The Chancellor of Austria is the head of government of the Austrian Republic. The position corresponds to that of Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies; the term is gendered in the German language. Austria is led by a chancellor – Kanzler Sebastian Kurz – since 7 January 2020, after concluding the process of forming a coalition following the September 2019 Austrian parliamentary elections. Kurz, the youthful leader of the ÖVP and former head of a coalition government with the FPÖ, brought down by a vote of no confidence following the Ibiza scandal, won a resounding victory over his party's former coalition partners, but not a majority of seats in the National Council, the lower house of the Austria's Parliament. Kurz negotiated with the Green Party to form what became an unprecedented variant of a coalition government at the federal level, but would not mark the first success of the environmentalist movement in national politics. Austria's nominally nonpartisan federal president, Alexander Van der Bellen, had made his name in Austrian politics as a leader of the Greens.
Austria has never yet had a female president. Bierlein was the Second Republic's first Kanzlerin, albeit only of a nonpartisan caretaker government. Austria's chancellor chairs and leads the cabinet, composed of the Chancellor, the vice chancellor and the ministers. Together with the president, head of state, the cabinet forms the country's executive branch leadership. Austria is a parliamentary republic, the system of government in which real power is vested in the head of government. However, in Austria most executive actions of great extent can only be exercised by the president, upon advice or with the countersignature of the chancellor or a specific minister; therefore the chancellor requires the president's consent to implement greater decisions. Furthermore neither the ministers nor the vice chancellor report to the chancellor. In legislature, the chancellor's power depends on the size of their affiliated parliamentary group. In case of a coalition cabinet, the chancellor is the leader of the party most represented in the National Council, with the leader of the party able to grant a majority serving as the vice chancellor.
The first Austrian sovereign head of government was the State Chancellor of the Austrian Empire, a position only held by Klemens von Metternich. The office was renamed to Minister-President of the Austrian Empire and remained from there on until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary; the first head of government after the monarchy was the State Chancellor of German-Austria, an office again only held by one person. After allied powers declined a union between Austria and Germany, the office was renamed to just State Chancellor of Austria and changed to Federal Chancellor, which remained the position's final form until present day; the official residence and executive office of the chancellor is the chancellery, located at the Ballhausplatz in the center of Vienna. Both the chancellor as well as the cabinet are appointed by the president and can be dismissed by the president; the current officeholder is Sebastian Kurz, sworn in as chancellor on 7 January 2020 by President Alexander Van der Bellen.
His predecessor Brigitte Bierlein served at the helm of a non-party cabinet until a new coalition government was formed and sworn in the wake of the 2019 elections. The use of the term Chancellor as head of the chancery writing office can be traced back as far as the ninth century, when under King Louis the German the office of the Archchancellor Imperial Chancellor, was created as a high office on the service of the Holy Roman Emperor; the task was fulfilled by the Prince-Archbishops of Mainz as Archchancellors of the German lands. In the course of the Imperial reform, the Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I in 1498 attempted to counter the spiritual power of the Reichserzkanzler with a more secular position of an Imperial Court Chancellor, but the two became merged; these were the times when attempts were made to balance Imperial absolutism by the creation of Imperial Governments a failure. When Maximilian's grandson Ferdinand I succeeded him as Archduke of Austria in 1521, his elder brother Emperor Charles V appointed Mercurino Gattinara as "Grand Chancellor of all the realms and kingdoms of the king".
