The livre tournois, French for the "Tours pound", was: one of numerous currencies used in France in the Middle Ages. The denier tournois coin was minted by the abbey of Saint Martin in the Touraine region of France. Soon after Philip II of France seized the counties of Anjou and Touraine in 1203 and standardized the use of the livre tournois there, the livre tournois began to supersede the livre parisis, up to that point the official currency of the Capetian dynasty; the livre tournois was, in common with the original livre of Charlemagne, divided into 20 sols, each of, divided into 12 deniers. Between 1360 and 1641, coins worth one livre tournois were minted, known as francs. Other francs were minted under Henri III of France and Henri IV of France; the use of the name "franc" became a synonym for livre tournois in accounting. The first French paper money, issued between 1701 and 1720, was denominated in livres tournois; this was the last time the name was used as notes and coins were denominated in livres, the livre parisis having been abolished in 1667.
With many forms of domestic and international money circulating throughout Europe in the late Middle Ages and the early modern period, the use of an accounting currency became a financial necessity. In the world of international banking of the 13th century, it was the florin and ducat that were used. In France, the livre tournois and the currency system based on it became a standard monetary unit of accounting and continued to be used when the "livre tournois" ceased to exist as an actual coin. For example, the Louisiana Purchase treaty of 1803 specified the relative ratios of the franc and livre tournois; the official use of the livre tournois accounting unit in all contracts in France was legislated in 1549, but it had been one of the standard units of accounting in France since the 13th century. In 1577 the livre tournois accounting unit was abolished and accountants switched to the écu, at that time the major French gold coin in actual circulation, but in 1602 the livre tournois accounting unit was brought back..
Since coins in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Early modern period did not have any indication of their value, their official value was determined by royal edicts. In cases of financial need, French kings could use the official value for currency devaluation; this could be done in two ways: the amount of precious metal in a newly minted French coin could be reduced while maintaining the old value in livres tournois or the official value of a domestic or foreign coin in circulation could be increased. By reversing these techniques, currencies could be reinforced. For example: the worth of an écu d'or, a French gold coin, was changed from 60 sols to 57 sols in 1573. to curb increasing use of the Spanish real, its official worth was decreased to 4 sols 2 deniers in the 1570s. Royal finance officers faced many difficulties. In addition to currency speculation and the intentional shaving of precious metal from coins, they had the difficult problem of setting values for gold, silver and billon coins, responding to the large influx of foreign coin and the appearance of inferior foreign coins of intentionally similar design.
For more on these issues, see Monetary policy and Gresham's Law. A glyph for the livre tournois was added to Unicode 5.2, in the Currency Symbols block at code point U+20B6: ₶. French livre Livre parisis French franc Louis Luxembourgish livre Écu Roman currency
Joinville is a commune in the Haute-Marne department in north-eastern France. Spelled Jonivilla or Junivilla in Latin, in the Middle Ages it was the site of an important lordship in the county of Champagne, its medieval château-fort, which gave to members of the House of Guise their title, Prince de Joinville, was demolished during the Revolution of 1789, but the 16th-century Château du Grand Jardin built by Claude de Lorraine, duc de Guise, has been restored. Joinville Mussey Airport Joinville is twinned with: Buckingham, United Kingdom Jean de Joinville, Claude de Lorraine, Charles de Guise Louis de Guise, cardinal évêque de Metz Louis XIII Richelieu François Lespingola, Louis Yard, Joseph Perrin des Almons, François Devienne, Anne Joseph Arnoux Valdruche, Christian Vander Communes of the Haute-Marne department
Anna d'Este was an important princess with considerable influence at the court of France and a central figure in the French Wars of Religion. In her first marriage she was Duchess of Aumale of Guise, in her second marriage Duchess of Nemours and Genevois. Anna d'Este was born on 16 November 1531, the eldest daughter of the Duke of Ferrara Ercole II and his wife, Renée of France, she grew up in Ferrara. The future writer and scholar Olympia Fulvia Morata was chosen as one of her companions at court. In 1548, after long and difficult negotiations, her marriage was arranged with the French prince Francis, Duke of Aumale, son of the Duke of Guise; the contract was signed in Ferrara on 28 September and the marriage was held in Saint-Germain-en-Laye near Paris on 16 December. The princess was never to return to Italy. Anna was the granddaughter of the French king Louis XII and therefore related to Henry II and his sons. By her marriage she had become a member of the powerful Guise family, because of her Italian roots she had close ties to the queen and queen-mother, Catherine de' Medici.
