The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty; the empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates; the empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, Niccolò Da Conti, the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's wealth; the empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of, the group at Hampi. Different temple building traditions in South and Central India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style.
This synthesis inspired architectural innovation in Hindu temples' construction. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation; the empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. Karnata Rajya was another name for the Vijayanagara Empire, used in some inscriptions and literary works of the Vijayanagara times including the Sanskrit work Jambavati Kalyanam by King Krishnadevaraya and Telugu work Vasu Charitamu. Differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara empire. Many historians propose that Harihara I and Bukka I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India.
Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline. Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. Writings by foreign travelers during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara principality have uncovered much-needed information about the empire's history, scientific developments and architectural innovations. Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Hindu states of the Deccan – the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire of Madurai had been raided and attacked by Muslims from the north, by 1336 these upper Deccan region had all been defeated by armies of Sultan Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad bin Tughluq of the Delhi Sultanate. Further south in the Deccan region, a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE.
He created the Kampili kingdom. Kampili existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, it ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate. The triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi by sending a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu king. Within Kampili, on the day of certain defeat, the populace committed a jauhar in 1327/28 CE. Eight years from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom emerged the Vijayanagara Kingdom in 1336 CE. In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara. By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddys of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and had gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north; the original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the northern banks of the Tungabhadra River in today's Karnataka.
It was moved to nearby Vijayanagara on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya I, because it was easier to defend against the Muslim armies persistently attacking it from the northern lands. With the Vijayanagara Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara umbrella; the next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation. Italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India. Deva Raya II succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was the most capable of the Sangama Dynasty rulers, he quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Quilon in the south. He became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu and Tanasserim. Firuz Bahmani of Bahmani Sultanate entered into a treaty with Deva Raya I of Vijayanagara in 1407 that required the latter to pay Bahmani an annual trib
Nahargarh Fort stands on the edge of the Aravalli Hills, overlooking the city of Jaipur in the Indian state of Rajasthan. Along with Amer Fort and Jaigarh Fort, Nahargarh once formed a strong defense ring for the city; the fort was named Sudarshangarh but it became known as Nahargarh, which means'abode of tigers'. The popular belief is that Nahar here stands for Nahar Singh Bhomia, whose spirit haunted the place and obstructed construction of the fort. Nahar's spirit was pacified by building a temple in his memory within the fort, which thus became known by his name. Built in 1734 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh, the king of Jaipur, the fort was constructed as a place of retreat on the summit of the ridge above the city. Walls extended over the surrounding hills, forming fortifications that connected this fort to Jaigarh, the fort above the old capital of Amber. Though the fort never came under attack during the course of its history, it did see some historical events, notably the treaties with the Maratha forces who warred with Jaipur in the 18th century.
During the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the Europeans of the region, including the British Resident's wife, were moved to Nahargarh fort by the king of Jaipur, Sawai Ram Singh, for their protection. The fort was extended during the reign of Sawai Ram Singh. In 1883-92, a range of palaces was built at Nahargarh by Dirgh Patel at a cost of nearly three and a half lakh rupees; the Madhavendra Bhawan, built by Sawai Madho Singh had suites for the queens of Jaipur and at the head was a suite for the king himself. The rooms are linked by corridors and still have some delicate frescoes. Nahargarh was a hunting residence of the Maharajas; until April 1944, the Jaipur State government used for its official purposes solar time read from the Samrat Yantra in the Jantar Mantar Observatory, with a gun fired from Nahargarh Fort as the time signal. Some scenes in the movies Rang De Basanti, Shuddh Desi Romance and Sonar Kella were shot at Nahargarh Fort. Jaipur wax museum is yet another attraction was built on the left side at the entrance of Nahargarh fort in support with Department of Archaeology & Museums Jaipur, Department of Tourism, Government of Rajasthan, The place earlier was known as Vishram Ghar- Rest House for the soldiers and Shastragar-Artillery, Jaipur wax museum is a brain child of Mr. Anoop Srivastava the founder Director and inaugurated on December 17, 2016 by Bollywood star Govinda, the wax museum has more than 35 wax and silicon statues from the field of sports, social activists, freedom fighters, Sawai Ram Singh,Maharaja Jai singh, Madho Singhi, Rajmata Maharani Gayatri Devi of Jaipur along with first look alike robotic tiger, The one of its own kind Sheesh mahal- The palace of Mirrors, a new landmark of Jaipur built in the adjoining building with 25 million glass pieces with thikri, mirror work and gold polish giving a magnificent royal look and feel.
