A bidet is a plumbing fixture or type of sink intended for washing the genitalia, inner buttocks, anus of the human body. It may be located next to the toilet in the toilet room. Fixtures that combine a toilet seat with a bidet, which may be electronic, are available. "Bidet" is a French loanword. Bidets are used to wash and clean the genitalia, inner buttocks, anus; some bidets have a vertical jet intended to give easy access for washing and rinsing the perineum and anal area. The traditional separate bidet is like a wash-basin, can be used for many other purposes such as washing feet. A bidet shower is a hand-held triggered nozzle, similar to that on a kitchen sink sprayer, that delivers a spray of water to assist in anal cleansing and cleaning the genitals after defecation and urination. In contrast to a bidet, integrated with the toilet, a bidet shower has to be held by the hands, cleaning does not take place automatically. Bidet showers are common in countries. Drawbacks include the possibility of wetting a user's clothing.
In addition, a user must be reasonably flexible to use a hand-held bidet shower. A bidet is a plumbing fixture, installed as a separate unit in the bathroom besides toilet and sink, which users have to straddle; some bidets resemble a large hand basin, with a stopper so they can be filled up. There are bidets that are attachable to toilet bowls, saving space and without the need to plumb in an additional unit. A bidet may be a movable or fixed nozzle attached to an existing toilet on back or side toilet rim, or replacing the toilet seat. In these cases, their use is restricted to cleaning the genitals; some bidets of this type produce others a more or less oblique one. Others have one nozzle on the side rim for both anal and genital areas, other designs have two nozzles on the back rim, the shorter one, called the "family nozzle", is used for washing the area around the anus, the longer one is designed for washing the vulva; such attachable bidets are mechanically, by turning a valve, or electronically.
Electronic bidets are controlled with waterproof electrical switches rather than a manual valve. There are models that have a heating element which blows warm air to dry the user after washing, that offer heated seats, wireless remote controls, illumination through built in night lights, or built in deodorizers and activated carbon filters to remove odors. Further refinements include adjustable water pressure, temperature compensation, directional spray control. Where bathroom appearance is of concern, under-the-seat mounting types have become more popular. An add-on bidet connects to the existing water supply of a toilet via the addition of a threaded tee pipe adapter, requires no soldering or other plumbing work. Electronic add-on bidets require a GFCI protected grounded electrical outlet. Contrarily to beliefs in non-bidet countries, the use of bidet is not an alternative to the use of toilet paper. A typical sequence usage for a bidet is: wiping anus area using toilet paper first. Drying the area is not always a necessity but anyway obtained with one or two sheets of more toilet paper.
Disinfecting the bidet with a disinfectant bathroom spray after use is customary at home. Personal hygiene is maintained more and with the use of both toilet paper and bidet as compared to the use of toilet paper alone. Addressing hemorrhoids and genital health issues might be facilitated by the use of bidet fixtures; because of the large surface of the sink, after-use and routine disinfection of stand-alone bidets requires accuracy, or microbial contamination from one user to the next could take place. Bidet attachments are sometimes included on hospital toilets because of their utility in maintaining hygiene. Warm-water bidets may harbor dangerous microbes. From an environmental standpoint, bidets can reduce the need for toilet paper. Considering that an average person uses only 1⁄8 US gal of water for cleansing once using a bidet, much less water is used than for making toilet paper. An article in Scientific American concluded that using a bidet is "much less stressful on the environment than using paper".
In Islam there are many strict rules concerning excretion. In regions where Islam is the predominant religion, water for anal washing is provided in most toilets in the form of a hand-held "bidet shower" or shattaf. Bidets are becoming popular with the ageing community, or for use among people with physical disabilities; these combined units make independent toileting possible for many people, affording greater independence. These are special units with higher toilet seats allowing easier wheelchair transfer, with some form of electronic remote control that benefits an individual with limited mobility or requiring assistance. Bidets are common bathroom fixtures in many southern European countries Italy, where they are found in 97% of households and Portugal (installation is ma
A toilet brush is a tool for cleaning a toilet bowl. The modern plastic version was invented in 1932 by William C. Schopp of Huntington Park, California, US and patented in 1933 by the Addis Brush Company; the toilet brush is used with toilet cleaner or bleach. The toilet brush can be used to clean the upper area of the toilet, around the bowl. However, it cannot be used to clean far into the toilet's U-bend and should not be used to clean the toilet seat. In many cultures it is considered impolite to clean away biological debris without the use of chemical toilet cleaning products, as this can leave residue on the bristles. By contrast, others consider it impolite not to clean away biological debris using the toilet brush. A typical toilet brush consists of a hard bristled end with a rounded shape and a long handle. Today toilet brushes are made of plastic, but were made of wood with pig bristles or from the hair of horses, oxen and badgers; the brush is stored in a holder, but in some cases hidden in a tube.