The separate position of an Austrian Court Chancellor appeared as a Österreichische Hofkanzlei around 1526, when the Habsburg Monarchy arose with the Bohemian and Hungarian inheritance. Upon the 1620 Battle of White Mountain and the suppression of the Bohemian revolt, Emperor Ferdinand II had separate Court Chancelleries established in order to strengthen the unity of the Habsburg hereditary lands. Beside a Bohemian and Hungarian chancellery, he created the office of an Austrian chancellor in Vienna, responsible for the Archduchy of Austria proper with the Inner Austrian territories and Tyrol. Under Emperor Leopold I the term again became Hofkanzler with Johann Paul Freiherr von Hocher, Theodor von Strattman; the eighteenth century was dominated by Prince Wenzel Anton of Kaunitz-Rietberg, Chancellor to four Habsburg emperors from Maria Theresa to Francis II, with the titles of both Hofkanzler and Staatskanzler. He was succeeded by Johann Philipp von Cobenzl, dismissed by Emperor Francis
A fastener or fastening is a hardware device that mechanically joins or affixes two or more objects together. In general, fasteners are used to create non-permanent joints. Welding is an example of creating permanent joints. Steel fasteners are made of stainless steel, carbon steel, or alloy steel. Other alternative methods of joining materials include: crimping, soldering, taping, cement, or the use of other adhesives. Force may be used, such as with magnets, vacuum, or friction; some types of woodworking joints make use of separate internal reinforcements, such as dowels or biscuits, which in a sense can be considered fasteners within the scope of the joint system, although on their own they are not general purpose fasteners. Furniture supplied in flat-pack form uses cam dowels locked by cam locks known as conformat fasteners. Fasteners can be used to close a container such as a bag, a box, or an envelope. There are special-purpose closing devices, e.g. a bread clip. Items like a rope, wire, chain, or plastic wrap may be used to mechanically join objects.
Hinges and springs may join objects together, but are ordinarily not considered fasteners because their primary purpose is to allow articulation rather than rigid affixment. In 2005, it was estimated that the United States fastener industry runs 350 manufacturing plants and employs 40,000 workers; the industry is tied to the production of automobiles, appliances, agricultural machinery, commercial construction, infrastructure. More than 200 billion fasteners are used per year in the U. S. 26 billion of these by the automotive industry. The largest distributor of fasteners in North America is the Fastenal Company; when selecting a fastener for industrial applications, it is important to consider a variety of factors. The threading, the applied load on the fastener, the stiffness of the fastener, the number of fasteners needed should all be taken into account. See below for material considerations. Industrial fastener materials There are three major steel fasteners used in industries: stainless steel, carbon steel, alloy steel.
The major grade used in stainless steel fasteners: 200 series, 300 series, 400 series. Titanium and various alloys are common materials of construction for metal fasteners. In many cases, special coatings or plating may be applied to metal fasteners to improve their performance characteristics by, for example, enhancing corrosion resistance. Common coatings/platings include zinc and hot dip galvanizing; when choosing a fastener for a given application, it is important to know the specifics of that application to help select the proper material for the intended use. Factors that should be considered include: Accessibility Environment, including temperature, water exposure, corrosive elements Installation process Materials to be joined Reusability Weight restrictions The American Society of Mechanical Engineers publishes several Standards on fasteners; some are: B18.3 Socket Cap, Set Screws, Hex Keys B18.6.1 Wood Screws B18.6.2 Slotted Head Cap Screws, Square Head Set Screws, And Slotted Headless Set Screws B18.6.3 Machine Screws, Tapping Screws, Metallic Drive Screws B18.18 Quality Assurance For Fasteners B18.24 Part Identifying Number Code System Standard for B18 Fastener Products American screws and nuts were not interchangeable with their British counterparts, therefore would not fit British equipment properly.
This, in part, helped lead to the development of numerous United States Military Standards and specifications for the manufacturing of any piece of equipment, used for military or defense purposes, including fasteners. World War II was a significant factor in this change. A key component of most military standards is traceability. Put hardware manufacturers must be able to trace their materials to their source, provide traceability for their parts going into the supply chain via bar codes or similar methods; this traceability is intended to help ensure that the right parts are used and that quality standards are met in each step of the manufacturing process. Safety wire Taiwan International Fastener Show Parmley, Robert. Standard Handbook of Fastening and Joining. McGraw Hill. ISBN 9780070485891
The Croatia national handball team represents Croatia in international men's team handball competitions and friendly matches. The handball team is controlled by the Croatian Handball Federation. Croatia has been portrayed as an international force in handball, having won two Olympic gold medals and one World Championship, but never winning the Euros, having lost three finals, one to rivals France, one to Scandinavian handball team Denmark, one to Spain; the Croatian handball team that won the 1996 Olympic Gold medal was credited as the biggest upset in history of handball, with handball making its debut appearance. The Croatian national team won a so-called "international double" after winning both the gold medal at the Olympics and the World Championships, beating Germany in both finals. Croatia's handball team has been labelled as a model for sport being the replacement for Romania in Europe's "Big Three" in handball, alongside France and Denmark; some of their biggest rivals are neighbors Slovenia and Serbia.
