John R. Brinkley
John Romulus Brinkley was an American who fraudulently claimed to be a medical doctor who became known as the "goat-gland doctor" after he achieved national fame, international notoriety and great wealth through the xenotransplantation of goat testicles into humans. Although Brinkley promoted this procedure as a means of curing male impotence he claimed that the technique was a virtual panacea for a wide range of male ailments, he operated clinics and hospitals in several states, despite the fact that from the beginning and critics in the medical community discredited his methods, he was able to continue his activities for two decades. He was almost by accident, an advertising and radio pioneer who began the era of Mexican border blaster radio. Although he was stripped of his license to practice medicine in Kansas and several other states, Brinkley, a demagogue beloved by hundreds of thousands of people in Kansas and elsewhere launched two campaigns for Kansas governor, one of, nearly successful.
Brinkley's rise to fame and fortune was as precipitous as his eventual fall: At the height of his career he had amassed millions of dollars. Brinkley was born to John Richard Brinkley, a poor mountain man who practiced medicine in North Carolina and served as a medic for the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Father Brinkley's first marriage was annulled. After he reached adulthood, he married four more times, outlived each of his young wives. In 1870, at the age of 42, he married Sarah T. Mingus; the 24-year-old niece of Mingus moved into the house: Sarah Candice Burnett. The family called Brinkley's wife "Sally" to differentiate between the two Sarahs. Sarah Burnett gave birth out of wedlock to John Romulus Brinkley in the town of Beta, in Jackson County, North Carolina, naming her son after his father, after Romulus, the mythical twin suckled by wolves. Sarah Burnett died of tuberculosis when Brinkley was five. Sarah T. "Aunt Sally" and John Brinkley moved with the young boy to East LaPorte within the same county, near the Tuckasegee River.
The family had little money during this time. John Richard Brinkley died. Young Brinkley attended a one-room log cabin school in the Tuckasegee area, held each year during three or four months of winter. There, Brinkley met the daughter of a well-off school board member; when Brinkley was 13, the school term was lengthened, a better teacher engaged. Brinkley finished his studies at 16 and began to work carrying mail between local towns, to learn how to use a telegraph, he wished, however. As a telegrapher, Brinkley went to New York City to work for Western Union, after which he moved to New Jersey to work at one another, railway company. In late 1906, he returned home to Aunt Sally after hearing, she died on December 25, 1906. Afterward, he was comforted by Sally Wike, age 22 and one year older than Brinkley, they married on January 1907, in Sylva, North Carolina. They traveled around posing as Quaker doctors, giving rural towns a medicine show where they hawked a patent medicine. Brinkley's next move was to Knoxville, where he played right-hand man, helping hawk virility "tonics" with a man named Dr. Burke.
In 1907, Brinkley settled with his wife in Chicago, where they celebrated the birth of a daughter on November 5 – Wanda Marion Brinkley. The new father enrolled at Bennett Medical College, an unaccredited school with questionable curricula focused on Eclectic medicine. Brinkley worked for Western Union as a telegrapher at night and attended classes during the day, while debts mounted from tuition, the cost of raising a family, from Sally's self-centered whims. In 1908, the Brinkleys buried an infant son. At school, Brinkley was introduced to the study of glandular extracts and their effects on the human system, he determined. After two years of studies, ever-deeper debts, Brinkley doubled his summer workload by taking two shifts at Western Union, but came home one day to find his wife and daughter gone. Sally filed for divorce and child support, but after two months of payments, Brinkley kidnapped his daughter and fled with her to Canada. Sally Brinkley, unable to obtain an extradition order from Canada, dismissed her suit for alimony and child support, allowing Brinkley to return to Chicago with the child.
