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Chamunda

Chamunda known as Chamundeshwari and Rakta Kali is a fearsome form of Chandi, the Hindu Divine Mother Durga and one of the seven Matrikas. She is one of the chief Yoginis, a group of sixty-four or eighty-one Tantric goddesses, who are attendants of the warrior goddess Durga; the name is two monsters whom Chamunda killed. She is associated with Kali, another fierce aspect of Parvati, she is identified with goddesses Chandi or Durga as well. The goddess is portrayed as haunting cremation grounds or fig trees; the goddess is worshipped by ritual animal sacrifices along with offerings of wine and in the ancient times, human sacrifices were offered too. A tribal goddess, Chamunda was given animal sacrifices but with Shaivite and Vaishnavite influences, the practice has become less. Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar says that Chamunda was a tribal goddess, worshipped by the tribals of the Vindhya mountains in central India; these tribes were known to offer goddesses animal as well as human sacrifices along with ritual offerings of liquor.

These methods of worship were retained in Tantric worship of Chamunda, after assimilation in Hinduism. He proposes the fierce nature of this goddess is due of her association with Vedic Rudra, identified with fire god Agni at times. Wangu backs the theory of the tribal origins of the goddess. Apart from her popular names like Chamunda, Chamundeshwari and Rakta Kali she is known as Rudira Kali, Chanda Kali, Rudira Mala devi, Rudireshwari, Rakta Chamundi, Vir Kali, Ghalurika, Ugra Chandi, Kalari Devi and Ati bhaya Kali regionally in India and Nepal, she is popularly worshipped as the goddess of patron of martial arts like Kalaripayattu. The black or red coloured Chamunda is described as wearing a garland of severed skulls, she is described as having four, ten or twelve arms, holding a Damaru, sword, a snake, skull-mace, thunderbolt, a severed head and panapatra or skull-cup, filled with blood. Standing on a corpse of a man or seated on a defeated demon or corpse. Chamunda is depicted adorned by ornaments of bones and serpents.

She wears a Yajnopavita of skulls. She wears a jata mukuta, that is, headdress formed of piled, matted hair tied with snakes or skull ornaments. Sometimes, a crescent moon is seen on her head, her eye sockets are described as burning the world with flames. She is accompanied by evil spirits, she is shown to be surrounded by skeletons or ghosts and beasts like jackals, who are shown eating the flesh of the corpse which the goddess sits or stands on. The jackals and her fearsome companions are sometimes depicted as drinking blood from the skull-cup or blood dripping from the severed head, implying that Chamunda drinks the blood of the defeated enemies; this quality of drinking blood is a usual characteristic of all Matrikas, Chamunda in particular. At times, she is depicted seated on her vahana, her banner figures an eagle. These characteristics, a contrast to usual Hindu goddess depiction with full breasts and a beautiful face, are symbols of old age, death and destruction. Chamunda is said as a form of Kali, representing old age and death.

She appears as a frightening old woman, projecting horror. In Hindu scripture Devi Mahatmya, Chamunda emerged as Chandika Jayasundara from an eyebrow of goddess Kaushiki, a goddess created from "sheath" of Durga and was assigned the task of eliminating the demons Chanda and Munda, generals of demon kings Shumbha-Nishumbha, she fought a fierce battle with the demons killing them. According to a episode of the Devi Mahatmya, Durga created Matrikas from herself and with their help slaughtered the demon army of Shumbha-Nisumha. In this version, Kali is described as a Matrika who sucked all the blood of the demon Raktabija, from whose blood drop rose another demon. Kali is given the epithet Chamunda in the text. Thus, the Devi Mahatmya identifies Chamunda with Kali. In the Varaha Purana, the story of Raktabija is retold, but here each of Matrikas appears from the body of another Matrika. Chamunda appears from the foot of the lion-headed goddess Narasimhi. Here, Chamunda is considered a representation of the vice of tale-telling.

