A divan or diwan was a high government ministry in various Islamic states, or its chief official. The word, recorded in English since 1586, meaning "Oriental council of a state", comes from Turkish divan, from Arabic diwan, it is first attested in Middle Persian spelled as dpywʾn and dywʾn, itself hearkening back, via Old Persian and Akkadian to Sumerian dub, clay tablet. The word was borrowed into Armenian as well as divan; the variant pronunciation dēvān however did exist, is the form surviving to this day in Tajiki Persian. In Arabic, the term was first used for the army registers generalized to any register, by metonymy applied to specific government departments; the sense of the word evolved to "custom house" and "council chamber" to "long, cushioned seat", such as are found along the walls in Middle-Eastern council chambers. The latter is the sense; the modern French, Dutch and Italian words douane and dogana also come from diwan. The first dīwān was created under Caliph Umar in 15 A. H. or, more 20 A.
H.. It comprised the names of the warriors of Medina who participated in the Muslim conquests and their families, was intended to facilitate the payment of salary to them, according to their service and their relationship to Muhammad; this first army register was soon emulated in other provincial capitals like Basra and Fustat. With the advent of the Umayyad Caliphate, the number of dīwāns increased. To the dīwān al-jund, the first Umayyad caliph, Mu'awiya, added the bureau of the land tax in Damascus, which became the main dīwān, as well as the bureau of correspondence, which drafted the caliph's letters and official documents, the bureau of the seal, which checked and kept copies of all correspondence before sealing and dispatching it. A number of more specialist departments were established by Mu'awiya: the dīwān al-barīd in charge of the postal service. Aside from the central government, there was a local branch of the dīwān al-kharāj, the dīwān al-jund and the dīwān al-rasāʾil in every province.
Under Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, the practices of the various departments were standardized and Arabized: instead of the local languages and the traditional practices of book-keeping and time-keeping, only Arabic and the Islamic calendar were to be used henceforth. The process of Arabization was gradual: Iraq was the first in 697, followed by Syria in 700, Egypt in 705, Khurasan in 742. Under the Abbasid Caliphate the administration under the increasing influence of Iranian culture, became more and more elaborate and complex; as part of this process, the dīwāns increased in number and sophistication, reaching their apogee in the 9th–10th centuries. At the same time, the office of vizier was created to coordinate government; the administrative history of the Abbasid dīwāns is complex, since many were short-lived, temporary establishments for specific needs, while at times the sections of larger dīwān might be be termed dīwāns, a single individual was placed in charge of more than one department.
Caliph al-Saffah established a department for the confiscated properties of the Umayyads after his victory in the Abbasid Revolution. This was the antecedent of the dīwān al-ḍiyāʿ, administering the caliph's personal domains. Under al-Mansur there was a bureau of confiscations, as well as a dīwān al-aḥshām in charge of palace service personnel, a bureau of petitions to the Caliph. Caliph al-Mahdi created a parallel dīwān al-zimām for every one of the existing dīwāns, as well as a central control bureau; these acted as comptrollers as well as coordinators between the various bureaus, or between individual dīwāns and the vizier. In addition, a dīwān al-maẓālim was created, staffed by judges, to hear complaints against government officials; the remit of the dīwān al-kharāj now included all land taxes, while another department, the dīwān al-ṣadaḳa, dealt with assessing the zakāt of cattle. The correspondence of the dīwān al-kharāj was checked by the dīwān al-khātam; as in Umayyad times, miniature copies of the dīwān al-kharāj, the dīwān al-jund and the dīwān al-rasāʾil existed in every province, but by the mid-9th century each province maintained a branch of its dīwān al-kharāj in the capital.
The treasury department kept the records of revenue and expenditure, both in money and in kind, with specialized dīwāns for each category of the latter. Its secretary had to mark all orders of payment to make them valid, it drew up monthly and yearly balance sheets; the dīwān al-jahbad̲ha, resp
Delhi the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. It is bordered by Haryana by Uttar Pradesh to the east; the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to United Nations; as of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai, with a total private wealth of $450 billion and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various empires, it has been captured and rebuilt several times during the medieval period, modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, a unique'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.