The couple reunited in their rocky marriage. In 1911, before Brinkley was finished with his third year of studies, Sally left him again, bore him another daughter, Erna Maxine Brinkley, on July 11, 1911, back home in the Tuckasegee area. Brinkley left his unpaid tuition bills to return to North Carolina and join his family. There, he failed to establish himself, he moved his family around to different towns in Florida and North Carolina, "packing up and going all the time from one place to another". In 1912, Brinkley left his family to try to regain the thread of his education, this time in St. Louis, Missouri, he was unable to pay Bennett Medical College the tuition he owed them, so they refused to forward his scholastic records to any of the medical schools that Brinkley had approached. Instead, Brinkley bought a certificate from a shady diploma mill known as the Kansas City Eclectic Medical University and returned home. On February 11
Umbria is a region of central Italy. It includes Lake Trasimeno and Marmore Falls, is crossed by the River Tiber; the regional capital is Perugia. Umbria is known for its landscapes, history, culinary delights, artistic legacy, influence on culture; the region is characterized by hills, mountains and historical towns such as the university centre of Perugia, Assisi, a World Heritage Site associated with St. Francis of Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco and other Franciscan sites, works by Giotto and Cimabue, Terni; the hometown of Santa Rita, the hometown of St. Valentine, the hometown of St. Benedict, Città di Castello, main center of the early Renaissance situated in the Tiber High Valley, the hometown of St. Ubaldo, Orvieto, Castiglione del Lago, Narni and other small cities. Umbria is bordered by Tuscany to Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. Hilly and mountainous, flat and fertile owing to the valley of the Tiber, its topography includes part of the central Apennines, with the highest point in the region at Monte Vettore on the border of the Marche, at 2,476 metres.
It is the only Italian region having a common border with other countries. The comune of Città di Castello has an exclave named Monte Ruperto within Marche. Contained within Umbria is the hamlet of Cospaia, a tiny republic from 1440 to 1826, created by accident. Umbria is crossed by two valleys: the Umbrian valley, stretching from Perugia to Spoleto, the Tiber Valley and west of the first one, from Città di Castello to the border with Lazio; the Tiber River forms the approximate border with Lazio, although its source is just over the Tuscan border. The Tiber's three principal tributaries flow southward through Umbria; the Chiascio basin is uninhabited as far as Bastia Umbra. About 10 kilometres farther on, it joins the Tiber at Torgiano; the Topino, cleaving the Apennines with passes that the Via Flaminia and successor roads follow, makes a sharp turn at Foligno to flow NW for a few kilometres before joining the Chiascio below Bettona. The third river is the Nera, flowing into the Tiber further south, at Terni.
The upper Nera cuts ravines in the mountains. In antiquity, the plain was covered by a pair of shallow, interlocking lakes, the Lacus Clitorius and the Lacus Umber, they were drained by the Romans over several hundred years. An earthquake in the 4th century and the political collapse of the Roman Empire resulted in the refilling of the basin, it was drained a second time a thousand years during a 500-year period: Benedictine monks started the process in the 13th century, the draining was completed by an engineer from Foligno in the 18th century. The eastern part of the region, being crossed by many faults, has been hit by earthquakes: the last ones have been that of 1997 and those of 2016. In literature, Umbria is referred to The green heart of Italy; the phrase is taken from a poem by Giosuè Carducci, the subject of, the source of the Clitunno River in Umbria. The region is named for the Umbri people, an Italic people, absorbed by the expansion of the Romans; the Umbri's capital city was Gubbio, where today is housed the longest and most important document of any of the Osco-Umbrian group of languages, the Iguvine Tablets.
Pliny the Elder recounted a fanciful derivation for the tribal name from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower", which had led to the confused idea that they had survived the Deluge familiar from Greek mythology, giving them the claim to be the most ancient race in Italy. In fact, they belonged to a broader family of neighbouring peoples with similar roots, their language was one of the Italic languages, related to Latin and Oscan. The northern part of the region was occupied by Gallic tribes; the Umbri sprang, like neighboring peoples, from the creators of the Terramara, Proto-Villanovan culture in northern and central Italy, who entered north-eastern Italy at the beginning of the Bronze Age. The Etruscans were the chief enemies of the Umbri; the Etruscan invasion went from the western seaboard towards the north and east from about 700 to 500 BC driving the Umbrians towards the Apennine uplands and capturing 300 Umbrian towns. The Umbrian population does not seem to have been eradicated in the conquered districts.