Gallery Nahargarh Biological Park
Laling Killa is a small fort situated in the present day Dhule district of Maharashtra state in India. The fort is situated on top of Laling hill about 9.65 km south of Dhule city. It was one of the important forts in the Khandesh region during the time of the Faruqi Kings, it is a place of considerable antiquity and the fort is supposed to have been built during the reign of the first of the Faruqi Kings. The fact that this fort and not that of Thalner was granted by Malik Raja to his eldest son would show that Laling was his chief fort, it was in this fort that Nasir Khan and his son Miran Adil Khan were besieged in 1437 by the Bahamani general till they were relieved by an army advancing from Gujarat. Early in the seventeenth century it is mentioned more than once in connection with the movements of the Mughal troop's Deccan campaigns. In 1862, the fort is described, as situated with few defences left; this fort was on the historical Surat-Burhanpur commercial road. Around the fort is a small village called as Laling village with 1,549 inhabitants in 1961.
Laling besides the fort has two Hemadpanthi temples in dilapidated condition. There is a mined hemadpanti well. Presently the fort is in a ruined and collapsed state, it offers a panoramic view of Dhule city. There is a Lilitamata temple at the top of the Fort. There are several rock cut water cisterns on the fort; the escape gate is on the southern side of the gate which leads to a semicircular dam with a Chatri nearby. The Laling village is located 9.65 km from the Dhule city on a busy Mumbai-Agra NH3 Highway. The path from the old hemadpanti temple leads to the fort. After climbing halfway there are steps to climb up the fort; the climbing is easy and gentle. "Laling fort". Government of Maharashtra. List of forts in Maharashtra Khandesh
Panhala fort, is located in Panhala, 20 kilometres northwest of Kolhapur in Maharashtra, India. It is strategically located looking over a pass in the Sahyadri mountain range, a major trade route from Bijapur in the interior of Maharashtra to the coastal areas. Due to its strategic location, it was the centre of several skirmishes in the Deccan involving the Marathas, the Mughals and the British East India Company, the most notable being the Battle of Pavan Khind. Here, the queen regent of Kolhapur State, spent her formative years. Several parts of the fort and the structures within are still intact. Panahala fort was built between 1178 and 1209 CE, one of 15 forts built by the Shilahara ruler Bhoja II, it is said. A copper plate found in Satara shows that Raja Bhoja held court at Panhala from 1191–1192 CE. About 1209–10, Bhoja Raja was defeated by Singhana, the most powerful of the Devgiri Yadavas, the fort subsequently passed into the hands of the Yadavas, it was not well looked after and it passed through several local chiefs.
In 1376 inscriptions record the settlement of Nabhapur to the south-east of the fort. It was an outpost of the Bahamanis of Bidar. Mahmud Gawan, an influential prime minister, encamped here during the rainy season of 1469. On the establishment of the Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur in 1489, Panhala came under Bijapur and was fortified extensively, they built the strong ramparts and gateways of the fort which, according to tradition, took a hundred years to build. Numerous inscriptions in the fort refer to the reign of Ibrahim Adil Shah Ibrahim I. In 1659, after the death of the Bijapur general Afzal Khan, in the ensuing confusion Shivaji Maharaj took Panhala from Bijapur. In May 1660, to win back the fort from Shivaji, Adil Shah II of Bijapur sent his army under the command of Siddi Jauhar to lay siege to Panhala. Shivaji Maharaj fought back and they could not take the fort; the siege continued for 5 months, at the end of which all provisions in the fort were exhausted and Shivaji Maharaj was on the verge of being captured.
