The Ashbourne portrait is one of the numberless portraits that have been falsely identified as portrayals of William Shakespeare. At least 60 such works had been offered for sale to the National Portrait Gallery in the 19th century within the first forty years of its existence, the portrait is now a part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, DC. The identity of the artist is unknown, at some point the portrait was altered to cater to public demand for more pictures of the bard and to conform to 19th century ideas of Shakespeare. The hair over the forehead was scraped out and painted over to create a bald patch and it was lengthened at the sides, an appearance associated with Shakespeare. The date was altered to fit Shakespeares age. The coat of arms was painted over, in this form the painting bore the date 1611 and purported to show Shakespeare at the age of 47. In 1979 the coat of arms was rediscovered following restoration and it was identified as that of Hugh Hamersley, Lord Mayor of London in 1627.
It was first brought to light by Clement Usill Kingston in 1847, Kingston was a schoolmaster and amateur painter living in the town of Ashbourne, after which the portrait came to be named. He wrote to Abraham Wivell, an authority on Shakespeare portraits, being too poor to purchase it himself, he advised me by all means to have it. Kingston told Wivell that the design on the held in the subjects hand was a combination of the crest of the Shakespeare family. After examining the work, Wivell enthusiastically endorsed it and it was subsequently reproduced in mezzotint by G. F. In this form it was reproduced during the 19th century. Spielmann devoted two articles to a analysis of the portrait, with regard to provenance and identification. He dismissed Kingstons claim that the Shakespeare family crest could be seen on the book and he rejected a suggestion that the subject was portrayed in the character of Hamlet. He concluded that the nature of the portrait did not conform to Shakespeares status as a playwright.
However, he accepted that Shakespeare could be the portraits subject, in 1932, the writer Percy Allen argued that the painting originally depicted Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, but had been retouched. In 1940, Charles Wisner Barrell investigated the portrait using X-rays and it currently hangs in the Folger Shakespeare Library. In 1932, Percy Allen published The Life Story of Edward de Vere as William Shakespeare, Allen was a supporter of J. Thomas Looneys theory that the works of Shakespeare were written by de Vere, the 17th Earl of Oxford
Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke KG was a Welsh nobleman and politician of the Elizabethan era. He was the son of William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke and his aunt was queen consort Catherine Parr, last wife of King Henry VIII. His uncle was William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton, who was a man during the reigns of Edward VI. Herbert was responsible for the restoration of Cardiff Castle. Pembroke, like members of his family, was a man of culture. He was a patron of antiquaries and heralds and collected heraldic manuscripts. Herbert was educated at Peterhouse, under Archbishop John Whitgift and he is said to have studied at Douay. In 1557, he took part in a tournament held before Queen Mary, on his fathers death in 1570, he succeeded to the Earldom of Pembroke and on 4 April 1570 was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire. In right of his mother, Anne Parr, he succeeded as Lord Parr and Ros of Kendal, Lord FitzHugh, Lord Marmion, and Lord Quentin on 1 August 1571. In the court intrigues of Elizabeths reign, Pembroke was regarded as a partisan of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, and was certainly in very intimate relations with him.
He took a prominent part in the trials of the 4th Duke of Norfolk, Queen of Scots in October 1586, and Norfolks son Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, in 1589. In 1586, he succeeded his father-in-law, Sir Henry Sidney, as Lord President of Wales, from thenceforth, he spent much time at Ludlow Castle, the official residence of the president of Wales where he actively discharged the duties of his office. In 1595, Pembroke was described as very pursife and maladise and by September 1599, Herbert died at Wilton House leaving his lady as bare as he could and bestowing all on the young lord even to her jewels. He was buried in Salisbury Cathedral, the union was never consummated, and in 1554, Queen Marys influence led to the consent of Herberts fathers dissolution of the marriage. His second wife was Lady Catherine Talbot, daughter of George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury, Queen Elizabeth was extremely fond of Lady Catherine and when Catherine developed a fatal illness she often visited her at Baynards Castle.
