click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Charing Cross railway station

Charing Cross railway station is a central London railway terminus between the Strand and Hungerford Bridge in the City of Westminster. It is the terminus of the South Eastern main line to Dover via Ashford. All trains are operated by Southeastern, which provides the majority of commuter and regional services to south-east London and Kent, it is connected to Charing Cross Underground station and is near to Embankment Underground station and Embankment Pier. The station was opened by the South Eastern Railway in 1864, it takes its name from its proximity to the road junction Charing Cross, the notional "centre of London" from which distances from the city are measured. During the 19th century the station became the main London terminus for continental traffic via boat trains, served several prestigious international services, it was badly damaged by an engineering accident in 1905 and extensively rebuilt, subsequently becoming an important meeting point for military and government traffic during World War I.

By this time, Charing Cross station was seen as out of date by some politicians and proposals were made to replace Hungerford Bridge with a road bridge or road/rail combination, with the station moving to the south bank of the River Thames in the case of a road-only replacement. The station was bombed several times during World War II, was rebuilt afterwards, re-opening in 1951. In the late 1980s, the station complex was redesigned by Terry Farrell and rebuilt to accommodate a modern office block, now known as Embankment Place. Charing Cross Station is located at the western end of The Strand in the City of Westminster, east of Trafalgar Square and northeast of Whitehall, it is close to the Embankment Pier, providing river services along the River Thames. The railway leads directly out onto Hungerford Bridge and across the river towards the London Borough of Lambeth; the station code is CHX. It is one of nineteen stations in the United Kingdom that are managed by Network Rail and is the 14th busiest station in the country.

A number of key bus routes run in the area, are designated "Trafalgar Square for Charing Cross". The station was planned as the London terminus of the South Eastern Railway, they had wanted to extend the line from Bricklayers Arms towards Hungerford Bridge, but a bill presented in 1846 was unsuccessful. In 1857, they proposed to Parliament that they would build a railway terminus in the West End, hoping to use Victoria, before reaching an agreement with the London and South Coast Railway to build a line west from London Bridge. In the year, the SER secretary Samuel Smiles looked for potential routes and decided the best location would be on the site of the former Hungerford Market adjacent to The Strand, that the line should be directly connected to Waterloo, allowing a link with London and South Western Railway services; the Charing Cross Railway Company was formed in 1859 in order to build the extension, the SER paid £300,000 in capital to help build this. The line towards Charing Cross was expensive to build as it traversed a built-up area, exacerbated in 1862 when the company chose to upgrade the two running lines to three, doubled the capacity over the bridge to four tracks.

The bridge replaced the original suspension bridge designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel which opened in 1845. Work took around three years; the old suspension bridge remained open. A trial run over the new line took place on 1 December 1863; the station was designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, featured a single span wrought iron roof, 510 feet long and 164 feet wide, arching over the six platforms on its cramped site. It was built on a brick arched viaduct, the level of the rails above the ground varying up to 30 feet; the space underneath the line was used as wine cellars. The roof above the tracks is a single 164-foot wide great arch, rising to 102 feet at its highest point. Charing Cross station opened on 11 January 1864; the Charing Cross Railway was absorbed into the SER on 1 September, shortly after the station opened. The Charing Cross Hotel, designed by Edward Middleton Barry, opened on 15 May 1865 and gave the station an ornate frontage in the French Renaissance style, it had 250 bedrooms spread over seven floors and extended along Villiers Street as well as the front of the Strand.

The public rooms had balconies overlooking the main station concourse. It became popular and was profitable, leading to a 90-bedroom annexe on the other side of Villiers Street opening in 1878. A bridge over the street connected the two parts of the hotel together. In 1887, Hungerford Bridge was widened to 48 feet 9 inches in order to provide three more tracks into the station. On 1 January 1899, the SER merged with the London and Dover Railway to form the South Eastern and Chatham Railway, which took over operations at Charing Cross. Contemporary with the Charing Cross Hotel was a replica of the Eleanor Cross in Red Mansfield stone designed by Edward Middleton Barry, erected in the station forecourt, it was based on the original Whitehall Cross built in 1291, demolished in 1647 by order of Parliament. Distances in London are measured from the original site of the cross, now the statue of Charles I facing Whitehall, not from this replica; the cross deteriorated over time until it was in such a vulnerable condition that it was placed on English Heritage's "Heritage At Risk Register" in 2008.

