Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala, dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam language. It is known by the sobriquet Mollywood in various print and online media. Malayalam film industry is the fourth biggest film industry in India; the films produced here are known for story-driven realistic plots. Works such as Marana Simhasanam and Vanaprastham were screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1999 Cannes Film Festival. Marana Simhasanam garnered the coveted Caméra d'Or for that year. In 1982, Elippathayam won the Sutherland Trophy at the London Film Festival, Most Original Imaginative Film of 1982 by the British Film Institute. Rajiv Anchal's Guru and Salim Ahamed's Adaminte Makan Abu were Malayalam films sent by India as its official entries for the Best Foreign Language Film category at the Academy Awards. Adoor Gopalakrishnan has won the International Film Critics Prize for his works such as Mukhamukham, Mathilukal, Vidheyan and Nizhalkkuthu.
Other films which achieved global acclaim include Chemmeen, which received a Certificate of Merit at the Chicago International Film Festival, a Gold Medal at the Cannes Film Festival for Best Cinematography. Piravi won at least 31 international honours, including the Caméra d'Or – Mention Spéciale at the 1989 Cannes Film Festival, was screened at the Un Certain Regard. Swaham won the Bronze Rosa Camuna at the Bergamo Film Meeting in Italy; the first 3D film produced in India, My Dear Kuttichathan, was made in Malayalam. The first CinemaScope film produced in Malayalam was Thacholi Ambu. During the early 1920s the Malayalam film industry was based in Thiruvananthapuram, although the film industry started to develop and flourish only by the late 1940s; the industry shifted to Chennai, the capital of the South Indian film industry. By the late 1980s, the Malayalam film industry returned and established itself in Kerala with the majority of locations, studios and post-production facilities being located in Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram.
Several media sources describe Kochi as the hub of the film industry. Active Malayalam film production did not take place until the second half of the 20th century: there were only two silent films, three Malayalam-language films before 1947. With support from the Kerala state government production climbed from around 6 a year in the 1950s, to 30 a year in the 1960s, 40 a year in the 1970s, to 127 films in 1980; the first cinema hall in Kerala, with a manually operated film projector, was opened in Thrissur by Jose Kattookkaran in 1907. In 1913, the first permanent theatre in Kerala was established in Thrissur town by Kattookkaran and was called the Jose Electrical Bioscope, now Jos Theatre; the first film made in Malayalam was Vigathakumaran. Production started in 1928, it was released at the Capitol Theatre in Thiruvananthapuram on 23 October 1930, it was produced and directed by J. C. Daniel, a businessman with no prior film experience, credited as the father of Malayalam cinema. Daniel founded The Travancore National Pictures Limited, in Kerala.
A second film, Marthanda Varma, based on a novel by C. V. Raman Pillai, was produced by R. Sundar Raj in 1933. However, after only being shown for four days, the film prints were confiscated due to a legal battle over copyright; the first talkie in Malayalam was Balan, released in 1938. It was directed by songs written by Muthukulam Raghavan Pillai, it was produced by Modern Theatres at Salem in the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu. Balan was followed by Gnanambika in 1940, directed by S. Notani. Came Prahlada in 1941, directed by K. Subramoniam of Madras and featuring Guru Gopinath and Thankamani Gopinath; until 1947 Malayalam films were made by Tamil producers. Artist P. J. Cherian was the first Malayali producer to venture into this field and the trend changed, he produced Nirmala in 1948 with Joseph Cherian and Baby Joseph his son and daughter-in-law in the lead roles as hero and heroine. He cast many other family members in other roles, breaking the taboo that noble family people do not take up acting.