There are a number of legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved; the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom, he ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali. Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning'threshold' or'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.
The people of Delhi are referred to as Dilliwalas. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include: Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast meaning Delhi is still far away, generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring. Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty; the area around Delhi was inhabited before the second millennium BCE and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BCE. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to the Mahabharata, this land was a huge mass of forests called'Khandavaprastha', burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha.
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi; the first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 736 CE. Prithviraj Chauhan renamed it Qila Rai Pithora; the king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the Muslims were victorious; the newfound dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India would last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor; when Ghori died without a heir in 1206 CE, his territories fractured, with various generals claiming sovereignty over different areas. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty.
He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, the earlie
The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri; the "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar.
All Mughal emperors were Muslims. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in native societies during most of its existence, rather co-opting and pacifying them through concilliatory administrative practices and a syncretic, inclusive ruling elite, leading to more systematic and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline.
By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. During the following century Mughal power had become limited, the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon; the last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1858 to enable the Crown formally to displace the rights of the East India Company and assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj. At its height, the Mughal Empire stretched from Kabul, Afghanistan in the west to Arakan, Myanmar in the east, from Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, it was the third largest empire in the Indian subcontinent, spanning four million square kilometers at its zenith, 122% of the size of the modern Republic of India.
The maximum expansion was reached during the reign of Aurangzeb, who ruled over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 25% of the world's population at the time. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic and manufacturing power, responsible for 25% of global industrial output until the 18th century; the Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires. The reign of Shah Jahan represented the height of Mughal architecture, with famous monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Lahore Fort being constructed during his reign. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves; the Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani. The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.
The term remains disputed by Indologists. Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Babur's ancestors were distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. Another name for the empire was Hindustan, documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and, described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, by extension, the empire as a whole; the Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler, descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in C
The Carnatic Wars were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India. The conflicts involved numerous nominally independent rulers and their vassals, struggles for succession and territory, included a diplomatic and military struggle between the French East India Company and the British East India Company, they were fought on the territories in India which were dominated by the Nizam of Hyderabad up to the Godavari delta. As a result of these military contests, the British East India Company established its dominance among the European trading companies within India; the French company was pushed to a corner and was confined to Pondichéry. The East India Company's dominance led to control by the British Company over most of India and to the establishment of the British Raj. In the 18th century, the coastal Carnatic region was a dependency of Hyderabad. Three Carnatic Wars were fought between 1746 and 1763; the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb died in 1707. He was succeeded by Bahadur Shah I, but there was a general decline in central control over the empire during the tenure of Jahandar Shah and emperors.
Nizam-ul-Mulk established Hyderabad as an independent kingdom. A power struggle ensued after his death between his son, Nasir Jung, his grandson, Muzaffar Jung, the opportunity France and England needed to interfere in Indian politics. France aided Muzaffar Jung. Several erstwhile Mughal territories were autonomous such as the Carnatic, ruled by Nawab Dost Ali Khan, despite being under the legal purview of the Nizam of Hyderabad. French and English interference included those of the affairs of the Nawab. Dost Ali's death sparked a power struggle between his son-in-law Chanda Sahib, supported by the French, Muhammad Ali, supported by the English. One major instigator of the Carnatic Wars was the Frenchman Joseph François Dupleix, who arrived in India in 1715, rising to become the French East India Company's governor in 1742. Dupleix sought to expand French influence in India, limited to a few trading outposts, the chief one being Pondicherry on the Coromandel Coast. Upon his arrival in India, he organized Indian recruits under French officers for the first time, engaged in intrigues with local rulers to expand French influence.