She died in 1575 leaving no children by Herbert, by April 1577, Herbert married his third wife, the former Mary Sidney, daughter of Sir Henry Sidney and Lady Mary Dudley, daughter of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland. Their children included William and Philip, who both were Earl of Pembroke after their father and Lady Anne Herbert, who died young. The armour of Henry Herbert is now on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York in the Arms and Armor galleries
Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere
Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere KG, PC, known as Lord Francis Leveson-Gower until 1833, was a British politician, writer and patron of the arts. Ellesmere Island, an island in Nunavut, the Canadian Arctic, was named after him. Ellesmere was the son of George Leveson-Gower, 1st Duke of Sutherland and his wife. He was born at 21 Arlington Street, London, on 1 January 1800, Egerton entered Parliament in 1822 as member for the pocket borough of Bletchingley in Surrey, a seat he held until 1826. He afterwards sat for Sutherland between 1826 and 1831, and for South Lancashire between 1835 and 1846. Appointed a Lord of the Treasury in 1827, he held the post of Chief Secretary for Ireland from 1828 till July 1830, when he became Secretary at War for a short time during the last Tory ministry. In 1833 he assumed, by Royal Licence, the surname of Egerton, having succeeded on the death of his father to the estates which the latter inherited from the Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. In 1846 he was raised to the peerage as Earl of Ellesmere, of Ellesmere in the County of Salop, with the subsidiary title Viscount Brackley, Ellesmere was a member of the Canterbury Association from 27 March 1848.
In 1849, the surveyor of the Canterbury Association, Joseph Thomas. Ellesmeres claims to remembrance are founded chiefly on his services to literature, in 1839 he visited the Mediterranean and the Holy Land. His impressions of travel were recorded in Mediterranean Sketches and in the notes to a poem entitled The Pilgrimage and he published several other works in prose and verse. His literary reputation secured for him the position of rector of the University of Aberdeen in 1841, a singular exception to the artistic and literary character of Ellesmeres writing efforts lay in the field of military theory. Ellesmere, as a protegé of the Duke of Wellington, became interested in the historical writings of the Prussian military theorist General Carl von Clausewitz. He was involved in the discussion that ultimately compelled Wellington to write an essay in response to Clausewitzs study of the Waterloo campaign of 1815, Ellesmere himself anonymously published a translation of Clausewitzs The Campaign of 1812 in Russia, a subject in which Wellington was deeply interested.
Lord Ellesmere was a munificent and yet discriminating patron of artists, to the collection of pictures which he inherited from his great-uncle, the 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, he made numerous additions, and he built a gallery to which the public were allowed free access. Lord Ellesmere served as president of the Royal Geographical Society and as president of the Royal Asiatic Society and he initiated the collection of the National Portrait Gallery, by donating the Chandos portrait of Shakespeare. On 18 June 1822, he married Harriet Catherine Greville, a great-great-granddaughter of the 5th Baron Brooke, the family lived at Hatchford Park, Surrey, where Lady Ellesmere laid out the gardens. Her mother, Lady Charlotte Greville died at Hatchford Park on 28 July 1862, Francis died on 18 February 1857 at his London home, Bridgwater House, St. James Park, and was succeeded by his first son, George
National Portrait Gallery, London
The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people. It was the first portrait gallery in the world when it opened in 1856, the gallery moved in 1896 to its current site at St Martins Place, off Trafalgar Square, and adjoining the National Gallery. It has been expanded twice since then, the National Portrait Gallery has regional outposts at Beningbrough Hall in Yorkshire and Montacute House in Somerset. It is unconnected to the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh, the gallery is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. The gallery houses portraits of important and famous British people, selected on the basis of the significance of the sitter. The collection includes photographs and caricatures as well as paintings, one of its best-known images is the Chandos portrait, the most famous portrait of William Shakespeare although there is some uncertainty about whether the painting actually is of the playwright.
Not all of the portraits are exceptional artistically, although there are self-portraits by William Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, such as the group portrait of the participants in the Somerset House Conference of 1604, are important historical documents in their own right. Portraits of living figures were allowed from 1969, the three people largely responsible for the founding of the National Portrait Gallery are commemorated with busts over the main entrance. At centre is Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, with his supporters on either side, Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay and it was Stanhope who, in 1846 as a Member of Parliament, first proposed the idea of a National Portrait Gallery. It was not until his attempt, in 1856, this time from the House of Lords. With Queen Victorias approval, the House of Commons set aside a sum of £2000 to establish the gallery, as well as Stanhope and Macaulay, the founder Trustees included Benjamin Disraeli and Lord Ellesmere. It was the latter who donated the Chandos portrait to the nation as the gallerys first portrait, Carlyle became a trustee after the death of Ellesmere in 1857.
