Charles Bulfinch was an early American architect, has been regarded by many as the first native-born American to practice architecture as a profession. Bulfinch split his career between his native Boston and Washington, DC, where he served as Commissioner of Public Building and built the intermediate United States Capitol rotunda and dome, his works are notable for their simplicity and good taste, as the origin of a distinctive Federal style of classical domes and ornament that dominated early 19th-century American architecture. Bulfinch was born in Boston to Thomas Bulfinch, a prominent physician, his wife, Susan Apthorp. At the age of 12, he watched the Battle of Bunker Hill from this home on the Boston side of the Charles River, he was educated at Boston Latin School and Harvard University, from which he graduated with an AB in 1781 and master's degree in 1784. He made a grand tour of Europe from 1785 to 1788, traveling to London and the major cities of Italy. Bulfinch was influenced by Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio.
He was influenced by the classical architecture in Italy and the neoclassical buildings of Sir Christopher Wren, Robert Adam, William Chambers, others in the United Kingdom. Thomas Jefferson became something of a mentor to him in Europe, as he would be to Robert Mills. Upon his return to the United States in 1787, he became a promoter of the ship Columbia Rediviva's voyage around the world under command of Captain Robert Gray, it was the first American ship to circumnavigate the globe. In 1788, he married his first cousin, their sons include Thomas Bulfinch, author of Bulfinch's Mythology, Stephen Greenleaf Bulfinch, Unitarian clergyman and author. Bulfinch's first building was the Hollis Street Church. Among his other early works are a memorial column on Beacon Hill, the first monument to the American Revolution, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1791. Over the course of ten years, Bulfinch built a remarkable number of private dwellings in the Boston area, including Joseph Barrell's Pleasant Hill, a series of three houses in Boston for Harrison Gray Otis, the John Phillips House.
He built several churches in Boston. Serving from 1791 to 1795 on Boston's board of selectmen, he resigned due to business pressures but returned in 1799. From 1799 to 1817, he was the chairman of Boston's board of selectmen continuously, served as a paid police superintendent, improving the city's streets and lighting. Under his direction, both the infrastructure and civic center of Boston were transformed into a dignified, classical style. Bulfinch was responsible for the design of the Boston Common, the remodeling and enlargement of Faneuil Hall, the construction of India Wharf. In these Boston years, he designed the Massachusetts State Prison. Despite this great activity and civic involvement, Bulfinch was insolvent several times starting in 1796, including at the start of his work on the statehouse, was jailed for the month of July 1811 for debt. There was no payment for his services as selectman, he received only $1,400 for designing and overseeing the construction of the State House. In the summer of 1817, Bulfinch's roles as selectman and public official coincided during a visit by President James Monroe.
The two men were constantly in each other's company for the week-long visit, a few months Monroe appointed Bulfinch the successor to Benjamin Henry Latrobe as Architect of the Capitol in Washington, DC In this position, he was paid a salary of $2,500 per year plus expenses. As Commissioner of Public Building, Bulfinch completed the Capitol's wings and central portion, designed the western approach and portico, constructed the Capitol's original low wooden dome to his own design. In 1829 Bulfinch completed the construction of the Capitol, 36 years after its cornerstone was laid. During his interval in Washington, Bulfinch drew plans for the State House in Augusta, Maine, a Unitarian Church and prison in Washington, D. C.. In 1827, he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary member, he returned to Boston in 1830, where he died on April 15, 1844, aged 80, was buried in King's Chapel Burial Ground in Boston. His tomb was moved to Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In 1943, a United States Liberty ship named. The ship was scrapped in 1971. Amory-Ticknor House, Boston Boylston Market, Boston Faneuil Hall, Boston Federal Street Church Federal Street Theatre, Boston First Church of Christ, Unitarian Harrison Gray Otis House, Boston Massachusetts State House, Boston New South Church Old State House Maine State House St. Stephen's Church Superior
Hans Philipp Werner, Freiherr von und zu Aufseß was a German baron and founder of the Germanisches Museum in Nuremberg. Born at Castle Unteraufseß into the Aufseß noble family, he studied law at Erlangen and was employed at the courts at Bayreuth and Gräfenberg, he received his doctorate in law in 1822 and left public service, dedicating himself to the administration of the family estate and to the study of German antiquity. He accumulated a substantial art collection, his genealogical research into his family's history was published in 1838. His antiquarian studies were influenced by the ideals of Romanticism and nascent German nationalism of the time. From 1832, he co-edited the journal Anzeiger für Kunde der deutschen Vorzeit. From 1846, von Aufseß dedicated himself to the creation of a museum for German antiquity, he moved to Nuremberg in 1848 and worked towards this goal for a number of years, leading up to the foundation of the Germanic Museum in 1852, for which he served as director until 1862.
At this point he spent his final years on an estate in Kressbronn am Bodensee. He died in Münsterlingen, succumbing to injuries he received from a mob of angry students when he visited the opening ceremony of Strasbourg University due to a case of mistaken identity, being taken for a "Francophile". A great-nephew, Hans Max von Aufseß known as Baron von Aufsess, was Chief Civil Administrator of Jersey, during the German occupation of the Channel Islands (1942–1945. Georg Lochner, "Aufseß, Hans Freiherr von und zu", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 1, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 655–658 Heinz Gollwitzer, "Aufseß, Hans Philipp Werner von", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 1, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 444–444 Aufseß, Freiherr von und zu. article in: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4. Aufl. 1888–1890, Bd. 2, S. 66 f. Hans Max von Aufseß: Des Reiches erster Konservator. Hans von Aufseß, der Gründer des Germanischen Nationalmuseums, 7. 9. 1801–1806. 5. 1872. Erlangen: Fränkische Bibliophilengesellschaft, 1971.
Bernward Deneke und Rainer Kahsnitz: Das Germanische Nationalmuseum. Nürnberg 1852–1977. Beiträge zu seiner Geschichte, München/Berlin 1978. Media related to Hans von und zu Aufseß at Wikimedia Commons
Sodium bromate, the inorganic compound with the chemical formula of NaBrO3, is the sodium salt of bromic acid. It is a strong oxidant. Sodium bromate is used in continuous or batch dyeing processes involving sulfur or vat dyes and as a hair-permagent, chemical agent, or gold solvent in gold mines when used with sodium bromide. Sodium bromate is produced by passing bromine into a solution of sodium carbonate, it may be produced by the electrolytic oxidation of sodium bromide. Alternatively, it can be created by the oxidation of bromine with chlorine to sodium hydroxide at 80 °C. Bromate in drinking water is undesirable, its presence in Coca-Cola's Dasani bottled water forced a recall of that product in the UK. Sodium Bromate MSDS