Thus Nirmala became the first film produced by a Malayali, setting many firsts for introducing play-back singing, cinema with a social theme where the entire family could sit together and watch it. Artist P. J. Cherian was the first cinema producer to explore the possibility of music and songs in cinema, thus became the pioneer to introduce play-back singing in cinema; the lyrics of the film penned by the legendary Malayalam poet G. Sankara Kurup became so popular that song-dance sequences became essential ingredients of Malayalam cinema. Vellinakshatram was the first movie to be made in Kerala and it took shape at the Udaya Studios at Alleppey. Malayalam cinema has always taken its themes from relevant social issues and has been interwoven with material from literature and politics since its inception. One such film, Jeevitha Nouka, was a musical drama. In 1954, the film Neelakuyil captured national interest by winning the President's silver medal, it was scripted by the well-known Malayalam novelist Uroob, directed by P. Bhaskaran and Ramu Kariat.
Newspaper Boy contained elements of Italian neorealism. This film is notable as the product of a group of amateur college filmmakers, it told the story of his family being stricken with extreme poverty. The music took a turn away from the trend of copying Tamil and Hindi
Cinema of India
The cinema of India consists of films produced in the nation of India. Cinema is immensely popular in India, with as many as 1,600 films produced in various languages every year. Indian cinema produces more films watched by more people than any other country. Mumbai and Hyderabad are the major centres of film production in India; as of 2013, India ranked first in terms of annual film output, followed by Nigeria and China. In 2012, India produced 1,602 feature films; the Indian film industry reached overall revenues of $1.86 billion in 2011. In 2015, India had a total box office gross of US$2.1 billion, third largest in the world. Indian cinema is a global enterprise, its films have a following throughout Southern Asia and across Europe, North America, the Greater Middle East, Eastern Africa and elsewhere, reaching in over 90 countries. Biopics including Dangal became transnational blockbusters grossing over $300 million worldwide. Global enterprises such as 20th Century Fox, Sony Pictures, Walt Disney Pictures and Warner Bros. invested in the industry along with Indian enterprises such as AVM Productions, Prasad's Group, Sun Pictures, PVP Cinemas, Zee, UTV, Suresh Productions, Eros International, Ayngaran International, Pyramid Saimira, Aascar Films and Adlabs.
By 2003 as many as 30 film production companies had been listed in the National Stock Exchange of India. The overall revenue of Indian cinema reached US$1.3 billion in 2000. The industry is segmented by language; the Hindi language film industry is known as Bollywood, the largest sector, representing 43% of box office revenue. Combined Tamil and Telugu film industries revenues represent 36%; the South Indian film industry encompasses five film cultures: Tamil, Malayalam and Tulu. Another prominent film culture is Bengali cinema, associated with the parallel cinema movement, in contrast to the masala films more prominent in Bollywood and Telugu films at the time. Millions of Indians overseas watch Indian films, accounting for some 12% of revenues. Music rights alone account for 4–5% of net revenues; the history of cinema in India extends back to the beginning of the film era. Following the screening of the Lumière and Robert Paul moving pictures in London, commercial cinematography became a worldwide sensation and by mid-1896 both Lumière and Robert Paul films had been shown in Bombay.
In 1897, a film presentation by one Professor Stevenson featured a stage show at Calcutta's Star Theatre. With Stevenson's encouragement and camera Hiralal Sen, an Indian photographer, made a film of scenes from that show, namely The Flower of Persia; the Wrestlers by H. S. Bhatavdekar, showing a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay, was the first film to be shot by an Indian and the first Indian documentary film; the first Indian film released in India was Shree Pundalik, a silent film in Marathi by Dadasaheb Torne on 18 May 1912 at Coronation Cinematograph, Bombay. Some have argued that Pundalik was not the first Indian film, because it was a photographic recording of a play, because the cameraman was a British man named Johnson and the film was processed in London; the first full-length motion picture in India was produced by Dadasaheb Phalke, Phalke is seen as the pioneer of the Indian film industry and a scholar of India's languages and culture. He employed elements from Sanskrit epics to produce his Raja Harishchandra, a silent film in Marathi.
