A charge-coupled device is a device for the movement of electrical charge from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, such as conversion into a digital value. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins. CCD is a major technology for digital imaging. In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitors; these MOS capacitors, the basic building blocks of a CCD, are biased above the threshold for inversion when image acquisition begins, allowing the conversion of incoming photons into electron charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface. Although CCDs are not the only technology to allow for light detection, CCD image sensors are used in professional and scientific applications where high-quality image data are required. In applications with less exacting quality demands, such as consumer and professional digital cameras, active pixel sensors known as CMOS sensors, are used.
However, the large quality advantage CCDs enjoyed early on has narrowed over time. The basis for the CCD is the metal–oxide–semiconductor structure, with MOS capacitors being the basic building blocks of a CCD, a depleted MOS structure used as the photodetector in early CCD devices. MOS technology was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. In the late 1960s, Willard Boyle and George E. Smith at Bell Labs were researching MOS technology while working on semiconductor bubble memory, they realized that an electric charge was the analogy of the magnetic bubble and that it could be stored on a tiny MOS capacitor. As it was straightforward to fabricate a series of MOS capacitors in a row, they connected a suitable voltage to them so that the charge could be stepped along from one to the next; this led to the invention of the charge-coupled device by Boyle and Smith in 1969. They conceived of the design of what they termed, in their notebook, "Charge'Bubble' Devices"; the initial paper describing the concept in April 1970 listed possible uses as memory, a delay line, an imaging device.
The device could be used as a shift register. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor from one storage capacitor to the next; the concept was similar in principle to the bucket-brigade device, developed at Philips Research Labs during the late 1960s. The first experimental device demonstrating the principle was a row of spaced metal squares on an oxidized silicon surface electrically accessed by wire bonds, it was demonstrated by Gil Amelio, Michael Francis Tompsett and George Smith in April 1970. This was the first experimental application of the CCD in image sensor technology, used a depleted MOS structure as the photodetector; the first patent on the application of CCDs to imaging was assigned to Tompsett, who filed the application in 1971. The first working CCD made with integrated circuit technology was a simple 8-bit shift register, reported by Tompsett and Smith in August 1970; this device had input and output circuits and was used to demonstrate its use as a shift register and as a crude eight pixel linear imaging device.
Development of the device progressed at a rapid rate. By 1971, Bell researchers led by Michael Tompsett were able to capture images with simple linear devices. Several companies, including Fairchild Semiconductor, RCA and Texas Instruments, picked up on the invention and began development programs. Fairchild's effort, led by ex-Bell researcher Gil Amelio, was the first with commercial devices, by 1974 had a linear 500-element device and a 2-D 100 x 100 pixel device. Steven Sasson, an electrical engineer working for Kodak, invented the first digital still camera using a Fairchild 100 x 100 CCD in 1975; the interline transfer CCD device was proposed by L. Walsh and R. Dyck at Fairchild in 1973 to reduce smear and eliminate a mechanical shutter. To further reduce smear from bright light sources, the frame-interline-transfer CCD architecture was developed by K. Horii, T. Kuroda and T. Kunii at Matsushita in 1981; the first KH-11 KENNEN reconnaissance satellite equipped with charge-coupled device array technology for imaging was launched in December 1976.
Under the leadership of Kazuo Iwama, Sony started a large development effort on CCDs involving a significant investment. Sony managed to mass-produce CCDs for their camcorders. Before this happened, Iwama died in August 1982; the first mass-produced consumer CCD video camera was released by Sony in 1983, based on a prototype developed by Yoshiaki Hagiwara in 1981. Early CCD sensors suffered from shutter lag; this was resolved with the invention of the pinned photodiode. It was invented by Nobukazu Teranishi, Hiromitsu Shiraki and Yasuo Ishihara at NEC in 1980, they recognized that lag can be eliminated if the signal carriers could be transferred from the photodiode to the CCD. This led to their invention of the pinned photodiode, a photodetector structure with low lag, low noise, high quantum efficiency and low dark current, it was first publicly reported by Teranishi and Ishihara with A. Kohono, E. Oda and K. Arai in 1982, with the addition of an anti-blooming structure; the new photodetector structure invented at NEC was given the name "pinned photodiode" by B.