For the first 40 years, the gallery was housed in locations in London. The first 13 years were spent at 29 Great George Street, the collection increased in size from 57 to 208 items, and the number of visitors from 5,300 to 34,500. In 1869, the moved to Exhibition Road and buildings managed by the Royal Horticultural Society. Following a fire in buildings, the collection was moved in 1885. This location was unsuitable due to its distance from the West End, condensation. Following calls for a new location to be found, the government accepted an offer of funds from the philanthropist William Henry Alexander, Alexander donated £60,000 followed by another £20,000, and chose the architect, Ewan Christian
Gerard Vandergucht was an English engraver and art dealer. Vandergucht, born in London, the son of the Flemish engraver Michael Vandergucht. He was taught engraving by his father, as was his younger brother Jan Vandergucht, gerard was taught drawing by Louis Chéron, and studied at Godfrey Knellers Great Queen Street Academy. In 1719, he was commissioned by James Thornhill to engrave four designs for the cupola of St Pauls Cathedral and he took over his fathers house - the Golden Head in Queen Street, Bloomsbury - following his fathers death in 1725. He married Mary Liney on 24 August,1725 and they had over 30 children, including the painter and picture dealer Benjamin Vandergucht. He became a publisher of engraved prints and book illustrations. In 1735, he took a role in the artists demands for copyright protection which led to an extension of the provisions established by William Hogarth in the Engraving Copyright Act 1734. The 1734 act only protected original designs and his supporters successfully lobbied to extend copyright protection to cover all prints.
He concentrated on art dealing in the last 16 years of his life, selling prints, paintings and he was a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce. He moved to Vandykes Head, Great Brook Street, in 1758, where he died in 1776
Thomas Patrick Betterton, the leading male actor and theatre manager during Restoration England, son of an under-cook to King Charles I, was born in London. He was apprenticed to John Holden, Sir William Davenants publisher, and possibly to a bookseller named John Rhodes, who had been wardrobe-keeper at the Blackfriars Theatre. In 1659, Rhodes obtained a licence to set up a company of players at the Cockpit Theatre in Drury Lane, bettertons talents at once brought him into prominence, and he was given leading parts. On the opening of the new theatre in Lincolns Inn Fields in 1661, Betterton, besides being a public favourite, was held in high esteem by Charles II, who sent him to Paris to examine stage improvements there. According to Cibber, after his return to England, it was the first time that the shifting scenes replaced tapestry in an English theatre, in 1662 he married the actress Mary Saunderson. She started her career playing some major female roles in Shakespeare’s plays. She and her husband Thomas Betterton shared the stage in a production of Hamlet, in which she played Ophelia, in the meantime, she was her husband’s consultant and business partner.
They were invited to teach the children from noble and royal families to perform John Crowne’s Calisto,1675, in the last Stuart court Masque. In appearance he was athletic, slightly above middle height, with a tendency to stoutness, his voice was rather than melodious. Pepys, Pope and Cibber all bestow lavish praise on his acting and his repertory included a large number of Shakespearian roles, many of them presented in the versions adapted by Davenant, Dryden and Nahum Tate. Even though those adapted versions did not receive critical acclaim, they did not harm or shadow Betterton’s acting either, his performances were largely praised. He played Lear opposite Elizabeth Barrys Cordelia in Tates modified version of Shakespeares King Lear, Betterton was himself author of several adaptations which were popular in their day. The new company opened with the premiere of Congreves Love for Love with an all-star cast including Betterton as Valentine and Anne Bracegirdle as Angelica. But in a few years the profits fell off, and Betterton, laboring under the infirmities of age and gout, at his benefit performance, when the profits are said to have been over £500, he played Valentine in Love for Love.