The border between Etruria and Umbria was the Tiber river: the ancient name of Todi, remembers that. After the downfall of the Etruscans, Umbrians aided the Samnites in their struggle against Rome. Communications with Samnium were impeded by the Roman fortress of Narnia. Romans defeated their Gallic allies in the battle of Sentinum. Allied Umbrians and Etruscans had to return to their territories to defend against simultaneous Roman attacks, so were unable to help the Samnites in the battle of Sentinum; the Roman victory at Sentinum started a period of integration under the Roman rulers, who established some colonies and built the via Flaminia. The via Flaminia became a principal vector for Roman development in Umbria. During Hannibal's invasion in the second Punic war, the battle of Lake Trasimene was fought in Umbria, but the local people did not aid the invader. During the Roman civil war between Mark Antony and Octavian, the city of Perugia supported Antony
Elisha Perkins was a United States physician who created his own therapy, Perkins Patent Tractors. It was subject of the first placebo research. Elisha Perkins was born 1741 in Connecticut, he was educated by his father Joseph Perkins in Plainfield, where he practiced medicine with success. During the late 18th century, the progression of medicine due to the Enlightenment increased the consumer demand for new therapies, such as therapeutic devices and inventions. Around 1795–96, Perkins invented his "Tractors", for which he took out a 14-year patent on February 19, 1796; the tractors consisted of two 3-inch metal rods with a point at the end. Although they were made of steel and brass, Perkins claimed that they were made of unusual metal alloys. Perkins used his rods to cure inflammation and pain in the head and the face, he passed them over the part for about 20 minutes. Perkins claimed they could "draw off the noxious electrical fluid that lay at the root of suffering"; the Connecticut Medical Society condemned the tractors as "delusive quackery", expelled Perkins from membership on the grounds that he was "a patentee and user of nostrums".
Perkins managed to convince three US medical faculties that his method worked. In Copenhagen, twelve surgeons at the royal Frederiks Hospital began to support the method. George Washington bought a set. Other physicians' criticisms were met with charges of elitism and professional arrogance. Perkins boasted of 5,000 cured cases; the cures were certified to by eight professors, forty physicians, thirty clergymen. Of the purchase made by Washington, Perkins' son, Benjamin Perkins, said that the "President of the United States, convinced of the importance of the discovery from experiments in his own family, availed himself of its advantages by purchasing a set of the Tractors for their use."Benjamin Perkins was a bookseller and introduced the tractors to London. There a Perkinsian Institution for the benefit of the poor was founded under the presidency of Lord Rivers. In 1798, Benjamin published The Influence of Metallic Tractors on the Human Body. In October 1799, an advertisement in The Times said that "The tractors, with every necessary direction for using them in Families, may be had for 5 guineas the set, of Mr. Perkins, of Leicester Square.
Aylmer Bourke Lambert, a British botanist, is on record as having written in January 1800 to Richard Pulteney of Blandford, in the English county of Dorset, as follows: I breakfasted with Sir Joseph on Monday morning, recovered from the Gout and in high Spirits. We had a good deal of laughing about the Tractors. Perkins has published several Cases communicated by my Father, presented me with a copy of his Book. Shortly before his death Elisha Perkins invented antiseptic medicine and used it for dysentery and sore throat. Perkins claimed to have discovered a cure for yellow fever; this consisted of vinegar with muriate of soda which he tested in New York City during an outbreak in 1799. The cure had no effect and Perkins contracted the fever and died. After Perkins' death, British physicians began to have doubts about his tractors. In 1799, Dr. John Haygarth conducted a test in which he treated five rheumatic patients with wooden tractors that were made to resemble the metallic ones. Four of them reported.
The next day the patients were treated with metallic tractors with the same results. Dr. Haygarth reported on his findings in a publication entitled On the Imagination as a Cause & as a Cure of Disorders of the Body. Attempts to use the tractors to cure animals proved futile. By this time, Perkins had numerous influential supporters and the sale of the tractors continued. In 1803, Thomas Green Fessenden published his poem “Terrible Tractoration” in favor of Perkins and as a satire on other physicians. Perkins' son died in 1810. Only after that did the popularity of the tractors begin to wane. In 1932, Morris Fishbein commented that "Unfortunately no one has yet been able to determine whether Elisha Perkins was a somewhat deluded physician or a great impostor."Perkins was the father of Sarah Bushnell Perkins, remembered for her pastels. Eric Jameson.. The Natural History of Quackery. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. Robert Medill McBride, Neil Pritchie.. Great Hoaxes of All Time. R. M. McBride Company. William Snow Miller..