The female characters in the film were played by male actors. Only one print of the film was made, for showing at the Coronation Cinematograph on 3 May 1913, it was a commercial success. The first silent film in Tamil, Keechaka Vadham was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1916; the first chain of Indian cinemas, Madan Theatre was owned by Parsi entrepreneur Jamshedji Framji Madan, who oversaw production of 10 films annually and distributed them throughout India beginning in 1902. He founded Elphinstone Bioscope Company in Calcutta. Elphinstone merged into Madan Theatres Limited in 1919, which had brought many of Bengal's most popular literary works to the stage, he produced Satyawadi Raja Harishchandra in 1917, a remake of Phalke's Raja Harishchandra. Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu was a film pioneer. From 1909, he was involved in many aspects of Indian cinema, he was the first to own cinemas in Madras. He was credited as the father of Telugu cinema. In South India, the first Tamil talkie Kalidas was released on 31 October 1931.
Nataraja Mudaliar established South India's first film studio in Madras. Film gained popularity across India. Tickets were affordable to the masses with additional comforts available at a higher price. Young producers began to incorporate elements of culture into cinema. Others brought ideas from across the world. Global audiences and markets soon became aware of India's film industry. In 1927, the British Government, to promote the market in India for British films over American ones, formed the Indian Cinematograph Enquiry Committee; the ICC consisted of three Indians, led by T. Rangachari, a Madras lawyer; this committee failed to support the desired recommendations of supporting British Film, instead recommending support for the fledgling Indian film industry. Their suggestions were shelved. Ardeshir Irani released Alam Ara, the first Indian talkie, on 14 March 1931. Irani produced the first south Indian talkie film Kalidas directed by H. M. Reddy released on 31 October 1931. Jumai Shasthi was the first Bengali talkie.
Chittor V. Nagaiah, was one of the first multilingual film actor/singer/composer/
Zarina Wahab is an Indian actress, critically acclaimed for starring roles, in Chitchor and Gopal Krishna in the 1970s. She has appeared in Malayalam films including the critically acclaimed Madanolsavam, Chamaram and Adaminte Makan Abu. Wahab was born in Andhra Pradesh into a Muslim family, she is fluent in Telugu, Urdu and English. She was trained at Television Institute of India, Pune. Wahab has one brother. After receiving negative feedback about her appearance from film producer Raj Kapoor, Wahab worked on her appearance and attended film parties and events, she got noticed and was cast in films. She was cast as the middle-class, natural beauty. Wahab appeared in Basu Chatterjee's Chit Chor. Apart from this, she worked in Amol Palekar-Vijayendra starrer Agar', followed by the Raj Babbar-starrer Zajbaat, the Arun Govil-starrer Sawan Ko Aane Do, the Vikram-starrer Raees Zada etc, she earned a Filmfare Award nomination as Best Actress for her role in Gharonda. She has acted in Malayalam, Tamil, films.
Wahab made a comeback to Malayalam films with Calendar, in 2009. She has continued to act in Malayalam movies, most notably movies like Adaminte Makan Abu, she appeared in My Name Is Khan as the mother of Rizwan Khan. Wahab plays older roles in television serials. Wahab met actor Aditya Pancholi on the sets of Kalank Ka Tika. Pancholi is 6 years her junior, they married in 1986 and have a daughter and son Sooraj. News of their turbulent marriage, her husband's temper and rumors of infidelity have been in the gossip columns. Wahab's daughter is an actress, her son, was arrested in June, 2013, for aiding and abetting the suicide of his girlfriend, Jiah Khan. He made his Bollywood debut with Sunil Shetty's daughter Athiya Shetty in 2015 in the movie Hero. Maayka as Mohini Malhotra Zaara – Pyaar Ki Saugat as Sana Khan Amir's stepmother Kyunki Saas Bhi Kabhi Bahu Thi as Tulsi's childhood friend Yahaaan Main Ghar Ghar Kheli as Pratibha Virrudh- Vasudha mother Madhubala Ek Ishq Ek Junoon as Sultan's mother Ek Kiran Roshni Ki on DD National as Roshni's mother FIRas Bajrang Pandey's mother Sajda Tere Pyaar Mein as Mahendra Pratap's mother Meri Awaaz Hi Pehchaan Hai as Ketki Gaikwad Winner: The Global Indian Film And Television Honors for Best Actor In A Supporting Role – Female for My Name Is Khan Nominated: Screen Award for Best Actress In A Supporting Role for Rakht Charitra – I Nominated: Stardust Award for Best Actress In An Ensemble Cast for My Name Is Khan Nominated: Stardust Award for Best Actress In An Ensemble Cast for Rakht Charitra – I Nominated: Filmfare Award for Best Actress for Gharonda Zarina Wahab on IMDb
