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Chamber music

Chamber music is a form of classical music, composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room. Most broadly, it includes any art music, performed by a small number of performers, with one performer to a part. However, by convention, it does not include solo instrument performances; because of its intimate nature, chamber music has been described as "the music of friends". For more than 100 years, chamber music was played by amateur musicians in their homes, today, when chamber music performance has migrated from the home to the concert hall, many musicians and professional, still play chamber music for their own pleasure. Playing chamber music requires special skills, both musical and social, that differ from the skills required for playing solo or symphonic works. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe described chamber music as "four rational people conversing"; this conversational paradigm – which refers to the way one instrument introduces a melody or motif and other instruments subsequently "respond" with a similar motif – has been a thread woven through the history of chamber music composition from the end of the 18th century to the present.

The analogy to conversation recurs in analyses of chamber music compositions. From its earliest beginnings in the Medieval period to the present, chamber music has been a reflection of the changes in the technology and the society that produced it. During the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, instruments were used as accompaniment for singers. String players would play along with the melody line sung by the singer. There were purely instrumental ensembles of stringed precursors of the violin family, called consorts; some analysts consider the origin of classical instrumental ensembles to be the sonata da camera and the sonata da chiesa. These were compositions for one to five or more instruments; the sonata da camera was a suite of fast movements, interspersed with dance tunes. These forms developed into the trio sonata of the Baroque – two treble instruments and a bass instrument with a keyboard or other chording instrument filling in the harmony. Both the bass instrument and the chordal instrument would play the basso continuo part.

During the Baroque period, chamber music as a genre was not defined. Works could be played on any variety of instruments, in orchestral or chamber ensembles; the Art of Fugue by Johann Sebastian Bach, for example, can be played on a keyboard instrument or by a string quartet or a string orchestra. The instrumentation of trio sonatas was often flexibly specified. Sometimes composers mixed movements for chamber ensembles with orchestral movements. Telemann's'Tafelmusik', for example, has five sets of movements for various combinations of instruments, ending with a full orchestral section. Baroque chamber music was contrapuntal; because each instrument was playing the same melodies, all the instruments were equal. In the trio sonata, there is no ascendent or solo instrument, but all three instruments share equal importance; the harmonic role played by the keyboard or other chording instrument was subsidiary, the keyboard part was not written out. In the second half of the 18th century, tastes began to change: many composers preferred a new, lighter Galant style, with "thinner texture... and defined melody and bass" to the complexities of counterpoint.

Now a new custom arose. Patrons invited street musicians to play evening concerts below the balconies of their homes, their friends and their lovers. Patrons and musicians commissioned composers to write suitable suites of dances and tunes, for groups of two to five or six players; these works were called serenades, divertimenti, or cassations. The young Joseph Haydn was commissioned to write several of these. Joseph Haydn is credited with creating the modern form of chamber music as we know it. In 83 string quartets, 45 piano trios, numerous string trios and wind ensembles, Haydn established the conversational style of composition and the overall form, to dominate the world of chamber music for the next two centuries. An example of the conversational mode of composition is Haydn's string quartet Op. 20, No. 4 in D major. In the first movement, after a statement of the main theme by all the instruments, the first violin breaks into a triplet figure, supported by the second violin and cello; the cello answers with its own triplet figure the viola, while the other instruments play a secondary theme against this movement.

Unlike counterpoint, where each part plays the same melodic role as the others, here each instrument contributes its own character, its own comment on the music as it develops. Haydn settled on an overall form for his chamber music compositions, which would become the standard, with slight v

Southern Blood (album)

Southern Blood is the eighth and final studio album by American singer-songwriter Gregg Allman, released on September 8, 2017 by Rounder Records. Following the release of his seventh album, Low Country Blues, Allman continued to tour and released a memoir, My Cross to Bear, in 2012. However, that same year, he was diagnosed with liver cancer, his output and schedule in the intervening years slowed, Southern Blood, recorded in March 2016, became his final album. He and his backing band recorded the album with producer Don Was at FAME Studios in Muscle Shoals, Alabama over a period of nine days; the set is heavy on covers, including songs performed by Bob Dylan, the Grateful Dead, Tim Buckley and Jackson Browne, who guests on the album's final song, "Song for Adam". The songs were picked as they each held meaning for Allman, told a story, he had planned to include more original songs, but was too ill to complete them. The album's only original song, "My Only True Friend", was co-written by guitarist and bandleader Scott Sharrard, was released as the album's lead single.

