click links in text for more info

Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning

Charles John Canning, 1st Earl Canning known as The Viscount Canning and Clemency Canning was an English statesman and Governor-General of India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the first Viceroy of India after the transfer of power from the East India Company to the Crown of Queen Victoria in 1858 after the rebellion was crushed. Canning is credited for ensuring that the administration and most departments of the government functioned during the rebellion and took major administrative decisions when peak of the Rebellion in 1857 including establishing of the first three modern Universities in India, the University of Calcutta, University of Madras and University of Bombay based on Wood's despatch. Canning passed the Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856, drafted by his predecessor Lord Dalhousie before the rebellion. After the rebellion he presided over a smooth transfer and reorganisation of government from the East India company to the crown, the Indian Penal Code was drafted in 1860 based on the code drafted by Macaulay and came into force in 1862.

Canning met the rebellion'"with firmness, confidence and calm" as per his biographer. Canning was firm during the rebellion but after that he focused on reconciliation and reconstruction rather than retribution and issued a clemency proclamation. Born at Gloucester Lodge, near London, Canning was the youngest child of George Canning and Joan, Viscountess Canning, daughter of Major-General John Scott, he was educated at Christ Church, where he graduated B. A. in 1833, as first class in classics and second class in mathematics. In 1836 he entered Parliament, being returned as member for the town of Warwick in the Conservative interest, he did not, sit long in the House of Commons. His first official appointment was that of Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, in the administration formed by Sir Robert Peel in 1841, his chief being the Earl of Aberdeen; this post he held till January 1846. He served on the Royal Commission on the British Museum, he declined to accept office under the Earl of Derby.

In this office, he showed not only a large capacity for hard work but general administrative ability and much zeal for the improvement of the service. He retained his post under Lord Palmerston's ministry until July 1855, when, in consequence of the departure of Lord Dalhousie and a vacancy in the governor-generalship of India, he was selected by Lord Palmerston to succeed to that great position; this appointment appears to have been made rather on the ground of his father's great services than from any proof as yet given of special personal fitness on the part of Lord Canning. The new governor sailed from England in December 1855 and entered upon the duties of his office in India at the close of February 1856. In the year following his accession to office, the deep-seated discontent of the people broke out in the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fears were entertained, the friends of the Governor-General to some extent shared them, that he was not equal to the crisis, but the fears proved groundless.

He had a clear eye for the gravity of the situation, a calm judgment, a prompt, swift hand to do what was necessary. He carried the Indian empire safely through the stress of the storm, what was a harder task still, he dealt wisely with the enormous difficulties arising at the close of such a war; the name of Clemency Canning, applied to him during the heated animosities of the moment, has since become a title of honour. He was derisively called "Clemency" on account of a Resolution dated 31 July 1857, which distinguished between sepoys from regiments which had mutinied and killed their officers and European civilians, those Indian soldiers who had disbanded and dispersed to their villages, without being involved in violence. While subsequently regarded as a humane and sensible measure, the Resolution made Canning unpopular at a time when British popular opinion favoured collective and indiscriminate reprisals. While rebellion was raging in Oudh he issued a proclamation declaring the lands of the province forfeited, this step gave rise to much angry controversy.

A secret despatch, couched in arrogant and offensive terms, was addressed to Canning by Lord Ellenborough a member of the Derby administration, which would have justified the Governor-General in resigning. But from a strong sense of duty, he continued at his post, ere long the general condemnation of the despatch was so strong that the writer felt it necessary to retire from office. Lord Canning replied to the despatch, calmly and in a statesman-like manner explaining and vindicating his censured policy, in 1858 he was rewarded by being made the first Viceroy of India. In April 1859 he received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament for his great services during the rebellion, he was made an extra civil grand cross of the Order of the Bath, in May of the same year he was raised to the dignity of an Earl, as Earl Canning. By the strain of anxiety and hard work his health and strength were impaired, while the death of his wife was a great shock to him, but it was too late. He died in London on 17 June.