A ten-month project to repair and restore the cross was completed in August 2010. This work included recreating and attaching 100 missing ornamental features including heraldic shields, an

Drillia lignaria

Drillia lignaria is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Drilliidae. The shell grows to a length of its diameter 9 mm; the shell has an irregularly fusiform shape. It is pallid, without colour markings, it is posterior acuminated, anterior rather obliquely subconical. It resembles Comitas stolida, but is more compact in shape; the spire is less tapering, the siphonal canal is shorter and the rostrum is blunter. The spire is rather acute, it contains ​10 1⁄2 whorls. The first two are smooth and forming a papillary apex; the next two whorls are convex and nearly smooth. The rest have the upper half concave, with a rounded tubercular ridge just below the suture; the lower are rather convex, furnished with a row of oblong nodules, or short stout costae. The whorls are crossed by oblique axial ribs, 10 on the first whorl, increasing to 11 on the body whorl, they are finely spirally striated throughout. The whorl equals in length to the spire, it is obtusely angled. Its left side is obliquely sloping, the right side is rather convex.

There is no rostrum. The nodules at the angles are produced downwards so as to form oblique stout rounded ribs; the aperture is rather shor. The whitish columella is nearly straight rimate at the rostrum and covered by a thin callus, somewhat thickened above; the outer lip is arcuate. The siphonal canal is short; the anal sinus is moderately wide, situated at the angle of the whorl. This species occurs in the demersal zone off the west coast of South Africa. Tucker, J. K. 2004 Catalog of recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682:1-1295 "Drillia lignaria". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019

Words and Rules

Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language is a 1999 popular linguistics book by Steven Pinker about regular and irregular verbs. "Words and rules" is a theory, predominantly developed by Pinker. It has been popularly contextualized within the so-called "Past-Tense Debate,", sparked by Rumelhart and McClelland's 1986 connectionist model of the production of regular and irregular verbs. In essence, the Words and Rules theory states that past-tense forms of verbs arise from both declarative memory and procedural systems. In his book, Pinker "tries to illuminate the nature of language and mind by choosing a single phenomenon and examining it from every angle imaginable." His analysis reflects his view that language and many other aspects of human nature are innate evolutionary-psychological adaptations. Most of the book examines studies conducted on the form and frequency of grammatical errors in English as well as the speech of brain-damaged persons with selective aphasia. Pinker discusses neuropsychological dissociations in two types of aphasia: agrammatism.

Anomic patients produce fluent and grammatical speech despite having difficulty retrieving and recognizing words, which implies the lexicon is "more impaired than grammatical combination." Some patients have jargon aphasia in which they speak their own neologisms and add regular suffixes onto their jargon, which suggests the area of the brain that computes regular inflection is distinct from the area in which words are processed. In contrast, agrammatic patients have difficulty assembling words into phrases and sentences and applying correct grammatical suffixes and are therefore unable to produce fluent grammatical sequences. For example, when reading a list of words patients might read smiled as "smile" and wanted as "wanting". However, when reading irregular past-tense forms and plurals, patients with impaired grammatical processing make fewer errors as they are still able to match irregular verbs against memory as wholes; the title and Rules, refers to a model Pinker believes best represents how words are represented in the mind.