The Varaha Purana text mentions two separate goddesses Chamunda and Kali, unlike Devi Mahatmya. According to another legend, Chamunda appeared from the frown of the benign goddess Parvati to kill demons Chanda and Munda. Here, Chamunda is viewed as a form of Parvati; the Matsya Purana tells a different story of Chamunda's origins. She with other matrikas was created by Shiva to help him kill the demon Andhakasura, who has an ability - like Raktabija - to generate from his dripping blood. Chamunda with the other matrikas drinks the blood of the demon helping Shiva kill him. Ratnakara, in his text Haravijaya describes this feat of Chamunda, but credits Chamunda, not the other matrikas of sipping the blood of Andhaka. Having drunk the blood, Chamunda's complexion changed to blood-red; the text further says that Chamunda does a dance of destruction, playing a musical instrument whose shaft is Mount Meru, the spring is the cosmic snake Shesha and gourd is the crescent moon. She plays the instrument during the deluge.

Chamunda is one of Seven Mothers. The Matrikas are fearsome mother goddesses and eaters of children.

6th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery

6th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery was an air defence unit of the British Army raised in the years leading up to World War II. It was evacuated from Dunkirk. Re-equipped, it defended the West Midlands during the Battle of Britain and The Blitz, it was sent to the Middle East theatre, but was diverted en route to the Far East, where the Japanese Army had invaded British Malaya. Split up, ill-equipped and fighting against overwhelming odds, the regiment was captured in Java, Dutch East Indies, in March 1942. Many of the men taken prisoner died working on the Burma Railway and in the'Hell Ships' taking them to work in Japan, its successor unit served in the post-war British Army until 1958. 6th Anti-Aircraft Brigade was formed on 6 September 1935 at Lichfield around a nucleus of 12 AA Battery with a newly-formed 16 AA Battery. On 1 November it was joined by 3 AA Battery, reformed after World War I, by 1 AA Machine Gun Battery, both from 1st AA Brigade. Before the end of the year the new unit moved to Blackdown Barracks, near Aldershot in Hampshire, where it came under the command of 1st Air Defence Brigade.

Over the next few years it had the following organisation: Headquarters 3 AA Bty 12 AA Bty 16 AA Bty 1 Machine Gun Bty Apart from 1 MG Bty, the standard equipment of the batteries was the QF 3-inch 20 cwt AA gun, used in World War I, mounted on a cruciform travelling platform and towed by a lorry. The brigade became 6th AA Regiment on 1 May 1938 when the RA changed its unit designations and from 1 June 1940 the 6th and other heavy AA regiments and batteries adopted the HAA designation; the regiment formed part of 1 AA Brigade in Aldershot Command. On the outbreak of war 6th HAA Rgt mobilised at Blackdown under the command of Lt-Col E. D. Milligan as part of 1 AA Bde, it was embarked from Southampton in the British Expeditionary Force sent to France, landing at Cherbourg and deploying to protect the BEF's concentration area round Le Mans from attacks by the Luftwaffe. As the build-up continued it moved to Bellancourt on the Somme and to Berlette in the Aubigny area. Here 3 HAA Bty carried out the regiment's first engagement, against a Heinkel He 111, on 21 November.

There followed months of tedium. The regiment was reorganised in January 1940, exchanging 15 HAA Bty for 2 HAA Bty from 1st HAA Rgt and 3 HAA Bty for 18 HAA Bty from 4th HAA Rgt, while 1 LAA Bty was subordinated directly to 1 AA Bde. Lieutenant-Colonel Milligan was promoted to command 1 AA Bde and was succeeded by Lt-Col E. M. C. Brittan as CO. On 19 March the regiment received its first Gunlaying Mk I radar sets to provide early warning and to assist optical instruments in picking up targets, although there were problems in calibrating them, they were handed over to 4th HAA Rgt, envisaged to have a more static role in the forthcoming campaign. The Battle of France began on 10 May with the German invasion of the Low Countries; the BEF followed the pre-arranged Plan D and advanced into Belgium to take up defences along the Dyle. 1 AA Brigade's role was to defend the routes forward, protecting roads and bridges, artillery concentrations, HQs and supply dumps. 6th HAA Regiment moved up as part of this advance, split into detachments.

