Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northwest of the country. As one of the largest province-level administrative divisions of China by area, the province is ranked fourth-largest in size, but has the third-smallest population. Located mostly on the Tibetan Plateau, the province has long been a melting pot for a number of groups including the Han, Hui, Tu, Mongols. Qinghai borders Gansu on the northeast, Xinjiang on the northwest, Sichuan on the southeast, Qinghai province was established in 1928 under the Republic of China period during which it was ruled by Chinese Muslim warlords known as the Ma clique. The Chinese name, Qinghai is named after Qinghai Lake, the largest lake in China, the province was known formerly as Kokonur in English, derived from the Oirat name for Qinghai Lake. During Chinas Bronze Age, Qinghai was home to the Qiang people who made a living in agriculture and husbandry. The eastern part of the area of Qinghai was under the control of the Han dynasty about 2000 years ago and it was a battleground during the Tang and subsequent Chinese dynasties when they fought against successive Tibetan tribes.
In the middle of 3rd century CE, nomadic people related to the Mongolic Xianbei migrated to lands around the Qinghai Lake. In the 7th century, Tuyuhun Kingdom was attacked by both the Tibetan Empire and Tang dynasty as both of them control over trade routes. Military conflicts severely weakened the kingdom and it was incorporated into the Tibetan Empire, after the disintegration of the Tibetan Empire, small local factions emerged, some under the titular authority of China. The Song dynasty defeated the Tibetan Kokonor Kingdom in the 1070s, most of Qinghai was once a short time under the control of early Ming dynasty, but gradually lost to the Khoshut Khanate founded by the Oirats. The Xunhua Salar Autonomous County is where most Salar people live in Qinghai, the Salars migrated to Qinghai from Samarkand in 1370. The chief of the four upper clans around this time was Han Pao-yuan and Ming granted him office of centurion, the other chief Han Shan-pa of the four lower Salar clans got the same office from Ming, and his clans were the ones who took Ma as their surname.
From 1640 to 1724, a big part of the area that is now Qinghai was under Khoshut Mongol control and it was during the 1720s when Xining Prefecture was established and its borders were roughly those of modern Qinghai province. Xining, the capital of modern Qinghai province was built in this period as the administrative center, during the rule of the Qing dynasty, the governor was a viceroy of the Qing Emperor, but the local ethnic groups enjoyed much autonomy. Many chiefs retained their authority, participating in local administrations. The Dungan revolt devastated the Hui Muslim population of Shaanxi, shifting the Hui center of population to Gansu, another Dungan revolt broke out in Qinghai in 1895 when various Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu rebelled against the Qing. In July–August 1912, General Ma Fuxiang was Acting Chief Executive Officer of Kokonur, in 1928, Qinghai province was created
A nomad is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another. Among the various ways nomads relate to their environment, one can distinguish the hunter-gatherer, as of 1995, there were an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world. Nomadic hunting and gathering, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest human subsistence method, pastoralists raise herds, driving them, or moving with them, in patterns that normally avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover. Nomadism is a lifestyle adapted to regions such as steppe, tundra, or ice and sand. For example, many groups in the tundra are reindeer herders and are semi-nomadic and these nomads sometimes adapt the use of high technology such as solar photovoltaics to reduce their dependence on diesel fuel. These groups are known as peripatetic nomads, a nomad is a person with no settled home, moving from place to place as a way of obtaining food, finding pasture for livestock, or otherwise making a living.
The word Nomad comes from a Greek word that one who wanders for pasture. Most nomadic groups follow an annual or seasonal pattern of movements and settlements. Nomadic peoples traditionally travel by animal or canoe or on foot, some nomads travel by motor vehicle. Most nomads live in tents or other portable shelters, Nomads keep moving for different reasons. Nomadic foragers move in search of game, edible plants, the Australian Aborigines, Negritos of Southeast Asia, and San of Africa, for example, traditionally move from camp to camp to hunt and to gather wild plants. Some tribes of the Americas followed this way of life, Pastoral nomads make their living raising livestock, such as camels, goats, sheep, or yaks. These nomads travel to find more camels and sheep through the deserts of Arabia, the Fulani and their cattle travel through the grasslands of Niger in western Africa. Some nomadic peoples, especially herders, may move to raid settled communities or avoid enemies. Nomadic craftworkers and merchants travel to find and serve customers and they include the Lohar blacksmiths of India, the Romani traders, and the Irish Travellers.