Germany are called rivals of the handball team, although matches between Germany and Croatia have been met with Croatian dominance, Germany only winning once in their nine meetings, Croatia winning seven times. Mediterranean side Spain have been called as close rivals, having played 23 games with them, the most out of any sides the Croatians have played with in handball. However, the French are remarked as Croatia's biggest-ever rival in handball, due to both countries' success. In recent history though, Croatia suffered eliminations at the hands of the French; the word handball in the Croatian region was first used by Franjo Bučar, describing the German game Schleuderball in the journal Sokol 1904. The earliest documented forms of playing handball in these areas appear in 1911 in the gymnasium of Pazin, among other things due to the fact that programs for education in Istria, as part of the Austrian coast, coming from the education center in Graz. In Croatia, at the time handball was in high school programs closing ceremony.
It was a kind of Czech handball extended from the Czech Republic, where it was adopted by the Osijek and Vukovar students from Prague. In the early beginnings of the Croatian handball, venues played field handball. Students were still more attracted to field handball, because the little handball were played on makeshift courts without the right door, as opposed to the field handball, played on the existing football fields. During the Kingdom of Yugoslavia first public handball match in the Croatian region was played and in the wider neighborhood, it was played in a high school in Varaždin 29 May 1930 under the guidance of physical education teachers Zvonimir Šuligoj. Since that game, until 1950, in Croatia and Yugoslavia publicly played field handball, on the football field with eleven players on each side. In high school in Zagreb on 1 June 1935, opened the first handball courts in Yugoslavia. At the beginning of World War II Kingdom of Yugoslavia disintegrated. Most of the territory inhabited by Croats on 10 April 1941, it became part of the newly formed Independent State of Croatia.
As part of the new state on 2 October 1941 in Zagreb for the first time in history the Croatian Handball Federation was established. The place of foundation is recorded to be at the Croatian Sports home in Zagreb. HRS is the umbrella organization of handball in the ISC coordinated the work of a dozen clubs and until 1944 organized national championships. In the state of NDH was established the first Croatian handball team; the first training for practice-match team NDH was held on 12 October 1941 between the two teams selected from the head coach Dragutin Pehe. His first and only international match this team played on 14 June 1942 with Hungary in Budapest where they lost 0:9; this field handball match was played in front of 30,000 spectators at the NEP Stadium was a prelude meeting of the football teams of the same name. The best handball player in the field was the goalkeeper Branko Kralj. Under the direction of the coach Ante Škrtić, the players for Croatia were Vlado Abramović, Irislav Dolenec, Žarko Galetović, Zvonko Leskovar, Todor Marinov, Viktor Medved, Krešo Pavlin, Vlado Šimanović Stjepan Širić, Josip Žitnik and reserve goalkeeper Zdenko Šurina.
HRS stopped functioning in 1944 because of the war in World War II. Yugoslavia national handball teamWhen the 1945 World War II ended, the territory of the Independent State of Croatia was included in the newly established SFR Yugoslavia. After that began the reconstruction of the war abandoned handball in Yugoslavia, that same year founded the Committee for handball Gymnastics Association Croatian, in May 1948 the Committee for handball Gymnastics Association of Yugoslavia. Operation HRS is restored on 19 December 1948, in which he, in accordance with the national policy of the new Yugoslav state, name changed in the Croatian Handball Association. Handball Federation of Yugoslavia was established on 17 December 1949 in Belgrade by pooling national and provincial associations, it became a member of the International Handball Federation in 1950. After the end of World War II, most field handball players of NDH completed courses and became instructors or referees in handball; some of them have become members of the field handball national team of Yugoslavia and played in its first international match, played on 19 June 1950 at the stadium in Stadion Kranjčevićeva in Zagreb, against Belgium.