On 13 May, B Section of 12 Bty brought down a Junkers Ju 88, B and C Sections hit three low-flying Dornier Do 17s and believed they had brought one down. On 15 May B and D shot down another Ju 88. However, on that day a German breakthrough in the Ardennes forced the BEF to fall back again. While 15 Bty remained in the Ypres area, 3 and 12 Btys fell back; as the situation deteriorated, HAA guns were used in an anti-tank role. On 19 May one Troop knocked out two German Panzers, but the HAA guns could not be withdrawn and had to be disabled. On 20 May D Section was relocated to defend the canal bridge at Svegegham and came under attack as low-flying bombers attempted to destroy the bridge, without success on either side. On 21 May 15 Bty was ordered to detach a party with Bren guns to assist in defending Vimy Ridge. Deploying south of Lille the battery got its first confirmed'kill' when A Section scored a direct hit on a Ju 88 at 8000 feet while conducting barrage fire. By now the main body of the BEF was making for Dunkirk to be evacuated.

15 Battery set up near the perimeter and tried to hit a Heinkel spotter aircraft before switching fire to a low-flying bomber attacking a nearby Bofors gun position. 3 Battery reached Armentières on 23 May, by. On 27 May the regiment was ordered to destroy all transport and stores other than those attached to the guns, the following day the order was received to destroy all guns and instruments. B Section did not receive the order, continued to fire from La Panne until out of ammunition. Many of the regiment's gunners were got away from the beaches at La Panne and Bray-Dunes, some aboard the Royal Daffodil. AA units returning from France were reinforced, re-equipped where possible, redeployed for future integration into existing defence plans. 6th HAA Regiment, with its original HAA batteries back under command, went to Aberystwyth in Wales, where it re-equipped with 3-inch guns. RHQ moved on 4 July to Eastl

Devil's Island (1939 film)

Devil's Island is a 1939 American prison film directed by William Clemens and starring Boris Karloff. This film is notable for Karloff as the protagonist, opposed to the villain-like characters in his various horror roles. For treating a wounded revolutionary, respected surgeon, Dr. Charles Gaudet is sentenced to life imprisonment to the infamous French penal colony on Devil's Island, it isn't long before he speaks out against the inhuman conditions and incurs the anger of the brutal prison commander, Colonel Armand Lucien. But when Lucien's daughter Collette receives life-threatening wounds in an accident, the only person on Devils Island who can save her, is Gaudet; the depiction of Devil's Island upset the French government. Fear of something similar happening resulted in a proposed 1947 film from Columbia, The End of Devil's Island, being cancelled. Boris Karloff filmography Devil's Island on IMDb Devil's Island at the TCM Movie Database

101st Ohio Infantry

The 101st Ohio Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The 101st Ohio Infantry was organized at Monroeville and mustered in for three years service on August 30, 1862, under the command of Colonel Leander Stem; the regiment was attached to: 31st Brigade, 9th Division, Army of the Ohio, September 1862. 31st Brigade, 9th Division, III Corps, Army of the Ohio, to November 1862. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Right Wing, XIV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to January 1863. 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, XX Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to October 1863. 1st Brigade, 1st Division, IV Corps, Army of the Cumberland, to June 1865. The 101st Ohio Infantry mustered out of service at Nashville, Tennessee, on June 12, 1865; the regiment lost a total of 236 men during service. Colonel Leander Stem - killed in action at the battle of Stones River Colonel Isaac Minor Kirby - commanded at the battle of Stones River as major Lieutenant Colonel Moses F. Wooster - commanded at the battle of Stones River Lieutenant Colonel John Messer - commanded at the battle of Chickamauga Lieutenant Colonel Bedan B.