About a month before his death he was created a

1946 Humboldt State Lumberjacks football team

The 1946 Humboldt State Lumberjacks football team represented Humboldt State College during the 1946 college football season. This was the first team Humboldt State fielded since 1941, they became a member of the Far Western Conference as of the 1946 season. Prior to World War II they had competed as an Independent; the 1946 Lumberjacks were led by head coach Joseph Forbes in his first year as coach at Humboldt State. They played home games at Albee Stadium in Eureka and the Redwood Bowl in Arcata, California. Humboldt State finished with a record of three losses and one tie; the Lumberjacks outscored their opponents 84–70 for the season. No Humboldt State players were selected in the 1947 NFL Draft

Aars Church

Aars Church is a Lutheran church in Aars, Vesthimmerland municipality, North Denmark Region, Denmark. The original church on the site, the church of the mediaeval Aars parish, was a Romanesque granite building dating from the first half of the 13th century. By the 20th century the town of Aars which had grown up round it was much larger and it was necessary to expand it. In 1921 it was extensively re-built on a cruciform plan. At the same time it was painted white; the baptismal font was made by Christian Andersen in 1937 from a re-cycled steam roller. The church contains a large 18th-century crucifix and an altarpiece by Rudolf Petersen dated 1923 representing the Lord's Supper; the top of the communion table is a tombstone of blue slate. The churchyard contains a runestone. Aars Church website

Nawshirwan Mustafa

Nawshirwan Mustafa was an Iraqi Kurdish politician who served as the General Coordinator of the Movement for Change and the leader of the opposition in the Kurdistan Region from 1 April 2009 to his death on 19 May 2017. Nawshirwan Mustafa was born on 22 December 1944 in the old quarter of Sulaymaniyah, the son of Mustafa Émin Khider. Sulaymaniyah has been home to the Mustafa Émin Khider family since the city was established in 1784. Unlike Kurdistan's other prominent political leaders Masoud Barzani and Jalal Talabani, Mustafa hails from a city, not a village, is not a member of a tribe. Mustafa attended the Royal King Faisal school in Sulaymaniyah and was taught foreign languages by private tutors at an early age, he went on to study political science at Baghdad University and international law at Vienna University. He spoke German, English and Persian. Mustafa joined KDP in 1960, he allied himself with Barzani's opponents in the politburo and resigned from the party before the KDP split. Mustafa published the Razgari magazine in 1968, which represented the views of nationalists calling for greater autonomy for Kurds.

Mustafa was Secretary General of the clandestine Komalai Ranjdaran known as Revolutionary Organization of Toilers of Kurdistan or Kurdistan Toilers League which he founded in 1969 until it was dissolved into the PUK in 1992. Komala was influenced by Marxism -- Maoism. In 1970 Mustafa was sentenced to death by the Revolutionary Court in Baghdad; as a result, he went into exile in Austria. PUK represented three different movements: the “Green Line”, consisting of Talabani's personal followers, the Marxist–Leninist Komala, the Socialist Movement of Kurdistan, the most influential of these groups was Mustafa's Komala Randjaran. During the late 1970s through the early'90s, Mustafa was the commander in chief of Peshmerga forces, conducting a guerrilla war against the Iraqi Ba'athist army and government. After inflicting serious damage on the better equipped Iraqi army, the Ba'athist government turned to chemical warfare. Using biological weapons such as nerve gas and mustard gas, Saddam Hussein initiated the Anfal Campaign in early 1987, with sustained use of chemical weapons and the mass genocide of hundreds of thousands of Kurdish civilians.