An electric toilet brush is a little different from a normal toilet brush. The bristles are fastened on the rotor of a motor; the power supply is attached without any metal contact via electromagnetic induction. In recent years, there has been a general shift in design with a new emphasis on ergonomically designed brushes. Further design enhancements have included innovative holders that snap shut around the bristled end, thereby preventing the release of smells and other unpleasantries. Further development of the traditional toilet brush focus on the risk of germ incubation within the brush holder. A toilet brush has been patented which introduces a reservoir of anti-bacterial fluid, allowing the brush to be dipped and sanitized after each use; the first successful artificial Christmas tree was made from brush bristles by Addis using the same machinery used to manufacture its toilet brushes. The trees were made from the same animal-hair bristles used in the brushes, except they were dyed green.
In recent years many new products aiming to reinvent the traditional toilet brush have emerged to the market. The LooBlade is a toilet brush with an 8-blade silicone head and hydrophobic properties that sheds water and dries quickly, it is claimed to be able to kill 99.9 % of germs after cleaning. It was invented by Garry Stewart; the Loogun is an alternative to the toilet brush. It's a pressure washer that sprays a powerful jet of clean water that washes away stubborn marks both above and below the water line; the device never touches the toilet, so the device stays hygienic and safe for children. The Handi Sani is a self-cleaning toilet brush, it works by attaching the Handi Sani brush holder to the side of the tank with one small hose running into the tank to take advantage of clean water, another hose running into the toilet bowl for proper draining. The brush is placed inside the Handi Sani so that when the toilet is flushed, the attachment fills up with clean water while draining the dirty water into the toilet bowl.
Automatic self-clean toilet seat Bidet Self-cleaning toilet bowl Shit stick Toilet Washlet Xylospongium
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The President leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines; the President is directly elected by the people, is one of only two nationally elected executive officials, the other being the Vice President of the Philippines. However, four vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having been elected to the office, by virtue of a president's intra-term death or resignation. Filipinos refer to their President as Presidente; the President serves a single, six year term without possibility of re-election. On June 30, 2016, Rodrigo Duterte was sworn in as the current president. In Filipino, one of the two official languages of the Philippines, the President is referred to as Pangulo. In the other major languages of the Philippines such as the Visayan languages, Presidente is more common when Filipinos are not code-switching with the English word.
Depending on the definition chosen for these terms, a number of persons could alternatively be considered the inaugural holder of the office. Andrés Bonifacio could be considered the first President of a united Philippines since he was the third Supreme President of the Katipunan, a secret revolutionary society, its Supreme Council, led by the Supreme President, coordinated provincial and district councils. When the Katipunan started an open revolt against the Spanish colonial government in August 1896, Bonifacio transformed the society into a revolutionary government with him as its head. While the term Katipunan remained, Bonifacio's government was known as the Tagalog Republic. Although the word Tagalog refers to the Tagalog people, a specific ethno-linguistic group, Bonifacio used it to denote all non-Spanish peoples of the Philippines in place of Filipinos, which had colonial origins. Bonifacio's revolutionary government never controlled much territory for any significant period and was unrecognized and unknown to the non-Tagalog ethnnolinguistic groups.
Some historians contend that including Bonifacio as a past president would imply that Macario Sacay and Miguel Malvar should be included. In March 1897, during the Philippine Revolution against Spain Emilio Aguinaldo was elected president of the revolutionary government at the Tejeros Convention; the new government was meant to replace the Katipunan, though the latter was not formally abolished until 1899. Aguinaldo was again elected President at Biak-na-Bato in November, leading the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. Aguinaldo therefore signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato and went into exile in Hong Kong at the end of 1897. In April 1898, the Spanish–American War broke out, the Asiatic Squadron of the United States Navy sailed for the Philippines. At the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898 the American Navy decisively defeated the Spanish Navy ending Spanish rule in the Philippines. Aquinaldo subsequently returned to the Philippines aboard a U. S. Navy renewed the revolution, he formed a dictatorial government on May 24, 1898 and issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12, 1898.