Under these circumstances, Shivaji Maharaj decided. He gathered a small number of soldiers along with his trusted commander Baji Prabhu Deshpande and, on 13 July 1660, they escaped in the dead of night to flee to Vishalgad. Baji Prabhu and a barber, Shiva Kashid, who looked like Shivaji Maharaj, kept the enemy engaged, giving them an impression that Shiva Kashid was Shivaji Maharaj. In the ensuing battle three quarters of the one thousand strong force died, including Baji Prabhu himself; the fort went to Adil Shah. It was not until 1673. Sambhaji, Shivaji's son and successor to the throne. Shivaji met his brave son after he escaped from the Camp of Diler Khan after executing his father political agenda to bring Aurangzeb's successor over to the Maratha's, he attacked Bhupalgad. He returned to Panhala, however, on 4 December 1679 to reconcile with his father just before his father's death on 4 April 1680. At the height of Shivaji's power in 1678, Panhala housed 20,000 soldiers; also the main darwaza was chaar darwaza When Shivaji died, Sambhaji was able to convince the garrison at Panhala to join him in overthrowing his stepbrother Rajaram, thus becoming the Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire.
In 1689, when Sambhaji was imprisoned by Aurangzeb's general Takrib Khan at Sangameshwar, the Mughals came to possess the fort. However, it was re-captured in 1692 by Kashi Ranganath Sarpotdar under the guidance of Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi a Maratha garrison commander of the fort of Vishalgad. In 1701 Panhala surrendered to Aurangzeb, who came for it in person. On 28 April 1692 the Mughal Emperor famously received the English ambassador Sir William Norris at Panhala fort. Norris spent "300 pounds in fruitless negotiation" with Aurangzeb but the details of what was being discussed was not disclosed. Within a few months the fort was retaken by the Maratha forces under Ramchandra Pant Amatya. In 1693, Aurangzeb attacked it again; this led to another long siege in which Rajaram escaped disguised as a beggar to Gingee Fort, leaving his 14-year-old wife Tarabai in Panhala. As Aurangzeb pursued Rajaram, Tarabai would stay at Panhala for five years before meeting her husband again. During this formative period of her life, Tarabai looked after the administration of the fort, resolved disputes and gained the respect of the people.
The time she spent at Panhala provided her with experience in courtly matters and the support of her officers, which would influence events. Rajaram did send reinforcements from Gingee, Panhala came into Maratha hands in October 1693. In 1700, died leaving behind a 12-year-old son—Shivaji II—by his wife Tarabai. In 1705, Tarabai asserted her autonomy by founding an independent dynasty in the name of her son Shivaji II and ruling it as regent with Panhala as her headquarters. In Tarabai's war with Shahuji of Satara in 1708, Shahu took Panhala and Tarabai fled to Malvan in Ratnagiri. Shortly after, in 1709, Tarabai again took Panhala, established a separate state (Kolhapur Rajaram by his second wife Rajasbai succeeded to the throne, he died without issue in 1760. His widow Jijabai adopted the son of a Sahaji Bhonsle of Kanvat. Thus, Jijabai became the acting regent during the time, she came to believe that to prevent the fall of Panhala, the Mahakali shrine at the fort had t
St. Angelo Fort
St. Angelo Fort is a fort facing the Arabian Sea, situated 3 km from Kannur, a city in Kerala state, south India. In 1498, during Vasco da Gama's visit to India, the local Kolathiri king granted the land to Portuguese to build a settlement in present-day Kerala. On 23 October 1505, he gave the Portuguese leader Francisco de Almeida the permission to build a fort at the site; the construction activity began the next day, on 24 October 1505, when Goncalo Gil Barbosa - the Portuguese factor of Cannanore - laid the foundation stone. The construction of the wooden fort was completed on 30 October 1505: its first Captain was Lourenco Britto, who led a garrison of 150 Portuguese men, controlled two ships in the sea. After the fort was completed, Almeida began using the title "Viceroy", in 1507, he started the construction of a stone fort at the site; the fort was attacked in vain by the local Indian ruler Zamorin and Kolathiri in the Siege of Cannanore. In August 1509 Almeida, refusing to recognize Afonso de Albuquerque's as the new Portuguese governor to supersede himself, arrested him in this fortress after having fought the naval Battle of Diu.