Most nomads travel in groups of families called bands or tribes and these groups are based on kinship and marriage ties or on formal agreements of cooperation. A council of adult males makes most of the decisions, though some tribes have chiefs, in the case of Mongolian nomads, a family moves twice a year. These two movements would generally occur during the summer and winter, the winter location is usually located near mountains in a valley and most families already have their fixed winter locations
Tibetan blue bear
The Tibetan bear or Tibetan blue bear is a subspecies of the brown bear found in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. It is known as the Himalayan blue bear, Himalayan snow bear, Tibetan brown bear, in Tibetan, it is known as Dom gyamuk. One of the rarest subspecies of bear in the world, the bear is rarely sighted in the wild. The blue bear is known in the west only through a number of fur. It was first classified in 1854, the Gobi bear is sometimes classified as its own subspecies, and closely resembles other Asian brown bears. It is possible that the specimen might be observed traveling through high mountain peaks during times of reduced food supply. However, the information available about the habits and range of the blue bear makes such speculation difficult to confirm. The exact conservation status of the bear is unknown, due to limited information. However, in the United States trading blue bear specimens or products is restricted by the Endangered Species Act and it is listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species as a protected species.
It is threatened by the use of bile in traditional Chinese medicine. The blue bear is notable for having been suggested as one inspiration for sightings associated with the legend of the yeti. Media related to Ursus arctos pruinosus at Wikimedia Commons
Hoh Xil or Kekexili, is an isolated region in the northwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. It is Chinas least and the worlds third-least populated area, the southeastern part of the Hoh Xil, drained by the Chumar River, is one of the major headwater sources of the Yangtze River. The rest of the region is endorheic, with drainage to numerous isolated lakes,45,000 square kilometres of the Hoh Xil region, at an average elevation of 4,600 metres, were designated a national nature reserve in 1995. Surrounding Unnamed volcanic field contains a number of late-Cenozoic volcanoes, several Hawaiian-style volcanoes are present in this area. Bamaoqiongzong covers an area of 300 km2 and contains a perfectly preserved edifice NE of the summit, the Bamaoqiongzong area contains peralkaline phonolitic and foiditic rocks. Yongbohu contains five dacitic and andesitic vents, qiangbaqian covers a broad area along the southern border of the Kunlun mountain range. A cone in the Kekexili caldera, once thought to be observed in eruption on a photo in 1973, is now considered not to have been historically active.
The abundant plateau pika, a burrowing rodent, is the main food of the regions brown bears. The hitherto little-known region, as well the struggling Tibetan antelope, or chiru, became household names in China upon the release of the film Kekexili, the Qingzang Railway and China National Highway 109 run along the eastern boundary of the reserve. The Fenghuoshan Tunnel, presently the worlds highest railway tunnel, was constructed in the area, Geography of Tibet Geography of China Save the Chiru Kekexili on enorth. com A Journey to Hoh Xil--A Diary of an Environmental Volunteer
The Kunlun Mountains are one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than 3,000 kilometres. In the broadest sense, it forms the edge of the Tibetan Plateau south of the Tarim Basin. The exact definition of this range varies, an old source uses Kunlun to mean the mountain belt that runs across the center of China, that is, Kunlun in the narrow sense, Altyn Tagh along with the Qilian and Qin Mountains. A recent source has the Kunlun range forming most of the side of the Tarim Basin. Sima Qian says that Emperor Wu of Han sent men to find the source of the Yellow River, the name seems to have originated as a semi-mythical location in the classical Chinese text Shanhai Jing. From the Pamirs of Tajikistan, it runs east along the border between Xinjiang and Tibet autonomous regions to the Sino-Tibetan ranges in Qinghai province. It stretches along the edge of what is now called the Tarim Basin, the infamous Takla Makan or sand-buried houses desert. A number of important rivers flow from it including the Karakash River and the Yurungkash River, altyn-Tagh or Altun Range is one of the chief northern ranges of the Kunlun.