Elisha Perkins and His Metallic Tractors. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 8: 41-57. Benjamin Douglas Perkins.. The Influence of Metallic Tractors on the Human Body. London: Printed for J. Johnson. Image of Perkin's metal "tractors" James Lind Library
Count Alessandro di Cagliostro was the alias of the occultist Giuseppe Balsamo. Cagliostro was self-styled magician, he became a glamorous figure associated with the royal courts of Europe where he pursued various occult arts, including psychic healing and scrying. His reputation lingered for many decades after his death, but continued to deteriorate, as he came to be regarded as a charlatan and impostor, this view fortified by the savage attack of Thomas Carlyle in 1833, who pronounced him the "Quack of Quacks". Works—such as that of W. R. H. Trowbridge in his Cagliostro: the Splendour and Misery of a Master of Magic —attempted a rehabilitation; the history of Cagliostro is shrouded in rumour and mysticism. Some effort was expended to ascertain his true identity when he was arrested because of possible participation in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe relates in his Italian Journey that the identification of Cagliostro with Giuseppe Balsamo was ascertained by a lawyer from Palermo who, upon official request, had sent a dossier with copies of the pertinent documents to France.
Goethe met the lawyer in April 1787 and saw the documents and Balsamo's pedigree: Balsamo's great-grandfather Matteo Martello had two daughters: Maria, who married Giuseppe Bracconeri. Maria and Giuseppe Bracconeri had three children: Matteo; the son of Felicità and Pietro Balsamo was Giuseppe, christened with the name of his great-uncle and adopted his surname, too. Felicità Balsamo was still alive in Palermo at the time of Goethe's travels in Italy, he visited her and her daughter. Goethe wrote that Cagliostro was of Jewish origin, it may be that the name "Balsamo" comes from the hebrew Baal Shem. Cagliostro himself stated during the trial following the Affair of the Diamond Necklace that he had been born of Christians of noble birth but abandoned as an orphan upon the island of Malta, he claimed to have travelled as a child to Medina and Cairo and upon return to Malta to have been admitted to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, with whom he studied alchemy, the Kabbalah, magic. Giuseppe Balsamo was born to a poor family in Albergheria, once the old Jewish Quarter of Palermo, Sicily.
Despite his family's precarious financial situation, his grandfather and uncles made sure the young Giuseppe received a solid education: he was taught by a tutor and became a novice in the Catholic Order of St. John of God, from which he was expelled. During his period as a novice in the order, Balsamo learned chemistry as well as a series of spiritual rites. In 1764, when he was twenty one, he convinced Vincenzo Marano—a wealthy goldsmith—of the existence of a hidden treasure buried several hundred years at Mount Pellegrino; the young man's knowledge of the occult, Marano reasoned, would be valuable in preventing the duo from being attacked by magical creatures guarding the treasure. In preparation for the expedition to Mount Pellegrino, Balsamo requested seventy pieces of silver from Marano; when the time came for the two to dig up the supposed treasure, Balsamo attacked Marano, left bleeding and wondering what had happened to the boy—in his mind, the beating he had been subjected to had been the work of djinns.
The next day, Marano paid a visit to Balsamo's house in via Perciata, where he learned the young man had left the city. Balsamo had fled to the city of Messina. By 1765–66, Balsamo found himself on the island of Malta, where he became an auxiliary for the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and a skilled pharmacist. In early 1768 Balsamo left for Rome, where he managed to land himself a job as a secretary to Cardinal Orsini; the job proved boring to Balsamo and he soon started leading a double life, selling magical "Egyptian" amulets and engravings pasted on boards and painted over to look like paintings. Of the many Sicilian expatriates and ex-convicts he met during this period, one introduced him to a seventeen-year-old girl named Lorenza Seraphina Feliciani, known as Serafina, whom he married 1768; the couple moved in with Lorenza's parents and her brother in the vicolo delle Cripte, adjacent to the strada dei Pellegrini. Balsamo's coarse language and the way he incited Lorenza to display her body contrasted with her parents' deep-rooted religious beliefs.