He writes that words are either stored directly with their associated meanings in the lexicon or are constructed using morphological rules. Leak and rose, for example, would be stored as mental dictionary entries, but the words leaked and roses do not need to be memorized separately, as they can be constructed by applying "rules" that add the appropriate suffixes. In analyzing the errors English-speaking children make, Pinker concludes that irregular forms are not remembered in terms of the supposed rules that produce them, but instead are memorized separately, while the rule for forming regular past-tense forms applies by default; the Words and Rules model contradicts previous orthodox Chomskyan ideas hypothesizing that several irregular past tense forms arise from rules applied to verbs with phonological similarities. He notes discrepancies that would arise in application of a rule-based theory, as in the verb steep and its past-tense form steeped as opposed to steep/stept. Pinker accepts the notion of pattern associators from the connectionist model, which states that families of irregular verbs obtain their past-tense forms from associations between the phonological features of these verbs and those of their irregular past-tense forms.

Pinker found that some adults and children will form the past-tense form splung from the novel verb spling in line with the pattern seen in fling/flung and cling/clung. However, he shows research showing these sorts of generalizations to be exceedingly rare in comparison to the over-application of the regular past-tense rule to these verbs, he additionally points out that connectionist models tend to produce odd past-tense forms of verbs that otherwise have regular past-tense forms. Pinker's website on Words and Rules Dig-dug, think-thunk by Charles Yang, a critical review of Words and Rules

Steve Requin

Steve Requin is a Canadian cartoonist from Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Canada. Steve Requin started publishing comics in 1988 for a French Canadian pop music magazine called Wow!, comics that he signed under the pseudonym Jon-Son. In December 1994 he adopted the name Steve Requin and founded Les Publications Requin Roll for which he created and published many underground magazines such as Requin Roll and Les Plagiats de la BD. In 1999, he founded Québec's longest monthly underground comics magazine. MensuHell's ownership has been passed to Francis Hervieux in 2002, who kept publishing it until issue No. 109, dated December 2008. Steve closed down Les Publications Requin Roll in January 2003. From November 2001 to November 2008, Steve has been a writer and artist for Safarir, Québec's answer to the American magazine Mad, he wrote and/or drew parodies of TV shows and movies, but he is known for comics series such as Malice and Konar. In 2017, at the Festival de la bande dessinée francophone de Québec, he received the Jacques-Hurtubise award for his comic project, La Clique Vidéo.

Magazines Wow!, pop music magazine, 1988–1989 Zine Zag, 100% comics, 1998–2004 Safarir, Québec's illustrated humour magazine, 2001–2008Fanzines MensuHell, Montréal underground comics 1999–2002 Requin Roll, Montréal underground comics 1994–1999 Les Plagiats de la BD, Montréal underground comics 1997–1999 Bande dessinée Canadian comics Quebec comic strips Beyond the funnies BDQ, Répertoire des publications de bandes dessinées au Québec des origines à nos jours, 1999, Michel Viau, éditions Mille-Îles, Laval Histoire de la bande dessinée au Québec, 2008, Mira Falardeau, VLB éditeur, Études québécoises collection, Montréal Steve Requin on IMDb deviantART

Stockholm syndrome

Stockholm syndrome is a condition in which hostages develop a psychological alliance with their captors during captivity. Emotional bonds may be formed, between captor and captives, during intimate time together, but these are considered irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims; the FBI's Hostage Barricade Database System and Law Enforcement Bulletin indicate that 8% of victims show evidence of Stockholm syndrome. About ninety-six percent of victims involve suicide, domestic violence, include people with previous relationships with the abuser; this term was first used by the media in 1973 when four hostages were taken during a bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden. The hostages defended their captors after being released and would not agree to testify in court against them. Stockholm syndrome is paradoxical because the sympathetic sentiments that captives feel towards their captors are the opposite of the fear and disdain which an onlooker might feel towards the captors. There are four key components that characterize Stockholm syndrome: A hostage's development of positive feelings towards the captor No previous relationship between hostage and captor A refusal by hostages to cooperate with police forces and other government authorities.

