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Chamonix

Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, more known as Chamonix, is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. It was the site of the first Winter Olympics in 1924. Situated to the north of Mont Blanc, between the peaks of the Aiguilles Rouges and the notable Aiguille du Midi, Chamonix is one of the oldest ski resorts in France; the Chamonix commune is popular with skiers and mountain enthusiasts, via the cable car lift to the Aiguille du Midi it is possible to access the off-piste ski run of the Vallée Blanche. Chamonix is the fourth largest commune in mainland France, with an area of 245 km2, its population of around 8,900 ranks 1,089th within the country of France. The valley was first mentioned in 1091, when it was granted by the Count of the Genevois to the great Benedictine house of St. Michel de la Cluse, near Turin, which by the early 13th century had established a priory there. However, in 1786 the inhabitants bought their freedom from the canons of Sallanches, to whom the priory had been transferred in 1519.

In 1530, the inhabitants obtained from the Count of the Genevois the privilege of holding two fairs a year, while the valley was visited by the civil officials and by the bishops of Geneva. But travellers for pleasure were rare. Chamonix was part of the historical land of Savoy emerged as the feudal territory of the House of Savoy during the 11th to 14th centuries; the historical territory is shared between the modern countries of France and Switzerland. The House of Savoy became the longest surviving royal house in Europe, it ruled the County of Savoy to 1416 and the Duchy of Savoy from 1416 to 1860. The first party to publish an account of their visit was that of Richard Pococke, William Windham and others, such as the Englishmen who visited the Mer de Glace in 1741. In 1742 came P. Martel and several other Genevese, in 1760 H. B. de Saussure, rather Marc Th. Bourrit; the growth of tourism in the early 19th century led to the formation of the Compagnie des Guides de Chamonix in 1821, to regulate access to the mountain slopes, this association held a monopoly of guiding from the town until it was broken by French government action in 1892.

From the late 19th century on, tourist development was dominated by national and international initiatives rather than local entrepreneurs, though the local community was dependent upon and active in the tourist industry. The commune lobbied to change its name from Chamonix to Chamonix-Mont-Blanc in 1916. However, following the loss of its monopoly, the Compagnie reformed as an association of local guides, retained an important role in local society; the holding of the first Winter Olympic Games in Chamonix in 1924 further raised Chamonix's profile as an international tourist destination. During the Second World War, a Children's Home operated in Chamonix, in which several dozens of Jewish children were hidden from the Nazis; some of those who hid them were recognised as "Righteous Among the Nations". By the 1960s, agriculture had been reduced to a marginal activity, while the number of tourist beds available rose to around 60,000 by the end of the 20th century, with about 5 million visitors a year.

The commune of Chamonix-Mont-Blanc includes 16 hamlets. From north to south: Le Tour 1,462 m, Montroc, Le Planet, Argentière 1,252 m, Les Chosalets, Le Lavancher, Les Tines, Les Bois, Les-Praz-de-Chamonix 1,060 m, Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, Les Pècles, Les Mouilles, Les Barrats, Les Pélerins, Les Gaillands, Les Bossons 1,012 m. Due to its elevation, Chamonix has a humid continental climate, with an average annual precipitation of 1,275 mm. Summers are mild and winters are cold and snowy. Population Over Time Chamonix is a winter sports resort town; as the highest European mountain west of Russia, Mont Blanc attracts mountain climbers. There is a cable car up to the 3,842 m Aiguille du Midi. Constructed in 1955, it was the highest cable car in the world and remains the highest vertical ascent cable car in the world; the town of Chamonix is served by French Route Nationale 205, nicknamed the Route blanche, or "white route", due to its snowiness. This is an extension of French autoroute 40 nicknamed the autoroute blanche, which ends at Le Fayet, a village in the commune of Saint-Gervais-les-Bains.

The 11.6-km Mont Blanc Tunnel originates here. Chamonix is linked to Switzerland by. In 2006, it was converted to a Route Départementale 1506, with a part of it integrated into RN 205; the nearest airport to Chamonix is Geneva Cointrin International and it is 88 kilometres away. Chamonix is served by the metre-gauge St Gervais-Vallorcine Line, operated by SNCF; the line from Saint Gervais to Chamonix opened in 1901. The line holds the record for the steepest gradient on any standard railway. From Vallorcine, the rail route continues over the border into Switzerland, meeting the SBB network at Martigny; this latter section, a metre

1979 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships

The 1979 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships was the third edition of the Ice Hockey World Junior Championship and was held from 27 December 1978 until 3 January 1979. The tournament was held in Karlskoga, Sweden; the Soviet Union won its third consecutive gold medal, while Czechoslovakia won the silver, Sweden the bronze. The 1979 tournament divided participants into two divisions of four teams, each playing three games; the top two teams in each division advanced to the championship round, while the bottom two were placed in the consolation round. Each division played another round robin; the top three teams in the championship round won the gold and bronze medals. In the consolation round, the results between teams that faced each other in the preliminary round carried over; this is the aggregate standings, ordered according to final placing. The four teams in the championship round were ranked one through four, while the four teams in the consolation round were ranked five through eight regardless of overall record.

Norway was relegated to Pool B for the 1980 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships. Results from any games played during the preliminary round were carried forward to the consolation round. A second tier of the World Junior Championship was contested in Caen, from 5 to 9 March 1979. Two groups of four played round robins, followed by placement games where 1st played 1st, etc.. This is the first year. Switzerland was promoted to Pool A for the 1980 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships

Elizabeth Anne McCauley

Elizabeth Anne McCauley is David Hunter McAlpin Professor of the History of Photography and Modern Art at Princeton University. She graduated from Yale University, her work deals with 19th- and early-20th-century visual culture the history of photography. A. A. E. Disdéri and the Carte de Visite Portrait Photograph OCLC 228668690 Industrial Madness: Commercial Photography in Paris, 1848-1871 ISBN 9780300038545, OCLC 28585299 The Museum and the Photograph with Mark Haworth-Booth ISBN 9780931102400, OCLC 37935241 Gondola Days: Isabella Stewart Gardner and the Palazzo Barbaro Circle with Alan Chong, Rosella Mamella Zorzi, Richard Lingner ISBN 9780914660217, OCLC 938200301 The Steerage and Alfred Stieglitz with Jason Francisco OCLC 755640723