. ^ Singh, Sanjay L. (20 August 2008). "Calling an SC 'chamar' offensive, punishable, says apex court". The Economic Times. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  5. ^ "Uttar Pradesh data highlights: the Scheduled Castes, Census of India 2001" (PDF). 
  6. ^ "Uttar Pradesh data highlights: the Scheduled Castes" (PDF). 
  7. ^ "West Bengal — DATA HIGHLIGHTS: THE SCHEDULED CASTES — Census of India 2001" (PDF). Retrieved 14 January 2013. 
  8. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_bihar.pdf
  9. ^ "Microsoft Word - Delhi comments.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  10. ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_chandigarh.pdf
  11. ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_chhattisgarh.pdf
  12. ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_gujarat.pdf
  13. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_haryana.pdf
  14. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_himachal.pdf
  15. ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_jk.pdf
  16. ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_jharkhand.pdf
  17. ^ a b http://censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_madhya_pradesh.pdf
  18. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=rTdnvQBPWIUC&pg=PA579%7Ctitle=Balahi: Chamars employed to measure land.
  19. ^ http://censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_maha.pdf
  20. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_punjab.pdf
  21. ^ Ram, Ronki (21 January 2017). "Internal Caste Cleavages among Dalits in Punjab". Economic & Political Weekly. 52 (3). 
  22. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_rajasthan.pdf
  23. ^ Rawat, Shyam (2010). Studies in Social Protest. VEDAMS. ISBN 8131603318. 
  24. ^ Balai: Chamars in Bikaner region are known as Balai. 
  25. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_up.pdf
  26. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Tables_Published/SCST/dh_sc_uttaranchal.pdf
  27. ^ "A-10 Individual Scheduled Caste Primary Census Abstract Data and its Appendix - Uttar Pradesh". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  28. ^ Pruthi, R. K. Indian caste system. Discovery. p. 189. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  29. ^ Wilkinson, Steven I. (2015). Army and Nation: The Military and Indian Democracy since Independence. Harvard University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-67496-700-7. 
  30. ^ "Orders of Battle - 27/2 Punjab Regiment [British Commonwealth]". ordersofbattle.com. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  31. ^ "The Battle of Kohima" (PDF). 
  32. ^ a b "RJD man Raghuvansh calls for reviving Chamar Regiment". indianexpress.com. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  33. ^ "I will be the best PM and Mayawati is my chosen heir". Indian Express. 2 May 2003. ...I am a chamar from Punjab... 

Further reading