After a heated discussion, the young couple left. At this point Balsamo befriended Agliata, a forger and swindler, who proposed to teach Balsamo how to forge letters and myriad other official documents. In return, Agliata sought sexual intercourse with Balsamo's young wife, a request to which Balsamo acquiesced; the couple traveled together to London, where Balsamo, now styling himself with one of several pseudonyms and self-conferred titles before settling on "Count Alessandro di Cagliostro" met the Comte de Saint-Germain. Cagliostro traveled throughout Europe to Courland, Poland and France, his fame grew to the point that he was recommended as a physician to Benjamin Franklin during a stay in Paris. On 12 April 1776 "Joseph Cagliostro" was admitted as a Freemason of the Esperance Lodge No. 289 in Gerrard Street, London. In Decem
James Randi is a Canadian-American retired stage magician and a scientific skeptic who has extensively challenged paranormal and pseudoscientific claims. Randi is the co-founder of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry known as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, he is the founder of the James Randi Educational Foundation. He began his career as a magician under the stage name The Amazing Randi and chose to devote most of his time to investigating paranormal and supernatural claims, which he collectively calls "woo-woo". Randi retired from practicing magic at age 60, from the JREF at 87. Although referred to as a "debunker", Randi has said he dislikes the term's connotations and prefers to describe himself as an "investigator", he has written about paranormal phenomena and the history of magic. He was a frequent guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, famously exposing fraudulent faith healer Peter Popoff, was featured on the television program Penn & Teller: Bullshit!
Prior to Randi's retirement, JREF sponsored the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge, which offered a prize of one million dollars US to eligible applicants who could demonstrate evidence of any paranormal, supernatural, or occult power or event under test conditions agreed to by both parties. The paranormal challenge was terminated by the JREF in 2015; the foundation continues to make grants to non-profit groups that encourage critical thinking and a fact-based world view. Randi was born on August 7, 1928 in Toronto, Canada, the son of Marie Alice and George Randall Zwinge, he has sister. He took up magic after seeing Harry Blackstone Sr. and reading conjuring books while spending 13 months in a body cast following a bicycle accident. He confounded doctors. Randi skipped classes and, at 17, dropped out of high school to perform as a conjurer in a carnival roadshow, he practised as a mentalist in local nightclubs and at Toronto's Canadian National Exhibition and wrote for Montreal's tabloid press.
In his twenties, Randi posed as an astrologer and, to establish that they were doing simple tricks, he wrote an astrological column in the Canadian tabloid Midnight under the name "Zo-ran" by shuffling up items from newspaper astrology columns and pasting them randomly into a column. In his thirties, Randi worked in the UK, Philippine nightclubs, all across Japan, he witnessed many tricks. One of his earliest reported experiences is that of seeing an evangelist using a version of the "one-ahead" technique to convince churchgoers of his divine powers. Though defining himself as a conjuror, Randi began a career as a professional stage magician and escapologist in 1946, he presented himself under his real name, Randall Zwinge, which he dropped in favor of "The Amazing Randi". Early in his career, he performed numerous escape acts from jail safes around the world. On February 7, 1956, he appeared live on NBC's Today show, where he remained for 104 minutes in a sealed metal coffin, submerged in a hotel swimming pool, breaking what was said to be Harry Houdini's record of 93 minutes, though Randi calls attention to the fact that he was much younger than Houdini when the original record was established, in 1926.
Randi was a frequent guest on the Long John Nebel program on New York radio station WOR, did character voices for commercials. After Nebel went to WNBC in 1962, Randi was given the time slot, from 1967 to'68 hosted The Amazing Randi Show; this show had guests who defended paranormal claims, among them Randi's then-friend James W. Moseley. Randi says he quit WOR over complaints from the archbishop of NY, that Randi had said on-air that "Jesus Christ was a religious nut."Randi hosted numerous television specials and went on several world tours. As "The Amazing Randi" he appeared on the New York-based children's television series Wonderama from 1959 to 1967, he auditioned for a revival of the 1950s children's show The Magic Clown in 1970, which showed in Detroit and in Kenya, but was never picked up. In the February 2, 1974, issue of the British conjuring magazine Abracadabra, defining the community of magicians, stated: "I know of no calling which depends so much upon mutual trust and faith as does ours."
