SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Chao Phraya River

The Chao Phraya is the major river in Thailand, with its low alluvial plain forming the centre of the country. It flows through Bangkok and into the Gulf of Thailand. On many old European maps, the river is named the Menam or Mae Nam, the Thai word for "river". James McCarthy, F. R. G. S. Who served as Director-General of the Siamese Government Surveys prior to establishment of the Royal Survey Department, wrote in his account, "Me Nam is a generic term, me signifying "mother" and Nam "water," and the epithet Chao P'ia signifies that it is the chief river in the kingdom of Siam."H. Warington Smyth, who served as Director of the Department of Mines in Siam from 1891 to 1896, refers to it in his book first published in 1898 as "the Me Nam Chao Phraya". In the English-language media in Thailand, the name Chao Phraya River is translated as river of kings; the Chao Phraya begins at the confluence of the Ping and Nan rivers at Nakhon Sawan in Nakhon Sawan Province. After this it flows south for 372 kilometres from the central plains to Bangkok and the Gulf of Thailand.

In Chai Nat, the river splits into the main course and the Tha Chin River, which flows parallel to the main river and exits in the Gulf of Thailand about 35 kilometres west of Bangkok in Samut Sakhon. In the low alluvial plain which begins below the Chainat Dam, there are many small canals which split off from the main river; the khlongs are used for the irrigation of the region's rice paddies. The rough coordinates of the river are 13 N, 100 E; this area has a wet monsoon climate, with over 1,400 millimetres of rainfall per year. Temperatures range from 24 to 33 °C in Bangkok; the lower Chao Phraya underwent several man-made modifications during the Ayutthaya period. Several shortcut canals were constructed to bypass large loops in the river, shortening the trip from the capital city to the sea; the course of the river has since changed to follow many of these canals. In 1538, Thailand's first river engineering of a 3 km long canal was dug at the order of King Chairachathirat, it was called "Khlong Lat", today forms a part of Khlong Bangkok Noi.

It shortened the route by 13–14 km for ships from the Gulf of Siam to the then-capital city, Ayutthaya. In 1542, a two kilometer-long canal, "Khlong Lat Bangkok", was completed; the Chao Phraya diverted along the new canal, its old course becoming part of Khlong Bangkok Noi and Khlong Bangkok Yai. It is said to have shortened the river route by 14 km. In 1608, a seven kilometer-long "Khlong Bang Phrao" canal was completed and has shortened the Chao Phraya's original route by 18 km. In 1636, the "Khlong Lat Mueang Nonthaburi" was completed. In 1722, the two kilometre long "Khlong Lat Kret Noi" shortened the Chao Phraya by 7 km; this route formed the island of Ko Kret. Cities along the Chao Phraya include, from north to south, Nakhon Sawan Province, Uthai Thani Province, Chai Nat Province, Sing Buri Province, Ang Thong Province, Ayutthaya Province, Pathum Thani Province, Nonthaburi Province and Samut Prakan Province; these cities are among the most significant and densely populated settlements of Thailand due to their access to the waterway.

Major bridges cross the Chao Phraya in Bangkok: the Rama VI railroad bridge. In Bangkok, the Chao Phraya is a major transportation artery for a network of river buses, cross-river ferries, water taxis. More than 15 boat lines operate on the rivers and canals including commuter lines; the principal tributaries of the Chao Phraya River are the Pa Sak River, the Sakae Krang River, the Nan River, the Ping River, the Tha Chin River. Each of these tributaries is augmented by minor tributaries referred to as khwae. All of the tributaries, including the lesser khwae, form an extensive tree-like pattern, with branches flowing through nearly every province in central and northern Thailand. None of the tributaries of the Chao Phraya extend beyond the nation's borders; the Nan and the Yom River flow nearly parallel from Phitsanulok to Chumsaeng in the north of Nakhon Sawan Province. The Wang River enters the Ping River near Sam Ngao district in Tak Province; the expanse of the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries, i.e. the Chao Phraya river system, together with the land upon which falling rain drains into these bodies of water, form the Chao Phraya watershed.

The Chao Phraya watershed is the largest watershed in Thailand, covering 35 percent of the nation's land, draining an area of 157,924 square kilometres. The watershed is divided into the following basins: Pa Sak Basin Sakae Krang Basin Greater Nan Basin Greater Ping Basin Tha Chin Basin Finally the Chao Phraya Basin itself is defined as the portion of the Chao Phraya watershed drained by the Chao Phraya River itself, not by its major tributaries or distributaries; as such, the Chao Phraya Basin drains 20,126 square kilometres of land. To the west, the central plain of Thailand is drained by the Mae Klong and the east by the Bang Pakong River, they a

214th Fires Brigade (United States)

The 214th Fires Brigade is an inactive field artillery brigade in the United States Army. The brigade inactivated on May 21, 2015, at Fort Sill, OK. Following its transformation to a modular field artillery brigade in 2006, the 214th Fires Brigade consisted of 2 MLRS battalions, a 155 mm self-propelled howitzer battalion, a target acquisition battery, the 168th Brigade Support Battalion, the 529th Signal Company. Prior to the modular transformation, the 214th Field Artillery Brigade consisted of 3 MLRS battalions: 2-4th Field Artillery, 3-13th Field Artillery, 1-14th Field Artillery; the Brigade's mission was to performs a wide variety of functions ranging from the delivery of rocket artillery fires to operating a field hospital. Soldiers from the Brigade were deployed worldwide and trained for many different missions; the 214th Field Artillery Brigade maintained a high state of combat readiness for priority worldwide contingency missions and supported Fort Sill with medical, transportation, aviation and chemical assets.