A hostage's belief in the humanity of the captor because they cease to perceive the captor as a threat when the victim holds the same values as the aggressorStockholm syndrome is a "contested illness" due to doubt about the legitimacy of the condition. It has come to describe the reactions of some abuse victims beyond the context of kidnappings or hostage-taking. Actions and attitudes similar to those suffering from Stockholm syndrome have been found in victims of sexual abuse, human trafficking and political and religious oppression. In 1973, Jan-Erik Olsson, a convict on parole, took four employees of the bank hostage during a failed bank robbery in Kreditbanken, one of the largest banks in Stockholm, Sweden, he negotiated the release from prison of his friend Clark Olofsson to assist him. They held the hostages captive for six days in one of the bank's vaults; when the hostages were released, none of them would testify against either captor in court. Nils Bejerot, a Swedish criminologist and psychiatrist coined the term after the Stockholm police asked him for assistance with analyzing the victims' reactions to the 1973 bank robbery and their status as hostages.

As the idea of brainwashing was not a new concept, speaking on "a news cast after the captives' release" instinctively reduced the hostages' reactions to a result of being brainwashed by their captors. He called it Norrmalmstorgssyndromet, meaning "the Norrmalmstorg syndrome", it was defined by psychiatrist Frank Ochberg to aid the management of hostage situations. Olsson said in an interview:It was the hostages' fault, they did everything. If they hadn't, I might not be here now. Why didn't any of them attack me? They made it hard to kill, they made us go on living together day after day, in that filth. There get to know each other; the 2018 film Stockholm is loosely based on the events of the bank robbery. Mary McElroy was abducted from her home in 1933 at age 25 by four men who held a gun to her, demanded her compliance, took her to an abandoned farmhouse, chained her to a wall, she defended her kidnappers. She continued to visit her captors while they were in jail, she committed suicide and left the following note: “My four kidnappers are the only people on Earth who don't consider me an utter fool.

You have your death penalty now – so, give them a chance." Natascha Kampusch was kidnapped in 1998 at age 10 and kept in an insulated, dark room under the garage of Wolfgang Přiklopil. She would receive a variation of kind and sexually abusive and permissive treatment from her captor. Eight years after her kidnapping, Kampusch left and Přiklopil committed suicide. After her kidnapper's death, Police reported that Kampusch lamented and kept a picture of him in her wallet. Kampusch however has expressed frustration at others, including psychologists and media, for supposing what might have motivated her. Kampusch now owns the house in which she was imprisoned, saying, "I know it's grotesque – I must now pay for electricity and taxes on a house I never wanted to live in", it was reported that she claimed the house from Přiklopil's estate because she wanted to protect it from vandals and being torn down. When the third anniversary of her escape approached, it was revealed she had become a regular visitor at the property and was cleaning it out to move in herself.

In a 2010 interview with The Guardian, Kampusch rejected the label of Stockholm Syndrome, explaining that it doesn't take into account the rational choices people make in particular situations, saying: "I find it natural that you would adapt yourself to identify with your kidnapper," she says. "Especially if you spend a great deal of time with that person. It's about communication. Looking for normality within the framework of a crime is not a syndrome, it is a survival strategy." Patty Hearst, the granddaughter of publisher William Randolph Hearst, was taken and held hostage by the Symbionese Liberation Army, "an urban guerilla group", in 1974. She was recorded denouncing her family as well as the police under her new name, "Tania", was see

Bloodletting Press

Bloodletting Press was launched in 2002 by Larry Roberts to publish works in the horror genre for the collector's market, producing low print run limited editions intended for collectors and unique heirloom Lettered Editions for the high-end collectors. They were located in Modesto, but have since relocated to Welches, Oregon. Several of the Lettered Editions have been signed in blood and housed in metal traycases, in one example designed as a trailer complete with working interior lights; the main focus, however, of the press is the Novella Series, Novelette Series, Chapbook Series. In recent years they have added the Steve Gerlach library, a project to publish his complete works which have been only available in his native Australia. Another project is the Jonathan Crowley Library which collects and keeps in print the genre work of James A. Moore. Bloodletting Press is one of a few small presses that risks putting out new genre authors whose titles having been successful within this context go on to wider mass market publishers, such as Rage, Succulent Prey and The Rutting Season.