McDonald - commanded at the battle of Stones River as captain, at the battle of Chickamauga as major, at the battle of Nashville as lieutenant colonel Captain Leonard D. Smith - commanded at the battle of Chickamauga Chaplain Erastus Milo Cravath - a founder of Fisk University and its president for 25 years Private George S. Myers, Company F - Medal of Honor recipient for action at the battle of Chickamauga 1st Lieutenant George Ebbert Seney, quartermaster - U. S. Representative from Ohio, 1883–1891 Private Jacob F. Yeager, Company H - Medal of Honor recipient for action at the battle of Rocky Face Ridge List of Ohio Civil War units Ohio in the Civil War Butler, Jay Caldwell. Letters Home, 1930. Day, L. W. Story of the One Hundred and First Ohio Infantry: A Memorial Volume, 1894. Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, 1908. Green, Charles R. Volunteer Service in Army of Cumberland, 1914. Ohio Roster Commission. Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War on the Rebellion, 1861–1865, Compiled Under the Direction of the Roster Commission, 1886-1895.

Reid, Whitelaw. Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Her Generals, Soldiers, 1868. ISBN 9781154801965 Roster and Historical Sketch of the 101st Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 1897. Attribution This article contains text from a text now in the public domain: Dyer, Frederick H.. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. Des Moines, IA: Dyer Publishing Co. Ohio in the Civil War: 101st Ohio Volunteer Infantry by Larry Stevens National flag of the 101st Ohio Infantry

Stairfoot rail accident

The Stairfoot rail accident was a railway accident that took place at Stairfoot, South Yorkshire, England. On 12 December 1870, in Barnsley top yard a rake of 10 goods wagons was standing on a gradient of 1 in 119. A single sprag between the spokes of a wheel was holding them; when two gas tank wagons were shunted against the rake, the sprag broke and the 12 wagons began to move. Two pointsmen made valiant efforts to pin down the brakes to no avail; the wagons gathered speed as the gradient increased to 1 in 72 and passed three signal boxes, none of which had points under their control to deflect the runaways. Meanwhile, a passenger train which had left Barnsley at 18:15 was standing at Stairfoot station one and a half miles away; the runaways struck the rear of the standing train at a speed of at least 40 mph, killing 15 and injuring 59 more. The enquiry by Lieut-Col F. H. Rich found that the goods guard was gravely at fault for not ensuring the standing wagons were better secured; the layout of the yard was criticized as there were no trap points to protect the running lines in the event of such a mishap.

Abergele rail disaster Rolt, L. T. C.. Red for Danger. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. Pp. 184–186. ISBN 0-7153-8362-0. Full report of Enquiry into Accident at Stairfoot on 12 December 1870

Fantasy genealogy

Fantasy genealogies are mythical, fictional or fabricated pedigrees to enhance the status of the descendant. Many claimed ancestries are considered by modern scholars to be fabrications the claims of kings and emperors who trace their ancestry to gods or the founders of their civilization; such pedigrees have a moral message to their subjects and enemies. Some national epics or holy scriptures associate success and good with the "rightful dynasty" and wars and diseases with usurper rulers. In this moralism, fictional genealogies have analogies with allegory and parable. Chroniclers of Germanic peoples traced the ancestry of their kings back to the god Wōden. If such descents were true, Queen Elizabeth II would be a descendant of Woden, via the kings of Wessex. According to Burkes Peerage Queen Elizabeth II is a descendant of Muhammad via Maria de Padilla who had children with King Peter of Castille, two of whom married sons of King Edward III of England, it has been said Elizabeth II is a descendant of Genghis Khan via Ottoman royalty.

Japanese imperial dynasty is mythically descended from the Sun goddess. Fraudulent genealogies are created through honest mistakes and deceit; the fraudulent pedigrees of Gustave Anjou are one example of deceit. J. R. R. Tolkien invented many family trees of the characters from his high fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings. One notable fictional pedigree is the family tree of The Noble and Most Ancient House of Black from Harry Potter, invented by J. K. Rowling. George R. R. Martin's Epic A Song of Ice and Fire features a significant quantity of fictional noble families, most of them with documented in-universe ancestry