Marmmaram is a 1982 Indian Malayalam film, directed by Bharathan. The film stars Bharath Gopi, Jalaja and KPAC Lalitha in the lead roles; the film has musical score by M. S. Viswanathan; the film won the Kerala State Film Awards including Best Lyrics for Kavalam Narayana Panikkar. A Headmaster falls in love with a Music teacher; the music was composed by M. S. Viswanathan and the lyrics were written by Kavalam Narayana Panicker. Marmaram on IMDb
Kesavan Venugopal Nair, known popularly by his stage name Nedumudi Venu, is an Indian film actor from Kerala. Regarded as one of the greatest actors in Indian cinema, he has acted in more than 500 films, he has written screenplays and has directed one film. He has won two National Film Awards and six Kerala State Film Awards for his various performances. Venu was born as Venugopal to P. K. Kesavan Nair, a school master and P. Kunjikkuttiyamma in Nedumudi, Alappuzha as the youngest of their five children, he has four elder brothers. He had his primary education from N S S Higher Secondary School, St. Mary's Higher Secondary School, Champakulam, he was involved in music since his academic period. After graduating from Sanatana Dharma College, Alappuzha, he worked as a journalist in Kalakaumudi and as a teacher in a tutorial institute. Venu was living in Thiruvananthapuram when he made friends with the likes of Aravindan and Bharath Gopi; this paved the way for his film career. He is a talented Mridangam player.
He is married to T. R. Susheela; the couple has two sons and Kannan. Venu went on to act in films, he was a member of Kavalam Narayana Panicker's dramas. He debuted by director G Aravindan, his acting skills were showcased in the Bharathan film Aaravam. Padmarajan's Oridathoru Phayalwan and Kallan Pavithran set a milestone for him, it marked his start in Karanavar roles. Venu wrote scripts for movies, he wrote the stories for the films Kattathe Kilikkoodu, Sruthi, Ambada Njaane!, Oru Katha Oru Nunnakkatha and Angane Oru Avadhikkalathu. He tried his hand in direction with Pooram, he has acted in a few Tamil films with director Shankar, such as Kamal Hasan's Indian and Vikram's Anniyan. Venu has acted in some television serials, he acted in NFDC film Parinamam, directed by P Venu that won the best screenplay award at the Ashdod International Film Festival held in Israel. He won the Best Actor award for his role in Saira at the Zimbabwe International Film Festival which concluded in September 2007; the committee mentioned that he acted compellingly and convincingly in his portrayal of a man caught between secularism and fundamentalism.
National Film Awards: 1990 – Best Supporting Actor – His Highness Abdullah 2003 – Special Jury Award – Margam 2006 – National Film Award for Best Non-Feature Film Narration / Voice Over – MinukkuKerala State Film Awards: 1980 – Second Best Actor – Chamaram 1981 – Best Actor – Vidaparayum Munpe 1987 – Best Actor – Oru Minnaminunginte Nurunguvettam 1990 – Special Jury Award – Bharatham, Santhwanam 1994 – Second Best Actor – Thenmavin Kombath 2003 – Best Actor – Margamkerala state television awards2001 - Best Actor: AvasthatarangalAsianet Film Awards 2005 – Best Supporting Actor Award – Thanmatra 2007 – Best Script Writer Award – Thaniye 2011 – Best Supporting Actor – Best Actor, Elsamma Enna Aankutty 2013 – Best Character Actor – North 24 Kaatham 2015 – Best Villain – Oru Second Class Yathra, Rudra Simhasanam 2017 - Asianet Film Award for Lifetime AchievementFilmfare Awards 1981 – Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Malayalam – Vida Parayum Munpe 1987 – Filmfare Award for Best Actor – Malayalam -Oru Minnaminunginte Nurunguvettam 1997 – Lifetime Achievement AwardKerala Film Critics Association Awards 2007 – Second Best Actor – Thaniye 2007 – Lifetime Achievement Award/Prathibha PuraskaramOther Awards 2003 – Best Actor Award won in Television Gallup Poll conducted by University of Kerala union for Ragardram 2006 – Sathyan Award 2006 – Kalavedi International Prathibha Award was presented at Tagore Theatre, Trivandrum in 2006.