Afonso de Albuquerque was released after six months' confinement, become governor on the arrival of the grand-marshal of Portugal with a large fleet, in October 1509. The fort provided naval supplies for the Portuguese conquest of Goa and the Portuguese conquest of Malacca; as the local Portuguese settlement at Kannur had no sources of revenue, the fort's expenses were met with funding from Goa, the seat of Portuguese rule in India. On 15 February 1663, the Dutch captured the fort from the Portuguese, they modernised the fort and built the bastions Hollandia and Frieslandia that are the major features of the present structure. The original Portuguese fort was pulled down later. A painting of this fort and the fishing ferry behind it can be seen in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam; the Dutch sold the fort to king Ali Raja of Arakkal in 1772. In 1790 the British seized it and used it as their chief military station in Malabar until 1947; the fort is in the Cannanore Cantonment area. It is well preserved as a protected monument under the Archaeological Survey of India.
St Angelo's fort is a popular tourist attraction. Six Tourism Policeman are posted here for protection duty. In 2015, thousands of cannonballs weighing several kilos were discovered from the Fort premises; the Archaeological Survey of India, which led the excavation, believes these were buried as part of military preparedness. The Moppila Bay Harbor and Arakkal Mosque are near the fort; the fort is now well-maintained under the supervision of the Archaeological Survey of India. Tourists are allowed entry to the fort every day of the week between 8 AM to 6 PM
Siri Fort, in the city of New Delhi, was built during the rule of Alauddin Khalji, the ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, to defend the city from the onslaught of the Mongols. It was the second of the seven cities of medieval Delhi built around 1303, which at present is seen only in ruins with a few remnants Near the Siri Fort ruins modern auditoriums, the Asian Games Village Complex and residential and commercial establishments fill the modern landscape between the Khel Gaon Marg and the Aurobindo Marg in the heart of South Delhi. Alauddin is the best known of the Khalji dynasty because he extended his dominion to Southern India and established the second city of Delhi, Siri, he created Siri between 1307 to defend against Mongol invasions of India and Delhi. In response he built Siri Fort, mimicked massive Turkish ones; the Fort served as the seat of his power during his campaigns to enlarge his territory. Due to frequent Mongol invasions of West Asia, the Saljuqs took asylum in Delhi; the craftsmen of Seljuq dynasty are credited with this era's architectural monuments in Delhi.
In 1303, Targhi, a Mongol general, besieged the Siri fort when Alauddin retreated during the Mongol expedition into India. Targhi could not penetrate the fortifications of the Siri Fort and he retreated to his Kingdom in Central Asia. Subsequently, Alauddin's forces defeated Mongols decisively at Amroha. Siri, now a part of New Delhi, was linked to the fortifications of Jahanpanah. Siri was also known as "Darul Khilafat" or ‘’Seat of Califate’’ In 1398 AD, the Mongol ruler who invaded Delhi, wrote in his memoirs, " the Siri is a round city, its buildings are lofty. They are surrounded by fortifications built of stone and brick, they are strong – from the fort of Siri to that of Old Delhi, a considerable distance – there runs a strong wall built of stone and cement; the part called. The fortifications of the three cities have thirty gates. Jahanpanah has thirteen gates, Siri has seven gates; the fortifications of the Old Delhi have ten gates, some opening to the exterior and some towards the interior of the city."