In the December 2003 issue of The Linking Ring, the monthly publication of the International Brotherhood of Magicians, it is stated: "Perhaps Randi's ethics are what make him Amazing" and "The Amazing Randi not only talks the talk, he walks the walk."During Alice Cooper's 1973–1974 Billion Dollar Babies tour, Randi performed on stage both as a mad dentist and as Alice's executioner. He built several of the stage props, including the guillotine. Shortly after that, in a 1976 performance for the Canadian TV special World of Wizards, Randi escaped from a straitjacket while suspended upside-down over Niagara Falls. Randi has been accused of using "psychic powers" to perform acts such as spoon bending. According to James Alcock, at a meeting where Randi was duplicating the performances of Uri Geller, a professor from the University at Buffalo shouted out that Randi was a fraud. Randi said: "Yes, indeed, I'm a trickster, I'm a cheat, I'm a charlatan, that's what I do for a living. Everything I've done here was by trickery."
The professor shouted back: "That's not. You're a fraud because you're pretending to do these things through trickery, but you're using psychic powers and misleading us by not admitting it." A similar
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière, was a French playwright and poet regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature. His extant works include comedies, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets and more, his plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed at the Comédie-Française more than those of any other playwright today. His influence is such that the French language itself is referred to as the "language of Molière". Born into a prosperous family and having studied at the Collège de Clermont, Molière was well suited to begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor helped him polish his comic abilities while he began writing, combining Commedia dell'arte elements with the more refined French comedy. Through the patronage of aristocrats including Philippe I, Duke of Orléans—the brother of Louis XIV—Molière procured a command performance before the King at the Louvre. Performing a classic play by Pierre Corneille and a farce of his own, The Doctor in Love, Molière was granted the use of salle du Petit-Bourbon near the Louvre, a spacious room appointed for theatrical performances.
He was granted the use of the theatre in the Palais-Royal. In both locations Molière found success among Parisians with plays such as The Affected Ladies, The School for Husbands and The School for Wives; this royal favour brought a royal pension to the title Troupe du Roi. Molière continued as the official author of court entertainments. Despite the adulation of the court and Parisians, Molière's satires attracted criticism from churchmen. For Tartuffe's impiety, the Catholic Church denounced this study of religious hypocrisy followed by the Parliament's ban, while Don Juan was withdrawn and never restaged by Molière, his hard work in so many theatrical capacities took its toll on his health and, by 1667, he was forced to take a break from the stage. In 1673, during a production of his final play, The Imaginary Invalid, Molière, who suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis, was seized by a coughing fit and a haemorrhage while playing the hypochondriac Argan, he finished the performance but died a few hours later.
Molière was born in Paris, the son of Jean Poquelin and Marie Cressé, the daughter of a prosperous bourgeois family. Upon seeing him for the first time, a maid exclaimed, "Le nez!", a reference to the infant's large nose. Molière was called "Le Nez" by his family from that time, he lost his mother when he was ten and he does not seem to have been close to his father. After his mother's death, he lived with his father above the Pavillon des Singes on the rue Saint-Honoré, an affluent area of Paris, it is that his education commenced with studies at a Parisian elementary school. In 1631, Jean Poquelin purchased from the court of Louis XIII the posts of "valet de chambre ordinaire et tapissier du Roi", his son assumed the same posts in 1641. The title required an initial cost of 1,200 livres. Molière studied as a provincial lawyer some time around 1642 in Orléans, but it is not documented that he qualified. So far he had followed his father's plans. In June 1643, when Molière was 21, he decided to abandon his social class and pursue a career on the stage.
Taking leave of his father, he joined the actress Madeleine Béjart, with whom he had crossed paths before, founded the Illustre Théâtre with 630 livres. They were joined by Madeleine's brother and sister; the new theatre troupe went bankrupt in 1645. Molière had become head of the troupe, due in part to his acting prowess and his legal training. However, the troupe had acquired large debts for the rent of the theatre, for which they owed 2000 livres. Historians differ as to whether the lover of a member of his troupe paid his debts, it was at this time that he began to use the pseudonym Molière inspired by a small village of the same name in the Midi near Le Vigan. It was likely that he changed his name to spare his father the shame of having an actor in the family. After his imprisonment, he and Madeleine began a theatrical circuit of the provinces with a new theatre troupe. Few plays survive from this period; the most noteworthy are Le Docteur Amoureux. In the course of his travels he met Armand, Prince of Conti, the governor of Languedoc, who became his patron, named his company after him.