For these reasons, her position at court was outstanding. Duchess of Guise after the death of her father-in-law in 1550, she governed the family estates and the enormous fortunes of the Guise with the help of her mother-in-law, Antoinette de Bourbon, she was active on behalf of her father and acted as mediator between the courts of France and of Ferrara. She gave birth to seven children. In February 1563 Francis, Duke of Guise, was assassinated. While the murderer was seized and put to death, Anna took all possible steps to sue the leader of the French Huguenots, Gaspard de Coligny, whom she held responsible. During the next three years, the widow put pressure on the king and his courts of justice with her petitions, but in January 1566 the king's council declared the admiral of Coligny innocent and imposed eternal silence in the matter. Most of her contemporaries held the widow of the Duke of Guise responsible for the shot, fired on Coligny on 22 August 1572 and which became the starting signal for the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.
On 29 April 1566, Anna married Jacques of Duke of Nemours and Genevois. Henceforth, the princess spent most of her time in Annecy or on the road between her duchy of Genevois and the court of France. In politically difficult situations she acted as mediator between her husband and the Duke of Savoy, in the meantime she held her position at the court of France. Anna promoted her sons' careers, she helped her clients to make their living, she claimed a prominent place in official ceremonies at court. After the death of her second husband in 1585, Anna lived in Paris, in her Hôtel de Nemours, on the left bank of the Seine, in what is today Rue Séguier. With the formation of the Catholic League, in which her sons played a prominent part, her importance increased considerably. In December 1588 Henry III ordered the murder of her two oldest sons and the imprisonment of Anna d'Este. Although the sources tell us nothing about the deeds of the Duchess after her liberation, some contemporaries held her responsible for the assassination of the king.
During the siege of Paris by Henry IV, Anna was declared "queen-mother" by the League, but after the Bourbon's conversion back to Catholicism she recognized him as king and tried to convince her rebellious sons to take the same step. In 1594 Anna traveled to Paris to pay homage to Henry IV. Anna spent her last years in the respectable position of "superintendante de la maison" of the queen, Marie de' Medici, but in growing indebtedness and in constant worry about the financial situation of her children and grandchildren; when she died on 17 May 1607, the value of her movable goods came to little more than 4000 livres. The entrails and the heart of the Duchess were interred in Paris and in Joinville while her body was brought to Annecy, where it was buried next to her second husband. None of the tombs remain. With regard to the confessional disputes, Anna's life does not differ much from those of other princesses of her time, her mother was a Calvinist, her father and sons were more or less radical Catholics.
Although she didn't abjure Catholicism, she never gave away her "true" beliefs. In other regards, she held a special position at the court of France, which can be seen from the numerous lawsuits she was involved in. Although the entanglement in legal proceedings for minor causes was quite common for the French aristocracy of the early modern period, it was Anna and her mother who contested the king's right to Brittany, in doing so they referred to their positions as daughter and granddaughter of a French king. Children from the marriage with Francis, Duke of Guise: Henry, prince of Joinville Duke of Guise Catherine, Duchess of Montpensier, married Louis, Duke of Montpensier Charles, Marquis Duke of Mayenne Louis, archbishop of Reims Cardinal of Guise Antoine François Maximilien Children of the marriage with Jacques de Savoie: Charles Emmanuel, prince of Genevois Duke of Nemours Marguerite Henry I, Marquis of Saint-Sorlin Duke of Nemours Robin, Diana Maury. Encyclopedia of women in the Renaissance: Italy and England.
ABC-CLIO, Inc. Christiane Coester: Schön wie Venus, mutig wie Mars. Anna d'Este, Herzogin von Guise und von Nemours. Oldenbourg, Munich. Huguette Leloup
Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara
Alfonso d'Este was Duke of Ferrara during the time of the War of the League of Cambrai. He was the son of Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara and Eleanor of Naples and became duke on Ercole's death in June 1505. In the first year of his rule he uncovered a plot by his brother Ferrante and half-brother Giulio d'Este, directed against him and his other brother Ippolito. In September 1506 a trial for lèse majesté and high treason was held and, as expected, the death sentence was passed, but just as Ferrante and Giulio were about to mount the gallows they were informed that the duke had commuted their sentence to life imprisonment, they were led away to two cells in the Torre dei Leoni. Ferrante died in his cell after 34 years of imprisonment, while Giulio held on until he was pardoned in 1559, after 53 years of imprisonment. After his release, Giulio was ridiculed in the streets of Ferrara for his outdated clothes and died in 1561. In the Italian Wars Alfonso preserved his precarious position among the contending powers by flexibility and vigilance and the unrivalled fortifications of Ferrara.