Betterton’s career not only spans the period of Restoration theatre, it marks its high point. He built the first permanent theatre fully equipped with Italianate machinery, Betterton worked with all of the most significant playwrights of his age and the first generation of English actresses. In the age of seventy-five, he claimed, He was yet learning to be an actor, the first acting guide published in English was The Life of Mr Thomas Betterton, which was mainly a pastiche from French rhetoric manuals with passages borrowed from English plays. Bettersons innovation in scenery and theatre management, and his contributions to making shaped the culture of English theatre
It is one of only two works of art definitively identifiable as a depiction of the poet, the other is the statue erected as his funeral monument in Shakespeares home town of Stratford-upon-Avon. While its role as a frontispiece is typical of publications from the era. It is uncertain which of two Martin Droeshouts created the engraving and it is not known to what extent the features were copied from a painting or drawing. The portrait exists in two states, or distinct versions of the image, printed from the plate by Droeshout himself. Examples of the first state are rare, existing in only four copies. These were probably test printings, created so that the engraver could see whether some alterations needed to be made. The overwhelming majority of surviving copies of the First Folio use the state, which has heavier shadows and other minor differences, notably in the jawline. Later copies of the state, with minor retouching, were printed from the plate by Thomas Cotes in 1632, for Robert Allots Second Folio.
It was reused in folios, although by the plate was beginning to wear out and was heavily re-engraved, the original plate was still being used into the 1660s, and disappears. Already in 1640 William Marshall had copied and adapted the design on a new plate for John Bensons edition of Shakespeares sonnets, all subsequent engraved reprintings of the portrait were made by engravers copying the original printed image. The engraving is signed under the image at the left, Martin Droeshout, the Droeshouts were a family of artists from the Netherlands, who had moved to Britain. Because there were two members of the family named Martin there has been dispute about which of the two created the engraving. Most sources state that the engraver was Martin Droeshout the Younger, the son of Michael Droeshout, as he was 15 when Shakespeare died, he may never have seen him and it has been assumed that he worked from an existing image. Research by Mary Edmond into the Droeshout family revealed new information about Martin Droeshout the Elder, Edmond shows that Droeshout the Elder was a member of the Painter-Stainers Company.
In 1991 Christiaan Schuckman discovered a set of signed plates in Madrid that can be attributed to the engraver of the First Folio portrait and these plates bear Droeshouts signature and are stylistically similar to his portrait of Shakespeare. More recently, June Schlueter has found evidence that Martin the Elder was in London when the engraver of the First Folio portrait was known to be in Madrid, the traditional attribution to Droeshout the younger can be supported on stylistic grounds. The attribution to the younger artist is provisionally accepted by the National Portrait Gallery, the engraving is praised by Shakespeares friend Ben Jonson in his poem To the Reader printed alongside it, in which he says that it is a good likeness of the poet. He writes that the graver had a strife / With nature to outdo the life and he adds that the engraver could not represent Shakespeares wit, for which the viewer will have to read the book
Shakespeare Birthplace Trust
It can lay claim to be the oldest conservation society in Britain. Receiving no government funding or public subsidies, it is dependent upon the public for support, and relies on donations. For more than 200 years after the Bards death, his birthplace was occupied by the descendants of his widowed sister. Under the terms of Shakespeares will, the ownership of the property passed to his elder daughter, Susanna. Elizabeth died in 1670, bequeathing it to Thomas Hart, the descendant of Shakespeares sister, the Harts remained owners of the whole property until 1806, when it was sold to a butcher, Thomas Court. When it was put up for sale in 1846 on the death of Courts widow. To purchase the property for the Nation, the Shakespeare Birthday Committee was formed, incorporated by a private Act of Parliament, the Birthday Committee became the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. The headquarters of the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust is the Shakespeare Centre, the building currently recreates a picture of family life at the time of Shakespeare complete with period domestic furnishings, as well as John Shakespeares glove making workshop ready for work.