Upon its release, Southern Blood attracted critical acclaim. Southern Blood is Allman's final album, followed years of health setbacks. Following a liver transplant in 2010, he was diagnosed with liver cancer in 2012 but continued to play music, he had planned to record a sequel of sorts to Low Country Blues, using the backing musicians he recorded with on that album, that did not come to fruition. Southern Blood was planned to be Allman's first of all original material, was tentatively titled All Compositions By Gregg Allman. However, his health problems and touring schedule impeded this, which led to him and manager Michael Lehman picking out songs to cover that held "deep meaning for; when Gregg picked them, he knew. He was further along with the progression of his disease." The album was recorded over nine days in March 2016 with producer Don Was at FAME Studios in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. The album was recorded with his then-current backing band. FAME held great history for Allman as one of his first groups, Hour Glass, recorded there, as did his brother Duane as a session musician in the late 1960s.

Due to his health, Allman could only work for about four hours --. Was stated the album subtly crafts a farewell mood: "It was kind of unspoken, but it was clear we were preparing a final statement, in many ways." Allman did not complete vocal tracks for two finished backing tracks for Freddie King's "Pack It Up" and Leon Russell's "Hummingbird", which were both left off the release. In addition, he had planned to record his harmony overdubs, but was too ill to do so, leading to Buddy Miller taking the role instead. Allman and Was had discussed creating an album with the same spirit as Laid Back, Allman's debut solo album. Despite the album's posthumous release, producer Don Was was reluctant to call Southern Blood "an album about dying Gregg was explaining his life and making sense of it, both for the fans who stood with him for decades, for himself." The album's opening song, "My Only True Friend", carries themes of time running out. Allman repeats the lyric "I hope you're haunted by the music of my soul, when I'm gone" throughout the song.

He co-wrote the song with his bandleader, Scott Sharrard, who secretly wrote the song in the voice of Gregg's late brother, Duane Allman, speaking to him. The rest of the album is composed of cover songs, beginning with "Once I Was" performed by Tim Buckley. Allman would sing the song when with Sharrard, who urged him to record it. Allman was unsure about doing a version of the Grateful Dead's "Black Muddy River", as he felt his personal writing style was so different from the group, but warmed to it when recording it. Allman chose to cover "Blind Bats and Swamp Rats" by Johnny Jenkins because Duane had once played with him; the album closes with "Song for Adam", written by Allman's longtime friend Jackson Browne, who provides harmony vocals on the track. Allman recorded a demo of the song in 1974, he related the song's lyrics to the death of Duane. He got emotional when singing the lyric "Still it seems he stopped singing in the middle of his song," and was unable to finish it. Ronald Hart of Billboard felt the album contained a modern country music sound: "you can’t figure out if it's the influence of such acolytes as Eric Church and Jamey Johnson on Allman, or the other way around."

Southern Blood was set for a January 2017 release, but was delayed to due to Allman's health. He chose an early September release date, as he did not want the album to compete with bigger-name artists who release albums in the year. Allman spent the last night, he died on May 27, 2017. Upon the album's release, three live events, titled Southern Blood: Celebrating Gregg Allman, were held featuring friends and associates of Allman discussing the album in three of Allman's favorite cities; the first was held on September 7, 2017 at the Grammy Museum's Clive Davis Theater in Los Angeles, the second at the Big House Museum in Macon, Georgia. The Macon event attracted hundreds of fans, the mayor of Macon, Robert Reichert, proclaimed Allman's December 8 birthday as Gregg Allman Day in the city; the third event is set for Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum's Ford Theater in Nashville, Tennessee as a part of Americanafest. Southern Blood received critical acclaim from music critics. At