However, he was met by the challenging and determined young officer from the British Army, Robert Clive. "The Austrian War of Succession in 1740 and the war in 1756 automatically led to a conflict in India...and British reverses during the American War of Independence in the 1770s had an impact on events in India." In 1740 the War of the Austrian Succession broke out in Europe. Great Britain was drawn into the war in 1744, opposed to its allies; the trading companies of both countries maintained cordial relations in India while their parent countries were bitter enemies on the European continent. Dodwell writes, "Such were the friendly relations between the English and the French that the French sent their goods and merchandise from Pondicherry to Madras for safe custody." Although French company officials were ordered to avoid conflict, British officials were not, were furthermore notified that a Royal Navy fleet was en route. After the British captured a few French merchant ships, the French called for backup from as far afield as Isle de France, beginning an escalation in naval forces in the area.
In July 1746 French commander La Bourdonnais and British Admiral Edward Peyton fought an indecisive action off Negapatam, after which the British fleet withdrew to Bengal. On 21 September 1746, the French captured the British outpost at Madras. La Bourdonnais had promised to return Madras to the English, but Dupleix withdrew that promise, one to give Madras to Anwar-ud-din after the capture; the Nawab sent a 10,000-man army to take Madras from the French but was decisively repulsed by a small French force in the Battle of Adyar. The French made several attempts to capture the British Fort St. David at Cuddalore, but the timely arrivals of reinforcements halted these and turned the tables on the French. British Admiral Edward Boscawen besieged Pondicherry in the months of 1748, but lifted the siege with the advent of the monsoon rains in October. With the termination of the War of Austrian Succession in Europe, the First Carnatic War came to an end. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Madras was given back to the British in exchange for the French fortress of Louisbourg in North America, which the British had captured.
The war was principally notable in India as the first military experience of Robert Clive, taken prisoner at Madras but managed to escape, who participated in the defence of Cuddalore and the siege of Pondicherry. Though a state of war did not exist in Europe, the proxy war continued in India. On one side was Nasir Jung, the Nizam and his protege Muhammad Ali, supported by the English, on the other was Chanda Sahib and Muzaffar Jung, supported by the French, vying to become the Nawab of Arcot. Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib were able to capture Arcot while Nasir Jung's subsequent death allowed Muzaffar Jung to take control of Hyderabad. Muzaffar's reign was short as he was soon killed, Salabat Jung became Nizam. In 1751, Robert Clive led British troops to capture Arcot, defend it; the war ended with the Treaty of Pondicherry, signed in 1754, which recognised Muhammad Ali Khan Walajah as the Nawab of the Carnatic. Charles Godeheu replaced Dupleix; the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in Europe in 1756 resulted in renewed conflict between French and British forces in India.
The Third Carnatic War
Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive known as Clive of India, Commander-in-Chief of British India, was a British officer and privateer who established the military and political supremacy of the East India Company in Bengal. He is credited with securing a large swath of South Asia and the wealth that followed, for the British East India Company. In the process, he turned himself into a multi-millionaire. Together with Warren Hastings he was one of the key early figures setting in motion what would become British India. Blocking impending French mastery of India, eventual British expulsion from the continent, Clive improvised a military expedition that enabled the East India Company to adopt the French strategy of indirect rule via puppet government. Hired by the company to return a second time to India, Clive conspired to secure the Company's trade interests by overthrowing the locally unpopular heir to the throne of Bengal, the richest state in India, richer than Britain, at the time.
Back in England, he used his success to secure an Irish barony, from the Whig PM, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, again a seat for himself in Parliament, via Henry Herbert, 1st Earl of Powis, representing the Whigs in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, as he had in Mitchell, Cornwall. Clive was one of the most controversial figures in all British military history, his achievements included establishing control over much of India, laying the foundation of the entire British Raj. For his methods and his self-aggrandisement he was vilified by his contemporaries in Britain, put on trial before Parliament. Of special concern was that he amassed a personal fortune in India. Modern historians have criticised him for atrocities, for high taxes, for the forced cultivation of crops which exacerbated famines. Robert Clive was born at Styche, the Clive family estate, near Market Drayton in Shropshire, on 29 September 1725 to Richard Clive and Rebecca Clive; the family had held the small estate since the time of Henry VII.