Its eastern extension Qilian Shan is another main northern range of the Kunlun, in the south main extension is the Min Shan. Bayan Har Mountains, a branch of the Kunlun Mountains. The highest mountain of the Kunlun Shan is the Kunlun Goddess in the Keriya area, the Arka Tagh is in the center of the Kunlun Shan, its highest point is Ulugh Muztagh. Some authorities claim that the Kunlun extends northwest-wards as far as Kongur Tagh, but these mountains are physically much more closely linked to the Pamir group. The mountain range formed at the edges of the Cimmerian Plate during its collision, in the Late Triassic, with Siberia. The range has very few roads and in its 3,000 km length is crossed by only two, in the west, Highway 219 traverses the range en route from Yecheng, Xinjiang to Lhatse, Tibet. Further east, Highway 109 crosses between Lhasa and Golmud, over 70 volcanic cones form the Kunlun Volcanic Group. They are not volcanic mountains, but cones, as such, they are not counted among the world volcanic mountain peaks.
The group, musters the heights of 5,808 metres above sea level, if they were considered volcanic mountains, they would constitute the highest volcano in Asia and China and second highest in the Eastern Hemisphere and one of Volcanic Seven Summits by elevation. The last known eruption in the group was on May 27,1951
A pika is a small mammal, with short limbs, very round body, rounded ears, and no external tail. Pikas look like a combination of a rabbit, Guinea Pig or vole and they live in mountainous countries in Asia, with two species in North America. The large-eared pika of the Himalayas and nearby mountains is one of the highest living mammals, pikas graze on a range of plants, mostly grasses and young stems. In the autumn, they pull hay, soft twigs and other stores of food into their burrows to eat during the long, the name pika is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs, which includes the Leporidae. One genus, Ochotona, is recognised within the family, and it is known as the whistling hare due to its high-pitched alarm call when diving into its burrow. In the United States, the pika is colloquially called a coney, a term used for rabbits, hares. The name pika appears to be derived from the Tungus piika, pikas are native to cold climates, mostly in Asia, North America, and parts of Eastern Europe.
Most species live on mountain sides, where numerous crevices in which to shelter occur. A few burrowing species are native to open steppe land, in the mountains of Eurasia, pikas often share their burrows with snowfinches, which build their nests there. Pikas are small mammals, with limbs and rounded ears. They are about 15 to 23 centimetres in length and weigh between 120 and 350 grams, depending on species. Like rabbits, after eating they initially produce soft green feces, some pikas, such as the collared pika, have been known to store dead birds in their burrows, for food during winter. These animals are herbivores, and feed on a variety of plant matter, including forbs, sedges, shrub twigs, moss. As with other lagomorphs, pikas have gnawing incisors and no canines, although they have fewer molars than rabbits, the young are born after a gestation period of between 25 and 30 days. Pikas are diurnal or crepuscular, with species generally being more active during the daytime. They show their peak activity just before the winter season, pikas do not hibernate, so they generally spend time during the summer collecting and storing food they will eat over the winter.
Each rock-dwelling pika stores its own haypile of dried vegetation, while burrowing species often share food stores with their burrow mates, haying behavior is more prominent at higher elevations. Many of the vocalizations and social behaviors that pikas exhibit are related to haypile defense, eurasian pikas commonly live in family groups and share duties of gathering food and keeping watch
Tibet Autonomous Region
The Tibet Autonomous Region or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. Within China, Tibet is identified as an autonomous region, the current borders of Tibet were generally established in the eighteenth century and include about half of ethno-cultural Tibet. In 1950, the Peoples Liberation Army defeated the Tibetan army in a battle fought near the city of Chamdo, in 1951, the Tibetan representatives signed a 17-point agreement with the Chinese Central Peoples Government affirming Chinas sovereignty over Tibet and the incorporation of Tibet. The agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later, the Dalai Lama fled to India in 1959 and renounced the 17-point agreement. Tibet Autonomous Region was established in 1965, thus making Tibet an administrative division that is equivalent in status to a Chinese province. The Tibet Autonomous Region is located on the Tibetan Plateau, the highest region on earth, in northern Tibet elevations reach an average of over 4,572 metres.