Other exhibitions illustrate the changing occupancy and functions of the Birthplace, as a home, inn, butchers shop, literary shrine, Halls Croft Halls Croft is believed to be the house of Shakespeares daughter Susanna and her husband, Dr. John Hall, c. It now contains a collection of 16th and 17th century paintings and furniture, as well as an exhibition about Dr. Hall, the SBT are currently carrying out major conservation work on the house. The house is open to the public, Anne Hathaways Cottage Although called a cottage, the childhood home of Shakespeares wife Anne is, in fact, a spacious twelve-roomed farmhouse with several bedrooms. In Shakespeares day it was known as Newlands Farm, and remained in the Hathaway family for many generations and it was acquired by the Trust in 1892, and is open to public visitors as a museum. Shakespeares New Place Created on the site of Shakespeares family home in Stratford and it showcases artworks, contemporary landscaped and traditional gardens, as well as a major exhibition displayed in the restored and extended Grade I Listed Tudor Nash’s House next door.
Palmers Farm together with Glebe Farm form the Shakespeare Countryside Museum, in 2000 it was discovered that it had belonged to the Arden family and was in fact the true childhood home of Shakespeares mother, Mary Arden, and the name Mary Ardens House was transferred to it. Harvard House Situated in High Street, Stratford-upon-Avon, Harvard House was built by Thomas Rogers, grandfather of the benefactor of Harvard University, John Harvard, since 1995 it has housed the Museum of British Pewter. Other collections include items that represent the social and economic life of Stratford-upon-Avon, the Trusts Collections and Conservation Department is based in the Shakespeare Centre in Stratford-upon-Avon. The Trust owns various extensive collections, Archaeology Roman and Anglo-Saxon artefacts from local sites including jewellery, local fossils and prehistoric items. Art Works of art relating to Shakespeare and to the history of Stratford-upon-Avon and Furnishings Domestic items dating from the 15th to the 19th century, particularly furniture dating from the 16th and 17th centuries
Alfred Ernest Jones, FRCP, MRCS was a British neurologist and psychoanalyst. A lifelong friend and colleague of Sigmund Freud from their first meeting in 1908, Jones was the first English-speaking practitioner of psychoanalysis and became its leading exponent in the English-speaking world. Ernest Jones was born in Gowerton, Wales, a village on the outskirts of Swansea. His father was a colliery engineer who went on to establish himself as a successful business man, becoming accountant. His mother, Mary Ann, was from a Welsh-speaking Carmarthenshire family which had relocated to Swansea, Jones was educated at Swansea Grammar School, Llandovery College, and Cardiff University in Wales. Jones studied at University College London and meanwhile he obtained the Conjoint diplomas LRCP, a year later, in 1901, he obtained an M. B. degree with honours in medicine and obstetrics. Within five years he received an MD degree and a Membership of the Royal College of Physicians in 1903 and he was particularly pleased to receive the Universitys gold medal in obstetrics from his distinguished fellow-Welshman, Sir John Williams.
After obtaining his degrees, Jones specialised in neurology and took a number of posts in London hospitals. It was through his association with the surgeon Wilfred Trotter that Jones first heard of Freuds work, having worked together as surgeons at University College Hospital, he and Trotter became close friends, with Trotter taking the role of mentor and confidant to his younger colleague. They had in common a wide-ranging interest in philosophy and literature, as well as a growing interest in Continental psychiatric literature, by 1905 they were sharing accommodation above Harley Street consulting rooms with Joness sister, installed as housekeeper. Trotter and Elizabeth Jones married, appalled by the treatment of the mentally ill in institutions, Jones began experimenting with hypnotic techniques in his clinical work. Jones first encountered Freuds writings directly in 1905, in a German psychiatric journal in which Freud published the famous Dora case-history, Joness early attempts to combine his interest in Freuds ideas with his clinical work with children resulted in adverse effects on his career.