In 2009, the Horror Writers Association awarded to Bloodletting Press its Specialty Press Award for their "outstanding design and production techniques" in publishing the "modern masters of the horror field". For a time, Bloodletting Press distributed other small press titles via their website, in January 2008 with Delirium Books, combined their distribution arms of their individual presses into the Horror Mall; each press had published and distributed their own titles. Breeder by Douglas Clegg: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 500-copy limited hardcover. Rage by Steve Gerlach: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 300-copy limited hardcover. Neverland by Douglas Clegg: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 400-copy limited hardcover. Siren Promised by Alan M. Clark & Jeremy Robert Johnson: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 250-copy limited hardcover. Darklings by Ray Garton: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 300-copy limited hardcover.

The Fear Report by Elizabeth Massie: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 300-copy limited hardcover. The Cleansing by Shane Ryan Stayley: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 150-copy limited hardcover. Lake Mountain by Steve Gerlach: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 400-copy limited hardcover. Succulent Prey by Wrath James White: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 100-copy limited hardcover. Love Lies Dying by Steve Gerlach: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 300-copy limited hardcover; the Rutting Season by Brian Keene: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 400-copy limited hardcover. Ancient Eyes by David Niall Wilson: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 300-copy limited hardcover. Tequila's Sunrise by Brian Keene: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 500-copy limited hardcover. Shackled by Ray Garton: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 400-copy limited hardcover.

Hunting Zoe by Steve Gerlach: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 300-copy limited hardcover. Castaways by Brian Keene: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 300-copy limited hardcover. Trolley No. 1852 by Edward Lee: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 300-copy limited hardcover. Book #1: Boneland by Jeffrey Thomas: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 400-copy limited hardcover. Book #2: Terminal by Brian Keene: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 400-copy limited hardcover. Book #3: Thrust by Tom Piccirilli: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 400-copy limited hardcover. Book #4: Vessels by Kealan Patrick Burke: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 400-copy limited hardcover. Book #5: Desecration by Michael Laimo: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 400-copy limited hardcover. Book #6: Hero Wrath James White & J. F. Gonzalez: Published as a 26-copy leather-bound hardcover and 400-copy limited hardcover.

Book #1: Apocalypse Green by Brian Knight: Published as a 52-copy hardcover and 300-copy limited softcover. Book #2: Patchwork by James A. Moore: Published as a 52-copy hardcover and 300-copy limited softcover. Book #1: Mr and Miss Torso by Edward Lee: Published as a 52-copy hardcover and 300-copy limited softcover. Book #2: The Baby by Edward Lee: Published as a 52-copy hardcover and 300-copy limited softcover. Book # 3: Ever Nat by Edward Lee: Published as 300-copy limited softcover. Book #4: Wormwood Nights by Charlee Jacob: Published as a 52-copy hardcover and 300-copy limited softcover. Book #5: Eye of the Guardian by Ray Garton: Published as a 52-copy hardcover and 300-copy limited softcover. Book #6: The Hollow Earth by Steven Savile: Published as a 52-copy hardcover and 300-copy limited softcover. Cell Candy by Steve Gerlach: Published as a 300-copy limited softcover. Absinthe by Jack Ketchum & Tim Lebbon: Published as a 52-copy hardcover and 500-copy limited softcover. Little Boy Blue by James A. Moore: Published as a 400-copy limited softcover.

Book of Souls by Jack Ketchum: Published as a 52-copy hardcover and a 500-copy limited softcover. Darkness on the Edge of Town by Brian Keene: Published as a 26-copy lettered hardcover and as a 176-copy limited hardcover. Haunter of the Threshold by Edward Lee: Published as a 26-copy lettered