The 214th Fires Brigade was first constituted on 3 February 1944 in the Army of the United States as the Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 214th Field Artillery Group and was assigned to XXI Corps, 4th US Army, at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The Group was activated on 17 April 1944. After activation at Camp Van Dorn, the Group moved to Fort Sill, Oklahoma on 18 November 1944 for training; the unit was moved to Europe, to Camp Twenty Grand, France on 21 April 1945. European assignments included Simmern, Neidormendig and Trier, Germany. After being assigned twice in France, at Camp Atlanta and Camp Lucky Strike, the unit returned to Continental United States at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey. On 13 November 1945, after moving to Camp Shelby, the 214th Artillery Group was inactivated; the 214th Artillery Group was re-designated on 15 September 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 214th Artillery Group, allotted to the Regular Army. It remained inactive until 15 October 1958, when it was reactivated and assigned to the United States Army Artillery and Missile Center at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

On 15 March 1972, the Group was re-designated as the 214th Field Artillery Group. On 5 July 1979, the 3 missile battalions of the 9th Field Artillery Missile Group were reassigned to the 214th Field Artillery Group. On 16 September 1979, the 214th Field Artillery Group was re-designated as the 214th Field Artillery Brigade. During 2000, the "Naturally We Lead" Brigade, the only pure MLRS brigade in the US Army, deployed elements of its 3 battalions throughout CONUS and OCONUS; the Brigade Headquarters deployed twice to Fort Hood, first for Exercise Road Runner and the 1st Cavalry Warfighter exercise. During the exercise, the 214th FA Brigade reinforced the 4th Infantry Division Artillery and delivered devastating fires on the OPFOR, enhancing the Division's success. In January 2003, the 214th Field Artillery Brigade deployed its Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 2-4th Field Artillery, 1-14th Field Artillery in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. In June 2006, the 6-52nd Air Defense Artillery joined the 214th Field Artillery Brigade.

On 18 September 2006, the Brigade was re-designated as the 214th Fires Brigade, a modular field artillery brigade as part of the transformation of the US Army to the modular force structure. In October 2006, the 2-5th Field Artillery and the 168th Brigade Support Battalion became a part of the 214th Fires Brigade. 3-13th Field Artillery was subsequently transferred to the 75th Fires Brigade at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Though based at Fort Sill and assigned to III Corps, the 214th Fires Brigade had an informal relationship with the 4th Infantry Division at Fort Carson, Colorado. In April 2007, Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 214th Fires Brigade deployed for 15 months in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Elements of 2-4th Field Artillery Regiment and 2-5th Field Artillery deployed to Iraq; as of July 2010, the 214th Fires Brigade expected to continue deploying units to provide rocket fires in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom until December 2012, counter-fire radar missions there until July 2011.

Constituted 3 February 1944 in the Army of the United States as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 214th Field Artillery Group Activated 17 April 1944 at Camp Van Dorn, Mississippi Inactivated 13 November 1945 at Camp Shelby, Mississippi Redesignated 15 September 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 214th Artillery Group, allotted to the Regular Army Activated 15 October 1958 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma Redesignated 15 March 1972 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 214th Field Artillery Group Redesignated 16 September 1979 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 214th Field Artillery Brigade Reorganized and redesignated 18 September 2006 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 214th Fires Brigade Inactivated 21 May 2015 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma World War II: European-African-Middle Eastern Theater, Streamer without Inscription War on Terrorism: Participated in the invasion of Falluja, Iraq in May 2003 Meritorious Unit Commendation, Streamer embroidered IRAQ 2003 http://www.army.mil/article/149433/214th_Fires_Brigade__support_battalion_deactivate_at_Fort_Sill/

Corticomesencephalic tract

In neuroanatomy, corticomesencephalic tract is a descending nerve tract that originates in the frontal eye field and terminate in the midbrain. Its fibers mediate conjugate eye movement; the corticomesencephalic tract originates from the frontal eye field in the caudal part of the middle frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. It runs rostral to the pyramidal tract in the posterior limb of the internal capsule, it courses posteriorly toward the nuclei of the oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve and abducens nerve, the three cranial nerves that mediate eye movements. At the level of the caudal midbrain, corticomesencephalic fibers descend through the tegmentum in the medial lemniscus toward the oculomotor and the trochlear nuclei on the contralateral side. However, the fibers to the abducens nucleus do not terminate directly onto the nucleus. Instead, they terminate onto the paramedian pontine reticular formation; the PPRF contains excitatory “burst” neurons that transmit the pulse to the ipsilateral abducens nucleus.

The fibers of the corticomesencephalic tracts are involved in the control of the conjugate eye movement. The fibers to the oculomotor nucleus control the medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique muscles. Fibers to the trochlear nucleus control the superior oblique muscle. Fibers to the paramedian pontine reticular formation project to the abducens nucleus, which controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle. Fibers to the paramedian pontine reticular formation mediates the movements with the oculomotor and trochlear nerves through the medial longitudinal fasciculus; the MLF coordinates the interaction between the oculomotor and the abducens nuclei, which create bilateral conjugate horizontal eye movements. Frontal eye field Cranial nerves Pyramidal tracts