In 1906 he was arrested and charged with two counts of indecent assault on two adolescent girls whom he had interviewed in his capacity as an inspector of schools for mentally defective children. At the court hearing Jones maintained his innocence, claiming the girls were fantasising about any inappropriate actions by him, the magistrate concluded that no jury would believe the testimony of such children and Jones was acquitted. In 1908, employed as a pathologist at a London hospital, Jones duly obliged but, before conducting the interview, he omitted to inform the girl’s consultant or arrange for a chaperone. Subsequently, he faced complaints from the parents over the nature of the interview. Joness first serious relationship was with Loe Kann, a wealthy Dutch émigré referred to him in 1906 after she had become addicted to morphine during treatment for a kidney condition. It ended with Kann in analysis with Freud and Jones, at Freuds behest, a tentative romance with Freuds daughter, did not survive the disapproval of her father
Gerard Johnson (sculptor)
Gerard Johnson was a sculptor working in Jacobean England who is thought to have created Shakespeares funerary monument. In May 1612 he was paid for making part of a fountain for the east garden at Hatfield House and his father, Gerard Johnson the elder, came to England in 1567 from Holland. He established himself as a sculptor of monuments in London. Johnsons father had worked on a monument to the 1st Earl of Southampton, which depicts Shakespeares patron, Shakespeare would probably have seen the monument if he had stayed at Titchfield. The younger Johnsons monument is in Holy Trinity church, Stratford upon Avon, the attribution to Johnson is contained in Sir William Dugdales Antiquities of Warwickshire, published in 1656, but no other evidence of Johnsons authorship exists. Dugdale states that the younger Johnson created the memorial in Holy Trinity church to Shakespeares friend John Combe and this would probably have been installed in 1615 while Shakespeare was still alive. It is possible that Shakespeare knew the Johnson family from his London days, in 1849 a death mask was discovered in Germany, and was claimed to be Shakespeares.
It received great publicity when the anatomist Richard Owen authenticated it, henry Wallis painted this imagined scene validating the mask. The mask is no longer considered to be authentic
Nicholas Rowe (writer)
Nicholas Rowe, English dramatist and miscellaneous writer, was appointed Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom in 1715. Nicholas Rowe was born in Little Barford, England, son of John Rowe and sergeant-at-law and his family possessed a considerable estate at Lamerton in Devonshire. His father John Rowe, practised law, and published Benlows, the future English poet was educated first at Highgate School, and at Westminster School under the guidance of Dr. Busby. In 1688, Rowe became a Kings Scholar, which was followed by his entrance into Middle Temple in 1691 and his entrance into Middle Temple was decided upon by his father, who felt that Rowe had made sufficient progress to qualify him to study law. On his fathers death, when he was nineteen, he became the master of an independent fortune and he was left to his own direction, and from that time ignored law to try his hand first at poetry, and later at writing plays. Rowe married first a daughter of a Mr Parsons and left a son John, by his second wife Anne, née Devenish, he had a daughter Charlotte.
Rowe acted as under-secretary to the duke of Queensberry when he was secretary of state for Scotland. On the accession of George I he was made a surveyor of customs and he was appointed clerk of the council to the Prince of Wales, and in 1718 was nominated by Lord Chancellor Parker as clerk of the presentations in Chancery. He died on 6 December 1718, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, to these, so mourn’d in Death, so lov’d in Life. The childless Parent & the widow’d wife With tears inscribes this monument Stone, upon his death his widow received a pension from George I in 1719 in recognition of her husbands translation of Lucan. The Ambitious Stepmother, Rowes first play, produced in 1700 at Lincoln’s Inn Fields by Thomas Betterton and this was followed in 1701 by Tamerlane. In this play the conqueror Timur represented William III, and Louis XIV is denounced as Bajazet and it was for many years regularly acted on the anniversary of Williams landing at Torbay. In Dublin in 1712, at a time when political passions were running high, the Fair Penitent, an adaptation of Massinger and Fields The Fatal Dowry, was pronounced by Dr Johnson as one of the most pleasing tragedies ever written in English.
In it occurs the famous character of Lothario, whose name passed into current use as the equivalent of a rake, calista is said to have suggested to Samuel Richardson the character of Clarissa Harlowe, as Lothario suggested Lovelace. In 1704, Rowe tried his hand at comedy, producing The Biter at Lincolns Inn Fields, the play is said to have amused no one except the author, and Rowe returned to tragedy in Ulysses. The story was set in England in an obscure and barbarous age, rodogune was a tragic character, of high spirit and violent passions, yet with a wicked with a soul that would have been heroic if it had been virtuous. The Tragedy of Jane Shore, professedly an imitation of Shakespeares style, was played at Drury Lane with Mrs Oldfield in the role in 1714. It ran for nineteen nights, and kept the stage longer than any other of Rowes works, in the play, which consists chiefly of domestic scenes and private distress, the wife is forgiven because she repents, and the husband is honoured because he forgives