The family had a lengthy history of public service: members of the family included an Irish chancellor of the exchequer under Henry VIII, a member of the Long Parliament. Robert's father, who supplemented the estate's modest income as a lawyer served in Parliament for many years, representing Montgomeryshire. Robert was their eldest son of thirteen children. Clive's father was known to have a temper, which the boy inherited. For reasons that are unknown, Clive was sent to live with his mother's sister in Manchester while still a toddler. Biographer Robert Harvey suggests that this move was made because Clive's father was busy in London trying to provide for the family. Daniel Bayley, the sister's husband, reported that the boy was "out of measure addicted to fighting", he was a regular troublemaker in the schools. When he was older he and a gang of teenagers established a protection racket that vandalised the shops of uncooperative merchants in Market Drayton. Clive exhibited fearlessness at an early age.
He is reputed to have climbed the tower of St Mary's Parish Church in Market Drayton and perched on a gargoyle, frightening those down below. When Clive was nine his aunt died, after a brief stint in his father's cramped London quarters, he returned to Shropshire. There he attended the Market Drayton Grammar School, where his unruly behaviour prompted his father to send him to Merchant Taylors' School in London, his bad behaviour continued, he was sent to a trade school in Hertfordshire to complete a basic education. Despite his early lack of scholarship, in his years he devoted himself to improving his education, he developed a distinctive writing style, a speech in the House of Commons was described by William Pitt as the most eloquent he had heard. In 1744 Clive's father acquired for him a position as a "factor" or company agent in the service of the East India Company, Clive set sail for Bombay. After running aground on the coast of Brazil, his ship was detained for nine months while repairs were completed.
This enabled him to learn some Portuguese, one of the several languages in use in south India because of the Portuguese center at Goa. At this time the East India Company had a small settlement at Fort St. George near the village of Madraspatnam Madras, now the Indian metropolis of Chennai, in addition to others at Calcutta and Cuddalore. Clive arrived at Fort St. George in June 1744, spent the next two years working as little more than a glorified assistant shopkeeper, tallying books and arguing with suppliers of the East India Company over the quality and quantity of their wares, he was given access to the governor's library. The land Clive arrived in was divided into a number of successor states to the Mughal Empire. Over the forty years, since the death of the Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, the power of the emperor had fallen into the hands of his provincial viceroys or Subahdars; the dominant rulers on the Coromandel Coast were the Nizam of Hyderabad, Asaf Jah I, the Nawab of the Carnatic, Anwaruddin Muhammed Khan.
The nawab nominally owed fealty to the nizam, but in many respects acted independently. Fort St. George and the French trading post at Pondicherry were both located in the nawab's territory; the relationship between the Europeans in the region was influenced by a series of wars and treaties in Europe, by commerc
Madurai Nayak dynasty
The Madurai Nayaks were Telugu rulers from around 1529 until 1736, of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu, with Madurai as their capital. The Nayak reign was an era noted for its achievement in arts and administrative reforms, revitalization of temples ransacked by the Delhi Sultans, inauguration of a unique architectural style; the dynasty consisted of 13 rulers, of whom 9 were kings, 2 were queens, 2 were joint-kings. The most notable of these were the king, Tirumala Nayaka, the queen, Rani Mangammal. Foreign trade was conducted with the Dutch and the Portuguese, as the British and the French had not yet made inroads in the region. Early in the 14th century, a dispute arose over the succession to the Pandya throne. One claimant appealed for help to emperor Ala-ud-din of Delhi, who dispatched his general, Malik Kafur, in 1310. Malik Kafur marched south, ransacking kingdoms on the way and causing enormous changes to the political configuration of central and Southern India, he marched into Madurai, sacking the town, paralysing trade, suppressing public worship, making civilian life miserable.