According to the legend of Ala-ud-din’s war exploits, the name Siri given to the Fort was because the foundation of the fort was built on the severed heads of about 8,000 Mongol soldiers killed in the war. Siri Fort was built 5 km to the north-east of the Qutab Minar on an old camp near Delhi; the first city is considered to be built by Muslims, it was in an oval shape. Allauddin, the second ruler of the Khalji dynasty, laid the foundation for the City of Siri in 1303 AD; the structures built in Siri were stated to have had a fine imprint of the enthusiasm of the rulers of Khalji dynasty with Allauddin's deep interests in architecture and his achievements supported by the imported skills of the artists of Saljuqs richly contributing to the efforts to build the new city. Legend states; the city was built with an oval plan with other structures. There were seven gates for entry and exit; the fort was once considered the pride of the city for its palace of a thousand pillars called the Hazar Sutan.
The palace was built outside the fort limits, had marble floors and other stone decoration. Its Darwaza is supposed to have been beautifully decorated. In eastern part of the ruins there are remnants of flame shaped battlements, loop holes for arrows, bastions, which were considered unique new additions of that period. In the nearby Shahpur Jat village, some dilapidated structures of the period are seen. Tohfewala Gumbad Masjid is one such structure whose ruins show the form of domed central apartment and sloping wall characteristic of Khaljis architecture. Apart from building the Siri Fort, the citadel around it and the water supply system with a reservoir at Hauz Khas Complex for providing water supply to Siri, his new city, Ala-ud-din expanded the building activity around the religious city of the first city complex of Qutb complex by making additions to the Quwwatul-Islam Mosque, which doubled its original size, additions to the Qutub Minar itself and a grandiose plan of constructing a new Minar bigger that of the Qutub Minar.
This plan was left half completed, as may be seen from the ruins at the site, due to the death of Allauddin in 1316. The destruction of the Fort is attributed to the local rulers who removed the fort's stones and other artifacts for their own buildings. In particular, Sher Shah Suri, of Pashtun Afghan descent from Eastern India, took away material from Siri to build his own city; the battered walls of the fort had a wider base on the outside. A protected passage was provided within the battered walls; the rest of the structures remained unexplored by archaeologists and these were unknowingly buried when the Asiad Village Complex was built in 1982 for the Asiad 1982. ASI has now launched an excavation programme, since December 2008, to unearth some portions of the wall concealed for centuries which will enable exposing the entire wall providing a continuous link with the earlier excavated stretches of the wall. Near the ruins of the ancient fort city, the Asian Village Complex, popularly known as the Siri
The Deccan Sultanates were five Muslim dynasties that ruled several late medieval Indian kingdoms, namely Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Berar in south-western India. The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau, between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range; these kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate. They were noted for the destruction of general economic misery. In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528; the five sultanates were of diverse origin. Although rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagara in the Battle of Talikota. Notably, the alliance destroyed the entire city of Vijayanagara with important temples such as the Vitthala Temple being razed to the ground. In 1574, after a coup in Berar, Ahmadnagar conquered it. In 1619, Bidar was annexed by Bijapur; the sultanates were conquered by the Mughal Empire.
The Ahmadnagar sultanate was founded by Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah I, the son of the Nizam-ul-Mulk Malik Hasan Bahri. Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah I was the governor of Junnar, after defeating the Bahmani army led by general Jahangir Khan on May 28, 1490 he declared independence and established the Nizam Shahi dynasty rule over the sultanate of Ahmadnagar; the territory of the sultanate was located in the northwestern Deccan, between the sultanates of Gujarat and Bijapur. His capital was in Junnar. In 1494, the foundation was laid for the new capital Ahmadnagar. Malik Ahmed Shah after several attempts, secured the great fortress of Daulatabad in 1499. After his death in 1510, his son Burhan, a boy of seven was installed in his place. Burhan Shah I died in Ahmadnagar in 1553, he left six sons. After the death of Hussain Shah I in 1565, his son Murtaza ascended the throne. While as a child, his mother Khanzada Humayun Sultana ruled as a regent for several years. Murtaza Shah annexed Berar in 1574. On his death in 1588, his son Miran Hussain ascended the throne.