Kevin Grimes (soccer)

Kevin Grimes is a former U. S. National Team player who played five seasons in the American Professional Soccer League, one in the USISL and one each in Iceland and Major League Soccer, he earned five caps with the U. S. National Team in 1988. Grimes made over 20 appearances for the U. S. National Team from 1988-1990 that were not official international caps, but rather international matches versus other professional clubs from Central and South America. Grimes grew up in St. Louis, Missouri where he played youth soccer with the Scott Gallagher Soccer Club. In 1984, he won the McGuire Cup National Championship with Scott Gallagher, he attended Rosary High School where he was both a 1986 Parade Magazine All-American and National Defender of the Year his senior year. After high school, Grimes attended Southern Methodist University from 1986–1989, he was 1989 NSCAA First Team All-American. He was a Herman Award finalist in both his junior and senior year at SMU, his senior year, he was third in the voting.

He graduated in 1990 with a bachelor's degree in Economics. Grimes signed with the Colorado Foxes of the American Professional Soccer League in 1990; the St. Louis Storm of the MSL drafted Grimes in 1991 but he left for Iceland where he spent the 1991 season with Tindastoll FC, he returned to the U. S. in 1992 to sign with the Miami Freedom of APSL. On January 20, 1993, he signed with the Los Angeles Salsa, he never played a regular season game. In 1995, Grimes moved to the USISL Raleigh Flyers where he played with former MLS coach, Jason Kreis. In January 1996, the San Jose Clash of Major League Soccer selected Grimes in the sixteenth round in the Inaugural Player Draft. After starting 11 of 12 pre-season matches, Grimes injured his shin and the Clash released him on April 20, 1996. Once Grimes recovered from his injury, he signed with the Orange County Zodiac of the A-League He was named an A-League All Star in 1997 and started for the Western Conference in the A-League All-Star game in Rochester, New York.

Despite this success, he decided to enter coaching full-time. Grimes first played for the U. S. as the captain of the U-16 U. S. National Team in 1983; the U. S. qualified for the FIFA U-17 World Cup. The tournament was scheduled for 1984 but was delayed a year. With the delay and several of his teammates were now too old to participate in the first FIFA U-17 World Cup. Grimes was a member of the U-18, U-19, U-20 and U-23 U. S. National Teams. While at SMU, Lothar Osiander called Grimes into the senior national team camp. Grimes earned his first caps with the U. S. national team in a 1-0 win over Guatemala on January 10, 1988. He went on to play five games with the national team, the last coming in a 1-0 victory over Costa Rica on June 14, 1988. In 1993, Grimes began coaching youth soccer with the San Juan Soccer Club while a member of the Los Angeles Salsa. In 1995, he began coaching the Irvine High School girls soccer team as well as the Mission Viejo Pateadores Soccer Club during his offseason. In his two seasons with Irvine High School, he compiled a 23-13-13 record.

In 1997, he decided to retire from playing professionally and commit to a coaching career when he was offered a position as an assistant coach at his alma mater, Southern Methodist University. He remained at SMU with his mentor Schellas Hyndman. On April 25, 2000, University of California hired Grimes as its head coach. In the years since he was named the Pac-12 Coach of the Year in 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. Cal has won the Pac-12 Championship in 2006, 2007 and 2010, they have advanced to the NCAA Elite 8 in 2005, 2010, 2013. In 2010, they lost in PK's at Akron. Cal has advanced to the NCAA Sweet 16 four times, they have advanced to the NCAA Tournament 13 times in the past 19 seasons. In 2017, Grimes had 18 of his former Cal players playing professional soccer in the United States and Europe; this is amongst the highest of any college team in the nation. In 2019, Grimes won his 200th collegiate game, all at Cal. In addition, he won his 203rd game the same season and is now the all-time winningest coach in Cal soccer history.