2007 – Bahadoor Award 2008 – Kala Ratnam Award of KALA Abu Dhabi 2011 – Serve India Media Award 2015 – Vanitha Film Award for Best Villain for Oru Second Class Yathra and Rudra Simhasanam 2003 – Arimpara at the Cannes Film Festival & other film festivals 2005 – Margam at the Havana International Film Festival 2007 – Saira – Best Actor award at the Zimbabwe International Film Festival 2020 – Indian 2 2019 – Sarvam Thaala Mayam 2008 – Silambaattam 2008 – Poi Solla Porom 2005 – Anniyan 1996 – Indian 1995 – Mogamul 2007 Chaurahen Kairali Vilasam Lodge Verukal Jwalayayi Poovanpazham Swapnam Avasthantarangal Oomakkuyil Raagardram Sree Guruvayorappan Prayanam Peythozhiyathe Kunjalimarakkar Sreekrishnan Nedumudi Venu to play lead role in Sathyan Anthikkad film Nedumudi Venu on IMDb Nedumudi Venu at MSI Official Website of Information and Public Relation Department of Kerala
Bharathan was an Indian film director and art director. Bharathan is noted for being the founder of a new school of film making in Malayalam cinema, along with Padmarajan and K. G. George, in the 1980s, which created films that were received while being critically acclaimed. A train of directors, screenwriters followed this school onto the 1990s including Sibi Malayil, Kamal and Jayaraj, he was born at Engakkadu in present-day Thrissur district of Kerala, India. After completing his diploma from the College of Fine Arts, Bharathan entered films as an art director Gandharavakshetram, directed by A. Vincent, he was inspired by an established director. After working as an art director and assistant director in a few films, he made his directorial debut in 1975 with Prayanam, based on Padmarajan's script, it marked the rise of two early proponents of middle-stream Malayalam cinema. Bharathan's films were well known for their realistic portrayal of rural life in Kerala. Melodrama and escapism an integral part of mainstream cinema in India, were absent in his films.
He managed to steer clear of the "star-centric" culture, prevalent in Indian cinema, throughout his career. His films did involve major movie stars but without compromising on plot or narrative. Bharathan, along with Padmarajan and K. G. George were responsible for introducing a counter culture of meaningful mainstream cinema which tread the middle path between art-house and commercial cinema; this movement was called the "middle of the road cinema". Bharathan's films were known for their visually appealing shot compositions, his background as a painter enabled him to create frames that were credited for their visual beauty. Natural props and nature itself became important characters in his films. Bharathan is one of the few Indian directors known to use an elaborate story-board system for filming, he often designed the posters for his films. He etched a separate cult of movies which had a typical "Bharathan touch". Several of his early films were known for their bold portrayal of sexual themes.
His films defied social conventions and norms about man-woman relationships. Rathinirvedam was the sexual-coming-of-age story of the relationship between a teenager and an older woman while Chamaram dealt with the tumultuous affair between a student and his college lecturer. In Kattathe Kilikkoodu an elderly, married Professor falls for his student. Kaathodu Kaathoram was about the social ostracism of a woman; the latter half of Bharathan's career saw a distinct change in film making style characterized by a wider canvas, more attention to detail with more distinct focus on narrative style. Some critics argue that this quest for technical excellence was at the expense of the quality of thematic content. Films like Vaishali and Amaram set a new benchmark for cinematographic excellence in Malayalam and Indian Cinema. Thaazhvaaram was stylistically inspired by classic Hollywood Westerns though the theme and backdrop were distinctly original, his last few films were received moderately by critics.