But his reign lasted only a little. Ismail, a cousin of Miran Hussain was raised to the throne, but the actual power was in the hands of Jamal Khan, the leader of the Deccani group in the court. Jamal Khan was killed in the battle of Rohankhed in 1591 and soon Ismail Shah was captured and confined by his father Burhan, who ascended the throne as Burhan Shah. After the death of Burhan Shah his eldest son Ibrahim ascended the throne. Ibrahim Shah died only after a few months in the battle with Bijapur sultanate. Soon, Chand Bibi, the aunt of Ibrahim Shah, proclaimed Bahadur, the infant son Ibrahim Shah as the rightful Sultan and she became the regent of him. In 1596, a Mughal attack led by Murad was repulsed by Chand Bibi. After the death of Chand Bibi in July 1600, Ahmadnagar was conquered by the Mughals and Bahadur Shah was imprisoned, but Malik Ambar and other Ahmadnagar officials defied the Mughals and declared Murtaza Shah II as sultan in 1600 at a new capital, Paranda. Malik Ambar became prime Vakil-us-Saltanat of Ahmadnagar.
The capital was shifted first to Junnar and to a new city Khadki. After the death of Malik Ambar, his son Fath Khan surrendered to the Mughals in 1633 and handed over the young Nizam Shahi ruler Hussain Shah, sent as a prisoner to the fort of Gwalior, but soon, Shahaji with the assistance of Bijapur, placed an infant scion of the Nizam Shahi dynasty, Murtaza, on the throne and he became regent. In 1636 Aurangzeb, the Mughal viceroy of Deccan annexed the sultanate to the Mughal empire after defeating Shahaji. Malik Ahmad Nizam Shah I 1490–1510 Burhan Nizam Shah I 1510–1553 Hussain Nizam Shah I 1553–1565 Murtaza Nizam Shah 1565–1588 Miran Nizam Hussain 1588–1589 Isma'il Nizam Shah 1589–1591 Burhan Nizam Shah II 1591–1595 Ibrahim Nizam Shah 1595–1596 Ahmad Nizam Shah II 1596 Bahadur Nizam Shah 1596–1600 Murtaza Nizam Shah II 1600–1610 Burhan Nizam Shah III 1610–1631 Hussain Nizam Shah II 1631–1633 Murtaza Nizam Shah III 1633–1636; the Berar Sultanate was founded by Fathullah Imad-ul-Mulk, born a Kanarese Hindu, but was captured as a boy by Bahmani forces on an expedition against the Vijayanagara empire and reared as a Muslim.
During the disintegration of the Bahmani sultanate, Fathullah Imad-ul-Mulk, governor of Berar declared independence in 1490 and founded the Imad Shahi dynasty of the Berar sultanate. He established the capital at Achalpur. Gavilgad and Narnala were fortified by him, he was succeeded by his eldest son Ala-ud-din after his death in 1504. In 1528, Ala-ud-din resisted the aggression of Ahmadnagar with the help from Bahadur Shah, sultan of Gujarat; the next ruler, Darya first tried to ally with Bijapur to prevent aggression of Ahmadnagar, but was unsuccessful. He helped Ahmednagar on three occasions against Bijapur. After his death in 1562, his infant son Burhan succeeded him to the throne, but in 1574 Tufal Khan, a minister of Burhan usurped the throne. In the same year Murtaza I, sultan of Ahmadnagar annexed it to his sultanate. Burhan, along with Tufal Khan and his son Shamshir-ul-Mulk were taken to Ahmadnagar and confined to a fortress where all of them subsequently