Mount Everest is located on Tibets border with Nepal, Chinas provincial-level areas of Xinjiang and Sichuan lie to the north and east, respectively, of the Tibet AR. There is a border with Yunnan province to the southeast. The PRC has border disputes with the Republic of India over the McMahon Line of Arunachal Pradesh, the disputed territory of Aksai Chin is to the west, and its boundary with that region is not defined. The other countries to the south are Myanmar and Nepal. Physically, the Tibet AR may be divided into two parts, the region in the west and north-west, and the river region. On the south the Tibet AR is bounded by the Himalayas, the system at no point narrows to a single range, generally there are three or four across its breadth. Other lakes include Dagze Co, and Pagsum Co, the lake region is a wind-swept Alpine grassland. This region is called the Chang Tang or Northern Plateau by the people of Tibet and it is some 1,100 km broad, and covers an area about equal to that of France.
Due to its distance from the ocean it is extremely arid. The mountain ranges are spread out, disconnected, separated by flat valleys. The Tibet AR is dotted over with large and small lakes, generally salt or alkaline, due to the presence of discontinuous permafrost over the Chang Tang, the soil is boggy and covered with tussocks of grass, thus resembling the Siberian tundra. Salt and fresh-water lakes are intermingled, the lakes are generally without outlet, or have only a small effluent
The bharal or Himalayan blue sheep or naur is a caprid found in the high Himalayas of India, Bhutan and Pakistan. Its native names include bharal, barhal and bharut in Hindi, na or sna in Ladakh, nabo in Spitian, naur in Nepali, the bharal was the focus of George Schallers and Peter Matthiessens expedition to Nepal in 1973. Their personal experiences are documented by Matthiessen in his book. The bharal is a food of the snow leopard. This medium-sized sheep is 115 to 165 cm long along the head-and-body and they stand 69 to 91 cm high at the shoulder. Body mass can range from 35 to 75 kg, males are slightly larger than females. The short, dense coat is grey in colour, sometimes with a bluish sheen. The underparts and backs of the legs are white, while the chest, separating the grey back and white belly is a charcoal colored stripe. The ears are small, and the bridge of the nose is dark, the horns are found in both sexes, and are ridged on the upper surface. In males, they grow upwards, turn sideways and curve backwards and they may grow to a length of 80 cm.
In females, the horns are shorter and straighter, growing up to 20 cm long. Chinese blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis Himalayan blue sheep, P. n. nayaur Helen Shan blue sheep, dwarf blue sheep, P. schaeferi, sometimes considered to be a subspecies of the bharal The rutting of the bharal starts towards late November and continues until mid-January. During the rut, male bharal use multiple strategies for mating, namely tending, the young are born in late June and July. Bharal are active throughout the day, alternating between feeding and resting on the mountain slopes. Due to their excellent camouflage and the absence of cover in their environment, once they have been noticed, they scamper up to the precipitous cliffs, where they once again freeze, using camouflage to blend into the rock face. Population densities in Nepal were found to be 0. 9–2.7 animals per square kilometer, increasing to a maximum of 10 animals per square kilometer in the winter, Bharal are mainly grazers, but during times of scarcity of grass, they switch to herbs and shrubs. A high degree of overlap between livestock and bharal, together with density-dependent forage limitation, results in resource competition and a decline in bharal density.
Where they overlap, they are the prey of snow leopards and leopards
The kiang is the largest of the wild asses. It is native to the Tibetan Plateau, where it inhabits montane and alpine grasslands and its current range is restricted to Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, plains of the Tibetan plateau and northern Nepal along the Tibetan border. Other common names for species include Tibetan wild ass, khyang. The kiang is closely related to the onager, and in some classifications it is considered a subspecies, molecular studies, indicate that it is a distinct species. Kiangs can crossbreed with onagers, horses and Burchells zebras in captivity, like mules, the kiang is the largest of the wild asses, with an average shoulder height of 13.3 hands. They range from 132 to 142 cm high at the shoulder, with a body 182 to 214 cm long, kiangs have only slight sexual dimorphism, with the males weighing from 350 to 400 kg, while females weigh 250 to 300 kg. They have a head, with a blunt muzzle and a convex nose. The mane is upright and relatively short, the coat is a rich chestnut colour, darker brown in winter and a sleek reddish brown in late summer, when the animal moults its woolly fur.