Cal coaches profile

Georges Barrère

Georges Barrère was a French flutist. Georges Barrère was the son of a cabinetmaker, Gabriel Barrère, Marie Périne Courtet, an illiterate farmer's daughter from Guilligomarc'h, they married in 1874. They had had a son Étienne, out of wedlock, in 1872. George did not regard his parents as musical although his father wished he had been a tenor instead of a carpenter. In 1879, the family moved to Paris. By the year 1886, they had moved to Épernon near Chartres; the story goes. Georges got the whistle and boasted that he had become a virtuoso on the six-holed instrument while Étienne was still struggling with elementary scales on the fiddle; the boys went to École Drouet, the village school and although modest, they were the beneficiaries of the new Jules Ferry laws which mandated free education for all French children. The principal of the school was a bandmaster in his spare time and Georges used to follow the band, when it marched through the streets of the town, tooting on his penny-whistle; the band members encouraged him and when the Barrères moved back to Paris in 1888, Monsieur Chouet, the principal, recommended that Gabriel let Georges have music lessons.

Back in Paris, Georges was required to attend cadet training as a result of the Franco-Prussian War and he became a member of a fife corps, instructed by a student at the Paris Conservatoire. The instructor persuaded him to take lessons with his own teacher at the Conservatoire, Léon Richaud, with whom Barrère began his studies on the flute. Richaud took him to audition at the Conservatoire and although he was not accepted, he was allowed to have weekly coaching with Henry Altès, professor of flute. After a further audition, he was accepted at the Conservatoire at the age of fourteen. Progress under the aging and traditional Altès was slow and critiques of Barrère's performances by the faculty were less than glowing. In 1893, Paul Taffanel replaced Altès as professor of flute and this Barrère described as the turning point of his life. Instead of wasting class time on five-finger exercises, of which Altès had published a whole bookful, Taffanel taught the students how to analyze and dissect the music in order to discover its nuances.

Barrère described him as the best flutist in the world and irreplaceable. He discouraged excessive expression and sentimentality. Barrère experienced an immediate improvement, noted by his examining professors in their reports. In 1895, he won first prize in the concours. At the age of seventeen, Barrère started doing freelance work and played in the orchestra at the Folies Bergère for a while; this helped him fund his studies at the Conservatoire. While still a student, he obtained a free-lance position in the orchestra of the Société Nationale de Musique which premiered Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune by Claude Debussy in 1894, it was one of the most momentous occasions in music of the turn of the 20th century, ushering in a whole new language of harmony and orchestral colour, for the young Barrére to have been the one to play the opening notes on solo flute, was an experience like no other. Debussy was present at rehearsals and continued to work on refining the score while these were in progress.

After he completed his studies, Barrère organized a woodwind organization called the Société moderne d'instruments à vent, which gave concerts, was involved with the Concerts del'opera which held orchestral concerts at the opera house. He gained entry to the Société des compositeurs de musique. In 1897, Barrère became an instructor at the Collège Stanislas in Montparnasse and held the position for seven years. In the same year, he was appointed a flutist in the Concerts Colonne, a major Paris orchestra, of which his former classmate from the conservatory, Pierre Monteux was a violist and became assistant conductor; the orchestra toured Europe under trying conditions, good practice for the young musician who would tour extensively in the United States. In 1905 Barrère was invited by Walter Damrosch to play for New York Symphony Orchestra,a position he accepted and in which he remained for the rest of his life but for one break; some major works were written for him including the Poem of Charles Tomlinson Griffes and Density 21.5 by Edgard Varèse.