On June 23, 1898, Aguinaldo transformed his dictatorial government into a revolutionary government. On January 23, 1899, he was elected President of the First Philippine Republic, a government constituted by the Malolos Congress under the Malolos Constitution; this government is called the Malolos Republic. The First Philippine Republic was short-lived and never internationally recognized; the Philippines was transferred from Spanish to American control by the Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed in December of that year. The Philippine–American War broke out between the United States and Aguinaldo's government, his government ceased to exist on April 1, 1901, after he pledged allegiance to the United States following his capture by U. S. forces in March. The current government of the Republic of the Philippines, considers Emilio Aguinaldo to be the first President of the Philippines. Miguel Malvar continued Aguinaldo's leadership of the Philippine Republic after the latter's capture until his own capture in 1902, while Macario Sakay founded a Tagalog Republic in 1902 as a continuing state of Bonifacio's Katipunan.
They are both considered by some scholars as "unofficial presidents", along with Bonifacio, are not recognized as Presidents by the government. Between 1901 and 1935, executive power in the Philippines was exercised by a succession of four American military Governors-General and eleven civil Governors-General. In October 1935, Manuel L. Quezon was elected the first President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, established, still under United States sovereignty, under a constitution ratified on 14 May of that year. During its first five years, the President could serve for an unrenewable six-year term, it was amended in 1940 to limit a President to serving no more than two four-year terms. When President Quezon exiled himself to the United States after the Philippines fell to the Empire of Japan in World War II, he appointed Chief Justice José Abad Santos as Acting President and as Acting Commander-in Chief of the Armed Forces. Abad Santos was subsequently executed by the Imperial Japanese Army on May 2, 1942.
On October 14, 1943, José P. Laurel became President under a constitution imposed by the Japanese occupation. Laurel, an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, had been instructed to remain in the City of Manila by Pre
North Korea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Negotiations on reunification failed, in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south.
An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire. North Korea describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, formally holds elections, though said elections have been described by outside observers as sham elections. Outside observers generally view North Korea as a Stalinist totalitarian dictatorship noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family; the Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972; the means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education and food production are subsidized or state-funded. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, the population continues to suffer malnutrition.
North Korea follows "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active and paramilitary personnel, or 37% of its population, its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India. It possesses nuclear weapons; the UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that, "The gravity and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world". The North Korean regime denies most allegations, accusing international organizations of fabricating human rights abuses as part of a smear campaign with the covert intention of undermining the state, although they admit that there are human rights issues relating to living conditions which the regime is attempting to correct. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, the sovereign state is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum.
The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon in North Korea, Hanguk in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, called the Republic of Korea in English. Both governments consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the whole of Korea. For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.
After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan from 1910 to 1945. Japan tried to suppress Korean traditions and culture and ran the economy for its own benefit. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces; some of them took part in parts of South East Asia. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who became the first leader of North Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States; the drawing of the division was assigned to two American officers, diplomat Dean Rusk and Army officer Charles Bone
A bidet shower, is a hand-held triggered nozzle, placed near the toilet and delivers a spray of water used for anal cleansing and cleaning of the genitals after using the toilet for defecation and urination. The device is similar to that on a kitchen sink sprayer; the health faucet is a source of water for people who prefer using water rather than other methods of cleansing after defecation or urination. The shower is an alternative for the traditional sources of water for this action, such as the bidet, copper pot or bucket and mug, being more hygienic and compact. There is no contact between the spray of the used water drainage; the user grasps the faucet in the right hand and uses the thumb or forefinger to aim a spray of water at the anus or genitals to assist cleansing after using the toilet. The bidet shower is common in all predominantly Islamic countries and in most parts of Asia where water is considered essential for anal cleansing; this includes Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Maldives, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Cambodia.