This friendship ended when Armand, having contracted syphilis from a courtesan, turned towards religion and joined Moliè
Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods or services sold in a given time period. The seller, or the provider of the goods or services, completes a sale in response to an acquisition, requisition or a direct interaction with the buyer at the point of sale. There is a passing of title of the item, the settlement of a price, in which agreement is reached on a price for which transfer of ownership of the item will occur; the seller, not the purchaser executes the sale and it may be completed prior to the obligation of payment. In the case of indirect interaction, a person who sells goods or service on behalf of the owner is known as a salesman or saleswoman or salesperson, but this refers to someone selling goods in a store/shop, in which case other terms are common, including salesclerk, shop assistant, retail clerk. In common law countries, sales are governed by the common law and commercial codes. In the United States, the laws governing sales of goods are somewhat uniform to the extent that most jurisdictions have adopted Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code, albeit with some non-uniform variations.
A persons or organization expressing an interest in acquiring the offered item of value is referred to as a potential buyer, prospective customer or prospect. Buying and selling are understood to be two sides of the same "coin" or transaction. Both seller and buyer engage in a process of negotiation to consummate the exchange of values; the exchange, or selling, process has implied identifiable stages. It is implied that the selling process will proceed and ethically so that the parties end up nearly rewarded; the stages of selling, buying, involve getting acquainted, assessing each party's need for the other's item of value, determining if the values to be exchanged are equivalent or nearly so, or, in buyer's terms, "worth the price". Sometimes, sellers have to use their own experiences when selling products with appropriate discounts. Although the skills required are different, from a management viewpoint, sales is a part of marketing. Sales form a separate grouping in a corporate structure, employing separate specialist operatives known as salespersons.
Selling is considered by many to be a sort of persuading "art". Contrary to popular belief, the methodological approach of selling refers to a systematic process of repetitive and measurable milestones, by which a salesman relates his or her offering of a product or service in return enabling the buyer to achieve their goal in an economic way. According to a 2018 survey of salespeople, selling has become more difficult in recent years due to changes in technology and general access to prospects. While the sales process refers to a systematic process of repetitive and measurable milestones, the definition of the selling is somewhat ambiguous due to the close nature of advertising, public relations, direct marketing. Selling is the profession-wide term, much like marketing defines a profession. Attempts have been made to understand, in the sales profession, and, not. There are many articles looking at marketing, advertising and public relations as ways to create a unique transaction. Many believe that the focus of selling is on the human agents involved in the exchange between buyer and seller.
Effective selling requires a systems approach, at minimum involving roles that sell, enable selling, develop sales capabilities. Selling involves salespeople who possess a specific set of sales skills and the knowledge required to facilitate the exchange of value between buyers and sellers, unique from marketing, etc. Within these three tenets, the following definition of professional selling is offered by the American Society for Training and Development: Team selling is one way to influence sales. Team selling is "a group of people representing the sales department and other functional areas in the firm, such as finance and research and development". Team selling came about in the 1990s through total quality management. TQM occurs when companies work to improve their customer satisfaction by improving all of their operations. Marketing and sales differ but have the same goal. Selling is the final stage in marketing. A marketing plan includes pricing, promotion and product. A marketing department in an organization has the goals of increasing the desirability and value of the products and services to the customer, increasing the number and engagement of successful interactions between potential customers and the organization.
Achieving this goal may involve the sales team using promotional techniques such as advertising, sales promotion and public relations, creating new sales channels, or creating new products. It can include encouraging the potential customer to visit the organization's website, contact the organization for more information, or interact with the organization via social media channels such as Twitter and blogs. Social values play a major role in consumer decision processes. Marketing is the whole of the work on persuasion made for the whole of the target people. Sales is the process of persuasion and effort from one person to one person, or one person to a corporation, in order to make a living resource enter the company; this may occur over the phone or digitally. The field of sales process engineering views "sales" as the output of a larger system, not just as the output of one department; the larger system includes many functional areas within an organization. From this perspec