C. Burkey at Kodak in 1984. In 1987, the PPD began to be incorporated into most CCD devices, becoming a fixture
Jonathan Paiement is a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman. He is playing in Austria with HC Innsbruck of the Austrian National League. Paiement was selected by the New York Rangers in the eighth round of the 2004 NHL Entry Draft. Paiement played major junior hockey in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. Paiement's first professional season was played in the ECHL with the 2006–07 Texas Wildcatters. On February 19, 2009, Paiement and four other people were injured when the bus carrying the Albany River Rats home from a game in Lowell, Massachusetts struck a guard rail and rolled on its side on the Massachusetts Turnpike. Paiement, Nicolas Blanchard, Joe Jensen, Casey Borer, the River Rats' radio color commentator, John Hennessy, were all taken to Berkshire Medical Center in Pittsfield with "serious" injuries. Jonathan Paiement career statistics at EliteProspects.com Jonathan Paiement career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database
Year 1115 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. September 14 – Battle of Sarmin: The Crusaders, under Prince Roger of Salerno and rout the Seljuk Turkish army, led by Emir Bursuq ibn Bursuq, at Sarmin. Bursuq avoids capture, escapes with a few hundred horseman. Roger reoccupies the fortress of Kafartab, consolidates his territory around Antioch; the Crusader castle of Montréal is commissioned by King Baldwin I of Jerusalem, during an expedition against the Seljuk Turks. February 11 – Battle of Welfesholz: Duke Lothair of Supplinburg joins the rebellious Saxon forces, defeats the German Imperial Army of Emperor Henry V at Welfesholz, in Saxony-Anhalt. July 24 – Matilda, margravine of Tuscany, dies at Bondeno. During her reign she waged an intermittent war with the late Emperor Henry IV, over the inheritance rights of her fiefs in Lombardy and Tuscany; the Jin Dynasty is created by the Jurchen tribal chieftain Taizu. He establishes a dual-administration system: a Chinese-style bureaucracy to rule over northern and northeast China.
The 19-year-old Minamoto no Tameyoshi, Japanese nobleman and samurai, gains recognition by suppressing a riot against Emperor Toba at a monastery near Kyoto. The Mixtec ruler Eight Deer Jaguar Claw is defeated in battle and sacrificed by a coalition of city-states, led by his brother-in law 4 Wind, at Tilantongo in the Mixteca Alta region. Arnulf of Chocques is accused of sexual relations with a Muslim woman, he is removed from his position as patriarch of Jerusalem. Peter Abelard, French scholastic philosopher, becomes master of the cathedral school of Notre-Dame and meets Héloïse d'Argenteuil. Clairvaux Abbey is founded by Bernard, French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism, in France. Hugh of Saint Victor, French theologian and writer, joins the Victorines in Paris. April 18 – Gertrude, German duchess and regent September 18 – Wu, Chinese empress consort Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford Berenguer Raymond, count of Provence Erling Skakke, Norwegian nobleman Eustathius of Thessalonica, Byzantine archbishop Euthymios Malakes, Byzantine bishop Fulk I FitzWarin, English nobleman Gilbert FitzRichard de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford Hugo Etherianus, Italian cardinal and adviser Li Tao, Chinese historian and writer Magnus IV, king of Norway Pedro Fernández de Castro, Spanish nobleman Peter Cellensis, French abbot and bishop Roger de Pont L'Évêque, Norman archbishop Welf VI, margrave of Tuscany Wichmann von Seeburg, German archbishop William V, marquess of Montferrat April 16 – Magnus Erlendsson, Earl of Orkney July 8 – Peter the Hermit, French religious leader July 24 – Matilda, margravine of Tuscany December 22 – Olav Magnusson, king of Norway December 23 – Ivo of Chartres, French bishop December 30 – Theodoric II, duke of Lorraine Abu al-Mu'in al-Nasafi, Arab theologian Adela of Flanders, queen of Denmark Artau II, count of Pallars Sobirà Eight Deer Jaguar Claw, Mixtec ruler Gerberga, countess of Provence Godfrey of Amiens, French bishop Leo Marsicanus, Italian cardinal Mazdali ibn Tilankan, Almoravid governor Odo II, count of Champagne Reynelm, bishop of Hereford Shin Arahan, Burmese religious adviser Tanchelm of Antwerp, Flemish priest Turgot of Durham, Scottish bishop