Bharathan directed over 40 films in Tamil. Starting his career in 1975 with Prayanam, Bharathan rode to fame with his off-beat Thakara, a film about a dumb-witted central character who falls in love with the village beauty; some of his other memorable films include Rathinirvedam, Paalangal and Vaishali. His association with Padmarajan led to films including Thakara. Rathi Nirvedam was a treatment of teenage sexual angst. In Thakara, he deals with life and longings of an intellectually disabled youth and his association with the society. In the early 1980s he made several notable movies like Chamaram, Paalangal, Kattathe Kilikkoodu, many more, they set the trend for meaningful mainstream cinema. Other noted directors followed suit, it was the romantic era of Malayalam cinema. Not all of Bharathan's films skirted with bold themes and controversy. In Oru Minnaaminunginte Nurunguvettam, he tells the poignant story of a childless couple in their post retirement life, it deals with loneliness that comes with old age.
The film was a departure from Bharathan's usual style and proved to be a major commercial hit while garnering critical acclaim, too. His Vaisali is regarded as a modern-day masterpiece in Malayalam cinema. Scripted by the iconic Malayalam novelist M. T. Vasudevan Nair, it was an adaptation of a sub-story told in the epic Mahabharatha. Another movie born from their association was Thazhvaram, with versatile star actor Mohanlal; the subject was a theme quite uncharacteristic of Bharathan movies. The style was inspired by classic Westerns with a brooding, reticent central character and expansive shots of barren landscape. Though he was not known to cater to the star-centric system, Bharathan was instrumental in bringing together the two screen icons of Tamil cinema Sivaji Ganesan and Kamal Hassan in the Tamil film Thevar Magan which won critical acclaim and box office success. Sivaji gave an brilliant performance; the movie was remade into many regional languages. His more experimental films include Aaravam, more an arthouse than commercial venture, Nidra, about the plight of a woman, in love with a mentally der
Ratheesh was an Indian film actor best known for his work in Malayalam cinema. He was a native of Kalavoor in the Alappuzha district of India, he was a Super star in Mollywood during the 1980s. He was popular for his villainous roles during the 1990s, he had acted in 158 films with directors such as K. G. George, I. V. Sasi, Joshiy, P. G. Vishwambharan, Thampy Kannamthanam, Shaji Kailas, he was born to Puthenpurayil V. Padmavathi amma at Kalavoor, Alappuzha, he had two sisters and Laila. He had his education from Sree Narayana College, Kollam and S. N. College, Cherthala, he was married to Diana, the daughter of· Ex minister M. K. Hemachandran, on 11 September 1983; the couple have four children Parvathy, Padmaraj and Pranav. He died due to a heart attack at his home in Coimbatore on 23 December 2002, aged just 48, his wife died in December 2014. Ratheesh started his career in the Malayalam film Vezhambal in 1977, but it was K. G. George who provided his big break through Ullkadal in 1979, he became a bankable star through I. V. Sasi's Thusharam in 1981.
From 1981 to 1988 he was at the peak of his career, performing in films like Oru Mukham Pala Mukham, Ee Nadu, Rajavinte Makan, Muhoortham 11.30,Sankharsham, Vazhiyorakazhchakal, Aayiram Kannukal, Unaru, Ithraym Kaalam,Uyarangalil, Akkachiyude Kunjuvava, John Jaffer Janardhanan, Innalenkil Nale and Ponthooval. After 1988 he reduced the number of films in which he acted, he quit altogether after 1990. After a period of four years he made a comeback as the antagonist through Shaji Kailas's Commissioner. Throughout the 1990s, he did various villainous and character roles in films such as Kashmeeram, Yuvathurki, 19 April, Gangothri. In the 2000s, he was notable for his roles in Ravanaprabhu and Danny... Iyer The Great Chakkikotha Chankaran Black Mail Revenge Ente Shabtham 2001: Venalmazha opposite to sreevidhya 2001: Anna Kerala State Television Awards Best Actor 2002: Anna Ratheesh at MSI The Hindu news Ratheesh at Internet Movie Database