These successes were based on Ferrara's artillery, produced in his own foundry, the best of its time. In both of his portraits by Titian, he poses with his arm across the mouth of one of his cannon. In 1526–1527 Alfonso participated in the expedition of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Spain, against Pope Clement VII, in 1530 the pope again recognized him as possessor of the forfeited duchies of Modena and Reggio. Alfonso's first wife was the sister of Gian Galeazzo Sforza, his second wife was Lucrezia Borgia. Like his brother Ippolito I, Cardinal d'Este, he was one of the great patrons of art of his time: for him the elderly Giovanni Bellini painted The Feast of the Gods in 1514, Bellini's last completed painting, he turned to Bellini's pupil, for a sequence of paintings. In 1529 Alfonso created the most magnificent gallery of his time, his studiolo or camerino d'alabastro, now known as his "Camerino", in order to better display his works of art against white marble-veneered walls under a gilded ceiling.
The pallor of the marble led to the name of this room as the chamber of alabaster. There are documents from Mario Equicola on 9 October 1511, noting plans for painting of a room in Ferrara, in which six fables or histories shall be placed. I have found them and have presented them in writing." A letter from Alfonso, dated 14 November 1514, authorized payment to Giovanni Bellini, the first painting completed for the chamber. Titian is known to have painted two portraits of Alfonso: the first was acclaimed, singled out by Michelangelo and coerced as a diplomatic gift by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Over the next two decades, Titian added three more paintings: The Worship of Venus, The Bacchanal of the Andrians, Bacchus and Ariadne. Dosso Dossi produced another large bacchanal, he contributed ceiling decorations and a painted frieze for the cornice, depicting scenes from the Aeneid, which gained immediacy by showing the heroes in contemporary dress. All the bacchanals in the Alabaster Chamber dealt with love, some refer to marriage.
After the Este family lost control of Ferrara in 1598, the Alabaster Chamber's paintings and sculpture were dispersed. Alfonso inherited from Cardinal d'Este the poet Ariosto. Following in the lead of his father Ercole, who had made Ferrara into one of the musical centers of Europe, Alfonso brought some of the most famous musicians of the time to his court to work as composers and singers. Musicians from northern Europe who worked at Ferrara during his reign included Antoine Brumel and Adrian Willaert, the latter of whom was to become the founder of the Venetian School, something which could not have happened without Alfonso's patronage; when Alfonso's grandson Alfonso II d'Este—Robert Browning's duke of "My Last Duchess"—produced no male heir, the main d'Este line died out. A grandson of Alfonso I and cousin of Alfonso II, Cesare d'Este had been born out of wedlock, he was recognized by the Emperor but not by the Pope. The House of Este continued in Modena and Reggio. House of Este Italian Wars Taylor, Frederick Lewis.
The Art of War in Italy, 1494–1529. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-5025-6. Dosso Dossi: Court Painter in Renaissance Ferrara, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art "Alfonso d'Este, Duke of Ferrara" "Reconstructing the Duke's private gallery"
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Assassination is the act of killing a prominent person for either political, religious or monetary reasons. An assassination may be prompted by political or military motives, it is an act that may be done for financial gain, to avenge a grievance, from a desire to acquire fame or notoriety, or because of a military, insurgent or secret police group's command to carry out the homicide. Acts of assassination have been performed since ancient times; the word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin, shares its etymological roots with hashish. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Muslims. Founded by Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Persia from the 8th to the 14th centuries, expanded by capturing forts in Syria; the group killed members of the Abbasid, Seljuq and Christian Crusader elite for political and religious reasons. Although it is believed that Assassins were under the influence of hashish during their killings or during their indoctrination, there is debate as to whether these claims have merit, with many Eastern writers and an increasing number of Western academics coming to believe that drug-taking was not the key feature behind the name.
The earliest known use of the verb "to assassinate" in printed English was by Matthew Sutcliffe in A Briefe Replie to a Certaine Odious and Slanderous Libel, Lately Published by a Seditious Jesuite, a pamphlet printed in 1600, five years before it was used in Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, it dates back at least as far as recorded history. In the Old Testament, King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants. Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra, his student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, including two of Alexander the Great's generals and Philip. Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later; the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC.
Whilst many assassinations were performed by individuals or small groups, there were specialized units who used a collective group of people to perform more than one assassination. The earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe. High medieval sources mention the assassination of King Demetrius Zvonimir, dying at the hands of his own people, who objected to a proposition by the Pope to go on a campaign to aid the Byzantines against the Seljuk Turks; this account is, contentious among historians, it being most asserted that he died of natural causes. The myth of the "Curse of King Zvonimir" is based on the legend of his assassination.
In 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, the French kings Henry III and Henry IV were all ended by assassins. In the modern world, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves and was used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed. In Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister has been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11, 1812. In Japan, a group of assassins called the Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu killed a number of people, including Ii Naosuke, the head of administration for the Tokugawa shogunate, during the Boshin War. Most of the assassinations in Japan were committed with bladed weaponry, a trait, carried on into modern history. A video-record exists of the assassination of Inejiro Asanuma.