In those countries it is installed in Western-style toilet installations. In Thailand, it is common in squat toilet installations; the bidet shower is similar in intent, if not method of use, to the Japanese washlet-style toilet seats, or so-called "electronic bidets". Bidet showers are used by Muslims in Muslim countries and all parts of the Arab world as well as in Asia in order to cleanse themselves with water after using the toilet. Here, water is used instead of, or together with, toilet paper for cleaning after defecation. In Europe, the bidet shower is used for example in Estonia. Bidets are more common bathroom fixtures in many southern European countries
A urinal is a sanitary plumbing fixture for urination only. Urinals are used in a standing position and are popular with male users. Urinals can be with automatic or manual flushing, or without flush water as is the case for waterless urinals, they can be arranged in a trough design without privacy walls. The term "urinal" may apply to a small building or other structure containing such fixtures, it can refer to a small container in which urine can be collected for medical analysis, or for use where access to toilet facilities is not possible, such as in small aircraft, during extended stakeouts, or for the bedridden. Urinals designed for females exist on the market but are not widespread, it is possible for females to use male urinals with a female urination device. Unlike a toilet, a urinal in its conventional form can be used conveniently and appropriately only by someone who has a penis. However, there is no age restriction, urinals are used by men and boys of all ages; the body posture for users of urinals is the standing position.
In busy male washrooms, urinals are installed for efficiency. Compared with urination in a general-purpose toilet, usage is faster and more sanitary because at the urinal there are no fecal germs, no additional doors or locks to touch, no seat to turn up. Consistent use of urinals keeps the toilet stalls cleaner and more available for males who need to defecate. A urinal takes less space, is simpler, consumes less water per flush than a flush toilet. Large numbers of them are installed along a common supply pipe and drain. Urinals may come in different heights, to accommodate tall and short users. Public urinals have a plastic mesh guard, which may optionally contain a deodorizing urinal deodorizer block or "urinal cake"; the mesh is intended to prevent solid objects from being flushed and causing a plumbing stoppage. In some restaurants and clubs, ice may be put in the urinals, serving some of the same purposes as the deodorizing block without dispensing odorous chemicals. For purposes of space and economic practicality, urinals are not placed inside stalls.
Unlike in female bathrooms, optimal resource efficiency in men's or boys' bathrooms therefore requires urinating in full visibility of other males. In recent years, it has become more common for dividers or partitions to be installed between urinals to eliminate any chance of incidental exposure during the process of urination. Urinals in high-capacity washrooms are arranged in one or more rows directly opposite the door, so that users have their backs to people entering or standing outside. One or two of the urinals at one end of a long row, will be mounted lower than the others. In facilities where people of various heights are present, such as schools, urinals that extend down to floor level may be used to allow anyone of any height to use any urinal. Instead of individual fixtures, trough urinals may be installed; these designs can be used by a number of people but they do not allow for much privacy. They are installed where there is a high peak demand, such as in schools, music festivals, theatrical events, sports stadiums, dance clubs, convention halls.
Urinals were once installed in commercial or institutional settings, but are now available for private homes. They offer the advantages of substantial water savings in residences with many occupants, reduction of "splash back", making cleaning easier. Most public urinals incorporate a water flushing system to rinse urine from the bowl of the device, to prevent foul odors; the flush can be triggered by one of several methods: This type of flush might be regarded as standard in the United States. Each urinal is equipped with a button or short lever to activate the flush, with users expected to operate it as they leave; such a directly controlled system is the most efficient, provided. This is far from certain, however because of fear of touching the handle, located too high to kick. Urinals with foot-activated flushing systems are sometimes found in high-traffic areas; the Americans with Disabilities Act requires that flush valves be mounted no higher than 44 inches AFF. Additionally, the urinal is to be mounted no higher than 17 inches AFF, to have a rim, tapered and elongated and protrudes at least 14 inches from the wall.