Barrère founded the Barrère Ensemble of Wind Instruments in 1910 and the Little Symphony chamber orchestra in 1915. He died on June 14, 1944

Travonti Johnson

Travonti Johnson is an American football safety for the Cedar Rapids River Kings of the Indoor Football League. He was signed by the New York Giants as an undrafted free agent in 2007, he played college football at Central Florida. Johnson attended Dr. Michael M. Krop High School in Florida. Johnson attended the University of Central Florida, where he was a member of the UCF Knights football team. After going undrafted in the 2007 NFL Draft, Johnson signed as an undrafted free agent with the New York Giants. Johnson has been a member of the Billings Outlaws. After spending the 2008 and 2009 seasons with the Outlaws, Johnson was signed by the Giants again. After spending the entire 2009 season on the Giants practice squad, Johnson returned to the Outlaws. On June 13, 2016, Johnson signed with the Billings Wolves. On January 30, 2017, Johnson signed with the Dodge City Law. On June 14, 2017, Johnson signed with the Monterrey Steel. On July 25, 2017, Johnson signed with the Salina Liberty. On April 12, 2018, Johnson was released.

On April 12, 2018, Johnson signed with the Texas Revolution. Billings Outlaws bio New York Giants bio UCF Knights bio

Pierre Tchernia

Pierre Tcherniakowski, better known as Pierre Tchernia, was a French cinema and television producer, presenter and actor. In France he was known as Monsieur Cinema. Born in Paris as Pierre Tcherniakowski, he was the youngest of four children, his father, a Ukrainian immigrant, was his mother a seamstress. He grew up in Courbevoie. In 1940, at age 12, he was inspired to work in cinema. After graduation, he enrolled in a film and photography technical school, joined the Institute for Advanced Cinematographic Studies, he was part of the creation of the first televised news in France in 1949 and was an early French news presenter. In 1955 he became a producer of animation. For many years he hosted a television game show of Monsieur Cinéma, he was host or presenter for various French talk, variety and music shows over the years. Tchernia was the regular French commentator in the Eurovision Song Contest on 14 occasions from 1958 until 1974. On 14 July 2011, he became Commandeur of the Legion of Honor. A good friend of René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo, the creators of Asterix, he narrated many of the Asterix films in the original French, wrote the screenplay for four of them.

He was caricatured numerous times in the series: in Pilote 306 he is shown interviewing Asterix about the upcoming story Asterix in Britain in Asterix the Legionary he is pictured as one of the Roman officers around Caesar's map table in Pilote 556 the announcement page for Asterix in Switzerland has him hosting a game show with Asterix as guest and Goscinny & Uderzo as contestants in Asterix in Corsica he is "Centurion Hippopotamus" of the Roman camp of Totorum in Asterix and Caesar's Gift he appears as one of the soldiers being demobbed in Obelix and Co. he is part of the demoralized troop being replaced at the start of the story—drinking from an amphora of wine, he is seen being carried out by caricatures of Goscinny and Uderzo in Asterix in Belgium he is a legionary who has no problem with being beaten up by Obelix after having been stationed in Belgium in The Twelve Tasks of Asterix he is the Roman Prefect in a bureaucratic office known as "The Place That Sends You Mad."His caricature can be found in the Lucky Luke animated film La Ballade des Dalton, where he is depicted on a picture on the wall, when Luke visits the character Thaddeus Collins.

1949 part of the first French television news 1961 L'Ami Public n°1 — host of a series on the films of Walt Disney 1963 Carom Shotsscreenwriter 1965 Pleins feux sur Stanislas — actor 1966 won the Rose d'Or at the Montreux festival 1966 Monsieur Cinéma television quiz show 1968 Asterix and Cleopatra — screenwriter/film adaption 1971 Daisy Town — lyrics 1976 The Twelve Tasks of Asterix — screenwriter/narrator in the original French 1978 The Ballad of the Dalton Gang — screenwriter 1985 Asterix Versus Caesar — screenwriter 1986 Asterix in Britain — screenwriter/film adaption 2002 Asterix and Obelix: Mission Cleopatra — played "Caius Gaspachoandalus"/narrator in the original French 2006 Asterix and the Vikings — narrator in the original French Pierre Tchernia on IMDb Mini Biography Caricatures of Pierre Tchernia in many Astérix albums