In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy—died at the hands of assassins. There have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents' lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated on September 10, 1935. Robert F. Kennedy, a Senator and a presidential candidate, was assassinated on June 6, 1968 in the United States. In Austria, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, carried out by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian national and a member of the Serbian nationalist insurgents, is blamed for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II used operatives trained for assassination. Reinhard Heydrich died after an attack by British-trained Czechoslovak soldiers on behalf of the Czechoslovak government in exile in Operation Anthropoid, knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the United States to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral
Louis XII of France
Louis XII was King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his cousin Charles VIII, who died without a closer heir in 1498. Louis was the eighth French king from the House of Valois, the first from the Orléans branch of that dynasty. Before his accession to the throne of France, he was known as Louis of Orléans and was compelled to be married to his disabled and sterile cousin Joan by his second cousin, King Louis XI. By doing so, Louis XI hoped to extinguish the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois. Louis of Orléans was one of the great feudal lords who opposed the French monarchy in the conflict known as the Mad War. At the royal victory in the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier in 1488, Louis was captured, but Charles VIII pardoned him and released him, he subsequently took part in the Italian War of 1494–1498 as one of the French commanders. When Louis XII became king in 1498, he had his marriage with Joan annulled by Pope Alexander VI and instead married Anne of Brittany, the widow of his cousin Charles VIII.
This marriage allowed Louis to reinforce the personal Union of France. Louis persevered in the Italian Wars, initiating a second Italian campaign for the control of the Kingdom of Naples. Louis conquered the Duchy of Milan in 1500 and pushed forward to the Kingdom of Naples, which fell to him in 1501. Proclaimed King of Naples, Louis faced a new coalition gathered by Ferdinand II of Aragon and was forced to cede Naples to Spain in 1504. Louis XII did not encroach on the power of local governments or the privileges of the nobility, in opposition with the long tradition of the French kings to attempt to impose absolute monarchy in France. A popular king, Louis was proclaimed "Father of the People" in 1506 by the Estates-General of Tours for his reduction of the tax known as taille, legal reforms, civil peace within France. Louis, who remained Duke of Milan after the second Italian War, was interested in further expansion in the Italian Peninsula and launched a third Italian War, marked by the military prowess of the Chevalier de Bayard.
Louis XII died in 1515 without a male heir. He was succeeded by his cousin and son-in-law Francis from the Angoulême cadet branch of the House of Valois. Louis d'Orléans was born on 27 June 1462 in the Château de Touraine; the son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, Marie of Cleves, he succeeded his father as Duke of Orléans in the year 1465. Louis XI, who had become king of France in 1461, became distrustful of the close relationship between the Orleanists and the Burgundians and began to oppose the idea of an Orleanist coming to the throne of France. However, Louis XI may have been more influenced in this opinion by his opposition to the entire Orleanist faction of the royal family than by the actual facts of this paternity case. Despite any alleged doubts that King Louis XI may have had, the King became "godfather" of the newborn. King Louis XI died on 30 August 1483, he was succeeded to the throne of France by his thirteen year-old son, Charles VIII. Nobody knew the direction. Accordingly, on 24 October 1483, a call went out for a convocation of the Estates General of the French kingdom.
In January 1484, deputies of the Estates General began to arrive in France. The deputies represented three different "estates" in society; the First Estate was the Church. The Second Estate was composed of the royalty of France; the Third Estate was composed of commoners and the class of traders and merchants in France. Louis, the current Duke of Orleans and future Louis XII, attended as part of the Second Estate; each estate brought their chief complaints to the Estates General in hopes to have some impact on the policies that the new King would pursue. The First Estate wanted a return to the "Pragmatic Sanction"; the Pragmatic Sanction had been first instituted by King Charles VII, the current King Charles VIII's grandfather. The Pragmatic Sanction eliminated the papacy from the process of appointing bishops and abbots in France. Instead, these positions would be filled by appointment made by the cathedrals and monastery chapters themselves. All church prelates within France would be appointed by the King of France without reference to the pope.
The deputies representing the Second Estate at the Estates General of 1484 wanted all foreigners to be prohibited from command positions in the military. The deputies of the Third Estate wanted taxes to be drastically reduced and that the revenue needs of the crown be met by reducing royal pensions and the number offices. All three of the estates were in agreement on the demand for an end to the sale of government offices. By 7 March 1484, the King announced. Five days the deputies were told that there was no more money to pay their salaries, the Estates General meekly concluded its business and went home; the Estates General of 1484 is called, by historians, the most important Estates General until the Estates General of 1789. Important as they were, many of the reforms suggested at the meeting of the Estates General were not adopted. Rather the reforms would only be acted on. Since Charles VIII was only thirteen years of age when he became king, his older sister Anne was to serve as regent until Charles VIII became 20 years old.
From 1485 through 1488, there