This enables users in wheelchairs to straddle the lip of the urinal and urinate without having to "arc" the flow of urine upwards. Some urinals are equipped with water-saving "dual-flush" handles, which use half as much water when pushed upwards, operate a standard full flush when pressed downwards; the handles are color-coded green to alert users to this feature. In Germany, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Hong Kong and some parts of Sweden and Finland, manual flush handles are unusual. Instead, the traditional system is a timed flush. Groups of up to ten or more urinals will be connected to a single overhead cistern, which contains the timing mechanism. A constant drip-feed of water fills the cistern until a tipping point is reached, when the valve opens, all the urinals in the group are flushed. Electronic controllers performing the same functi
An outhouse known by many other names, is a small structure, separate from a main building, which covers a toilet. This is either a pit latrine or a bucket toilet, but other forms of dry toilets may be encountered; the term may be used to denote the toilet itself, not just the structure itself. Outhouses were in use in cities of developed countries well into the second half of the twentieth century, they are still common in rural areas and in cities of developing countries. Outhouses that are covering pit latrines in densely populated areas can cause groundwater pollution. In some localities and varieties of English outside North America, the term "outhouse" refers not to a toilet, but to outbuildings in a general sense: sheds, workshops, etc. Outhouses vary in construction, they are by definition outside the dwelling, are not connected to plumbing, sewer, or septic system. The World Health Organization recommends they be built a reasonable distance from the house balancing issues of easy access versus that of smell.
The superstructure exists to shelter the user, to protect the toilet itself. The primary purpose of the building is for privacy and human comfort, the walls and roof provide a visual screen and some protection from the elements; the outhouse has the secondary role of protecting the toilet hole from sudden influxes of rainwater, which would flood the hole and flush untreated wastes into the underlying soils before they can decompose. Outhouses are not used by men and boys for urination. Outhouses are humble and utilitarian, made of lumber or plywood; this is so they can be moved when the earthen pit fills up. Depending on the size of the pit and the amount of use, this can be frequent, sometimes yearly; as pundit "Jackpine" Bob Cary wrote: "Anyone can build an outhouse, but not everyone can build a good outhouse." Floor plans are rectangular or square, but hexagonal outhouses have been built. The arrangements inside the outhouse vary by culture. In Western societies, though not all, have at least one seat with a hole in it, above a small pit.
Others in more rural, older areas in European countries have a hole with two indents on either side for your feet. In Eastern societies, there is a hole in the floor. A roll of toilet paper is available. Old corn cobs, leaves, or other types of paper may instead be used; the decoration on the outhouse door has no standard. The well-known crescent moon on American outhouses was popularized by cartoonists and had a questionable basis in fact. There are authors who claim the practice began during the colonial period as an early "mens"/"ladies" designation for an illiterate populace. Others dismiss the claim as an urban legend. What is certain is that the purpose of the hole is for venting and light and there were a wide variety of shapes and placements employed; the shelter may cover different sorts of toilets. An outhouse provides the shelter for a pit latrine, which collects human feces in a hole in the ground; when properly built and maintained they can decrease the spread of disease by reducing the amount of human feces in the environment from open defecation.
When the pit fills to the top, it should be either emptied or a new pit constructed and the shelter moved or re-built at the new location. The management of the fecal sludge removed from the pit is complicated. There are both health risks if not done properly; as of 2013 pit latrines are used by an estimated 1.77 billion people. This is in the developing world as well as in rural and wilderness areas. Another system is the bucket toilet, consisting of a portable receptacle; these may be emptied by their owners into composting piles in the garden, or collected by contractors for larger-scale disposal. This was known as the pail closet; this system was associated in particular with the English town of Rochdale, to the extent that it was described as the "Rochdale System" of sanitation. 20th century books report that similar systems were in operation in parts of France and elsewhere in continental Europe. The system of municipal collection was widespread in Australia. In Scandinavia and some other countries, outhouses are built over removable containers that enable easy removal of the waste and enable much more rapid composting in separate piles.
A similar system operates in India, where hundreds of thousands of workers engage in manual scavenging, i.e. emptying pit latrines and bucket toilets without any personal protective equipment. A variety of systems are used in some national parks and popular wilderness areas, to cope with the increased volume of people engaged in activities such as mountaineering and kayaking; the growing popularity of paddling and climbing has created special waste disposal issues throughout the world. It is a dominant topic for their members. For example, in some places the human waste is collected in drums which need to be helicoptered in and out at considerable expense. Alternatively, some parks mandate a "pack it out" rule. Many reports document the use of containers for the removal of excrement, which must be packed in and packed out on Mount Everest. Known as "expedition barrels" or "bog barrels", the cans are weighed to make sure that groups do not dump them along the way. "Toilet tents" are erected. There h