The great Meenakshi temple with its fourteen towers was pulled down, destroying the nearby streets and buildings, leaving only the two shrines of Sundaresvara and Meenakshi intact. The events are controversial: as another account describes them...the Deccan was soon to feel the force of Islam, the master of Northern India. In the reign of the able sultan of Delhi, Ala-ud-din Khalji, a series of brilliant raids, led by the eunuch general Malik Kafur, a converted Hindu, crushed the Deccan kingdoms, for a time a sultanate was set up in Madurai, in the extreme south. Malik Kafur returned to Delhi following these events; the Pandyas protested the invasion. The weakness of the Pandya regime caused the neighboring Chera ruler to invade and defeat the Pandya ruler, he crowned himself in 1313; this was followed by a Chera occupation. However, the Chera occupation was transitory. A Sultan dynasty was soon re-established at Madurai, ruling Madurai and South Arcot, for the next 48 years, first as feudatories of the Delhi Sultanate and as independent monarchies.
In 1333, during the rule of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, Jalal-ud-Din Ahsan Khan declared independence from the Delhi sultanate and ruled the area until he was killed by one of his officers in 1339. Alaud din Udauji Shah soon met with the same fate. Qutb ud din Firoz was killed in about forty days. Giyaz uddin Muhammad Damghan ascended the throne in 1340 and married a daughter of Ahasan Shah. Ibn Batuta visited Madura during his reign and he testifies to his atrocious behaviour, he was defeated by the Hoysala Veera Ballala, but captured and killed Ballala. He died in 1344. Nazir ud din Mahmud Damghan, Adl Shah, Faqr ud din Mubarak and Ala ud din Sikandar followed him in succession; when Sikandar was defeated by Bukka in 1377, the region became part of the Vijayanagara Empire. Sultan rule of the region was overthrown in 1377 by the new Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagara, founded at Hampi. For the next two centuries, this empire withstood repeated Sultan invasions from the north. Kampana Udaiyar, a Vijayanagara prince and an agent of Bukka Raya who served as a General in the Vijayanagara army, marched into Madurai in 1372.
He expelled the sultan out of Madurai and started a dynasty, subordinate to the court of Vijayanagara that lasted until 1404. The immediate effect of this victory was the reopening of the Vishnu temples; the rule was continued by Vijayanagar-appointed governors. King Krishna Devaraya, the greatest ruler of the Vijayanagara dynasty, exercised close control over this part of his empire. After ruling for sometime, Kampana Udaiyar left his son Embana Udaiyar in charge of Madurai, succeeded by his brother-in-law Porkasa Udeiyar. Around 1404, Porkasa Udaiyar was succeeded by a man named Lakkana Nayakkan, thus bringing the dynastic rule of Kampana Udaiyar to an end. Lekkina Nayakkan appointed Vira Parakkrama Pandyan to rule Madurai, but soon after Vira Parakkrama Pandyan revolted to become independent, he was dismissed and chased away to Chera country, Lantana Nayaka jointly ruled Madurai with another Nayaka named Mathanan until 1451. Between 1451 and 1499, the Madurai regions were ruled by four persons brought by Lakkana Nayakkan whom he declared to be of true Pandya stock.
The four persons were Sundara Tol Maha Vilivanathi Rayar, Kaleiyar Somanar, Anjatha Perumal and Muttarasa Thirumalai Maha Vilivanathi Rayar. A commentator, James Nelson, mentions that all the four persons belonged to the same family, were illegitimate sons of a petty Pandyan chieftain. However, all four of them enjoyed kingly powers for 48 years from 1451 to around 1499 and are said to have built four gopurams of the Madurai temple, destroyed by the Mohemmadans. After the ouster by the Sultans, the Vilivanathis are said to have retired; the existing four gopurams were built by the following: East Gopuram was built by Pandiya King Maravarman Sundara Pandiyan in 1216. This is the oldest of all Gopurams. West Gopuram was built by Parakirama Pandiyan between 1315–1347; this is the second gopuram built without steps to bring goods inside. South Gopuram was built by Sevvandhi Moorthy Chettiar of Srimalai in 1559. North gopuram was built by Krishna Veerappa Nayakkar between 1564–1572, left without completion hence it is still called Mottai gopuram meaning Flat tower.
Prior to the formation of the Nayak dynasty and its surroundin
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u