SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Charing Cross

Charing Cross is a junction in London, where six routes meet. Clockwise from north these are: the east side of Trafalgar Square leading to St Martin's Place and Charing Cross Road. A bronze equestrian statue of Charles I by French sculptor Hubert Le Sueur has stood there since 1675; the junction takes its name from the medieval Eleanor cross that stood on the site from the 1290s until its destruction on the orders of Parliament in 1647. It gives its name in turn to the immediate locality, to landmarks including Charing Cross railway station, on the forecourt of which stands the ornate Queen Eleanor Memorial Cross of 1864–1865; this was once neighbourhood of Charing. Until 1931, "Charing Cross" referred to the part of Whitehall between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square. Drummonds Bank, on the corner with The Mall, retains the address 49 Charing Cross. Since the early 19th century, Charing Cross has been the notional "centre of London" and the point from which distances from London are calculated.

The name of the area, Charing, is derived from the Old English word cierring, referring to a bend in the River Thames. The addition of the name "Cross" to the hamlet's name originates from the Eleanor cross erected in 1291–94 by King Edward I as a memorial to his wife, Eleanor of Castile, placed between the former hamlet of Charing and the entrance to the Royal Mews of the Palace of Whitehall. Folk etymology holds that the name derives from chère reine but the name in fact pre-dates Eleanor's death by at least a hundred years. A variant form found in the late fourteenth century is Cherryngescrouche; the stone cross was the work of Alexander of Abingdon. It was destroyed in 1647 on the orders of the purely Parliamentarian phase of the Long Parliament or Oliver Cromwell himself in the Civil War. A 70 ft -high stone sculpture in front of Charing Cross railway station, erected in 1865, is a reimagining of the medieval cross, on a larger scale, more ornate, not on the original site, it was designed by the architect E. M. Barry and carved by Thomas Earp of Lambeth out of Portland stone, Mansfield stone and Aberdeen granite.

Since 1675 the site of the cross has been occupied by a statue of King Charles. The site is recognised by modern convention as the centre of London for the purpose of indicating distances by road in favour of other measurement points. Charing Cross is marked on modern maps as a road junction, was a postal address denoting the stretch of road between Great Scotland Yard and Trafalgar Square. Since 1 January 1931 this section of road has been designated part of the Whitehall thoroughfare; the cross has given its name to a railway station, a tube station, police station, hospital, a hotel, a theatre, a music hall. Charing Cross Road the main route from the north was named after the railway station, a major destination for traffic, rather than for the original cross. At some time between 1232 and 1236, the Chapel and Hospital of St Mary Rounceval was founded at Charing, it occupied land at the corner of the modern Whitehall and into the centre of Northumberland Avenue, running down to a wharf by the river.

It was an Augustinian house, tied to a mother house at Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees. The house and lands were seized for the king in 1379, under a statute "for the forfeiture of the lands of schismatic aliens". Protracted legal action returned some rights to the prior, but in 1414, Henry V suppressed the'alien' houses; the priory fell into a long decline due to lack of money and arguments regarding the collection of tithes with the parish church of St Martin-in-the-Fields. In 1541, religious artefacts were removed to St Margaret's, the chapel was adapted as a private house and its almshouse were sequestered to the Royal Palace. In 1608–09, the Earl of Northampton built Northumberland House on the eastern portion of the property. In June 1874, the whole of the duke's property at Charing Cross, was purchased by the Metropolitan Board of Works for the formation of Northumberland Avenue; the frontage of the Rounceval property caused the narrowing at the end of the Whitehall entry to Charing Cross, formed the section of Whitehall known as Charing Cross, until road widening in the 1930s caused the rebuilding of the south side of the street, creating the current wide thoroughfare.

In 1554, Charing Cross was the site of the final battle of Wyatt's Rebellion. This was an attempt by Thomas Wyatt and others to overthrow Queen Mary I of England, soon after her accession to the throne and replace her with Lady Jane Grey. Wyatt's army had come from Kent, with London Bridge barred to them, had crossed the river by what was the next bridge upstream, at Hampton Court, their circuitous route brought them down St Martin's Lane to Whitehall. The palace was defended by 1000 men under Sir John Gage at Charing Cross; the rebels – themselves fearful of artillery on the higher ground around St James's – did not press their attack and marched onto Ludgate, where they were met by the Tower Garrison

National United Front of Kampuchea

The Khmer United National Front was an organisation formed by the deposed King of Cambodia, Norodom Sihanouk in 1970 while he was in exile in Beijing. The front was supposed to be an umbrella organization of forces that opposed Lon Nol's seizure of power. Apart from the communists, there were two distinct factions that participated in the insurgency: the pro-Sihanouk royalists, who never held real power in the front, secondly, the pro-North Vietnamese cadres of Khmer Issarak; the territories controlled by the guerrillas were nominally led by a Royal United National Government of Kampuchea. The government was based in Beijing. Sihanouk remained the head of state in that government, Penn Nouth was the prime minister and Khieu Samphan the deputy prime minister, minister of defense and commander-in-chief of the GRUNK forces; the possibility to exploit peasant masses' traditional adherence to Cambodia's monarchs helped the Khmer Rouge to recruit members to the front. China, the USSR and North Vietnam backed the'Royal Government', whereas North Vietnamese retained a more pro-Sihanouk stance as the Khmer Rouge began to consolidate their positions in 1971.

The deposed king remained a figurehead of the front and nominal head of state until Khmer Rouge victory over Lon Nol in 1975. In 5 May 1970, the politburo members of the NUFK Central Committee were: Chairman: Penn Nouth Politburo members: Chau Seng Hu Nim Major Gen. Duong Sam Ol Huot Sambath Chan Youran Khieu Samphan Chea San Sarin Chhak Hou Yuon Thiounn Mumm Cambodian Civil War Viet Minh Khmer Rouge Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea Milton Osborne, Prince of Light, Prince of Darkness. Silkworm 1994 Political programme of the National United Front of Kampuchea: The Armed struggle and life of the Khmer people in the liberated areas in pictures

Ɓukasz Sosin

Łukasz Sosin is a retired Polish football striker who last played for Aris Limassol in Cyprus. He joined Apollon Limassol from Odra Wodzisław Śląski. In 2007, he moved from Apollon Limassol to Anorthosis Famagusta FC. In his career he played for Wisła Kraków. Sosin was top-goalscorer of the Cypriot First Division three years in a row while playing for Apollon Limassol. During 2007-08 campaign he was joint top scorer (the other being David da Costa of Doxa Katokopia, he won the Cypriot Championship twice, twice the Super-Cup. On 3 January 2010 AO Kavala have signed the former Polish international and Anorthosis Famagusta forward; the next season, he moved to Aris Limassol signing a two-year contract. He played 4 times with the Poland national football team, scoring 2 goals in his debut a friendly against Saudi Arabia in March 2006. Sosin did not get called up for Poland since he fell out with Dutch coach Leo Beenhakker, his last game was against San Marino in April 2009, where he struck the post, provided an assist on Marek Saganowski's goal.

In the beginning of his career he plays now as striker. Łukasz Sosin at National-Football-Teams.com Łukasz Sosin at WorldFootball.net Profile at PZPN