The summer coat is 1.5 cm long and the coat is double that length. The legs, end of the muzzle, and the inside of the ears are all white, a broad, dark chocolate-coloured dorsal stripe extends from the mane to the end of the tail, which ends in a tuft of blackish brown hairs. Kiangs are found on the Tibetan Plateau, between the Himalayas in the south and the Kunlun Mountains in the north. This restricts them almost entirely to China, but small numbers are found across the borders in the Ladakh and Sikkim regions of India, the western kiang is slightly smaller than the eastern and has a darker coat. However, no genetic information confirms the validity of the three subspecies, which may represent a cline, with gradual variation between the three forms. Kiangs inhabit alpine meadows and steppe country between 2,700 and 5,300 m elevation and they prefer relatively flat plateaus, wide valleys, and low hills, dominated by grasses and smaller amounts of other low-lying vegetation. This open terrain, in addition to supplying them with suitable forage absent in the arid regions of central Asia, may make it easier for them to detect.
Like all equids, kiangs are herbivores, feeding on grasses and sedges, especially Stipa, but including other plants such as bog sedges, true sedges. When little grass is available, such as during winter or in the more arid margins of their habitat, they have been observed eating shrubs, herbs. Their only real predator other than humans is the wolf, kiangs defend themselves by forming a circle, and with heads down, kick out violently
Nature reserves may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions, regardless of nationality. Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws, early reservations often had a religious underpinning, such as the evil forest areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by ancient cultures worldwide. The worlds first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall and he spent £9000 on the construction of a 3 mile long,9 ft tall wall to enclose his park from poachers. He tried to encourage birdlife by planting trees and hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in and he invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings and sand martins and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy.
Drachenfels was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany, in Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Western Australia. The term “nature reserve” is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a national statute. As of 2014,1767 out of a total of 10339 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term “nature reserve in their names, in Brazil, nature reserves are classified as ecological stations or biological reserves by the National System of Conservation Units. Their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, visits are allowed only with permission, and only for educational or scientific purposes. Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the balance, biological diversity. Ecological stations are allowed to change the environment within strictly defined limits for the purpose of scientific research.
A wildlife reserve in Brazil is protected, and hunting is not allowed, there are 30 nature reserves in Egypt which cover 12% of Egyptian land. Those nature reserves were built according to the laws no, 102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to protect the natural resources. The largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba in the southeast, denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas. The largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km2 and is part of Thy National Park, in Sweden there are 29 national parks. The first of them were established in 1909, in fact, Sweden was the first European country that established 9 national parks. There are almost 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden and they comprise about 85% of the surface that is protected by the Swedish Enironmental Code
The argali, or the mountain sheep is a wild sheep that roams the highlands of Central Asia. It is the largest species of wild sheep, the North American bighorn sheep may approach comparable weights but is normally considerably outsized by the argali. Argali stand 85 to 135 cm high at the shoulder and measure 136 to 200 cm long from the head to the base of the tail. The female, or ewe is the sex by a considerable margin, sometimes weighing less than half as much as the male. The ewes can weigh from 43.2 to 100 kg and the rams typically from 97 to 328 kg, with a maximum reported mass of 356 kg. The Pamir argali, O. a. polii, is the largest race on average, regularly measuring more than 180 cm long without the tail, the argali has relatively the shortest tail of any wild goat-antelope or sheep, with reported tail lengths of 9. 5–17 cm. The general coloration varies between each animal, from a yellow to a reddish-brown to a dark grey-brown. Argali or nyan from the Himalayas are usually dark, whereas those from Russian ranges are often relatively pale.
In summertime, the coat is often spotted with a salt-and-pepper pattern. The back is darker than the sides, which gradually lighten in color, the face and the buttocks are yellowish-white. The male has a neck ruff and a dorsal crest and is usually slightly darker in color than the female. Males have two large horns, some measuring 190 cm in total length and weighing up to 23 kg. Males use their horns for competing with one another, females carry horns, but they are much smaller, usually measuring less than 50 cm in total length. Argali range from central Kazakhstan in the west to the Shanxi Province in China in the east and they are a species of mountainous areas, living from elevations of 300 to 5,800 m. In areas where they are hunted, they are more likely to be found in forested areas. In parts of China and Russia where they compete for resources with numerous domestic stock, argali more regularly take up residence in precipitous, Argali may search for regions in the mountains where snow cover is not heavy during the winter, following winds that blow snow off the earth.
Rams are generally found at elevations more regularly than females. Argalis live in herds numbering between two and 150 animals, segregated by sex, except during breeding season