In 1988, with Talabani and the leadership of PUK, decided to initiate a tactical retreat to the Iranian border in the hope that Saddam would end the Anfal Campaign. Over the course of the next three years, Mustafa oversaw the reorganisation of the Peshmerga Forces whilst creating sleeper cells within the major Iraqi Kurdish cities of As-Sulaymaniyah, Arbil and Kirkuk. During this period, Mustafa made plans for a popular uprising, which would be initiated by the sleeper cells, supported by the newly organised Peshmerga battalions which were placed along the Iraqi/Iranian border. In the spring of 1991, initiated his plan and on 7 March the town of Rania was liberated from Iraqi forces. Mustafa oversaw and conducted the operation, which resulted in the liberation of all the major cities, ending with the liberation of Kirkuk on 21 March 1991. Mustafa is known as the architect of the uprising because he oversaw the liberation of Kurdistan of Iraq for the first time since the creation of the state of Iraq.

This subsequent autonomy has led to the current Kurdistan Regional government, an autonomous region in Northern Iraq. In the 1980s, he had the primary role in the PUK's numerous attacks on the communist groups. In 1983, Mustafa led the PUK forces to attack the Communist Party of Iraq's main base in the village Piştaşan, killing 150 communists. In July 2000, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan attacked the bases of Worker-communist Party and organizations close to it. During the attacks five were killed and some injured hundreds of party members were arrested. In 2011 Worker-communist Party of Kurdistan filed a lawsuit against Nawshirwan Mustafa and four other PUK senior members at that time as the responsible for the attacks. Mustafa has had a long history of pushing for free media in the region. In an interview with the London-based Asharq Al-Awsat on 31 May 2003, he stated Iraq and Kurdistan need to "enact news laws that live up to the spirit of the age and are in line with the principles of human rights and civil society."

In March 2007, Mustafa established the Wusha Corporation in Sulaimaniyah. When asked why he had established such a vast media outlet, he stated, "We have attempted to change Kurdish politics from the inside, now let us attempt it from the outside."He established the Wusha Corporation which consisted of, Kurdish News Network, TV news channel, weekly newspaper,, news website, Dangi Gorran, Kurdish–Arabic radio station. The company's newspaper, Rozhnama criticized Jalal Talabani for deciding in March 2008 to sack party members from the PUK for speaking out against politicians in the press. Mustafa founded Gorran in 2009 and was its leader until 2017. Mustafa in 2011 called for holding new elections, dissolution of the Kurdistan regional government, dissolution of parliament, separating the armed forces from politics and returning illegally acquired wealth by parties and individuals to the people. Mustafa challenged not only Talabanis but Barzanis, by describing them as outmoded tribal leaders and that they run the Kurdistan Region along the same dictatorial lines of an ex-Soviet republic and is, in effect, a one-party state in control of every aspect of life.

Both Barzanis and Talabanis stood accused by Mustafa of turning the regional government into a family business and enriching members of their own families, close associates, party members and alienating nonpartisan Kurds

Sputnik Caledonia

Sputnik Caledonia is a novel by Andrew Crumey, for which he won the Northern Rock Foundation Writer’s Award. It depicts a Scottish boy who longs to be a spaceman, is transported to a parallel communist Scotland where he takes part in a space mission to a black hole, returns to the real world in middle age as a ghost; the novel is in three “Books”, with the central one being longest, predominantly serious in tone, while the outer sections are shorter and more humorous. The title refers to the Russian Sputnik program and the alternative name for Scotland, suggesting the idea of Scotland as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Book OneRobbie Coyle, nine years old at the start of the book, lives in Kenzie in Scotland’s Central Belt in the early 1970s, he dreams of going into space. He picks up an Eastern European radio station called Voice of the Red Star, imagines it to be a telepathic signal from another planet, begs to be taken there. Book TwoNineteen-year-old Robert Coyle lives in the British Democratic Republic – a Communist state founded after the overthrow of Nazi occupation in the “Great Patriotic War” – and has arrived at the Installation, a secret military base in Scotland, to take part in a space mission.

A strange new object has been detected in the solar system, believed to be a black hole, the volunteers are to explore it telepathically. Robert has confused memories of the time before his arrival, the reader is left guessing the connection between Books One and Two; the Robbie of Book One has been transported to the other world as he wished. The Installation itself is like a “black hole” in the sense that people arrive from the outside, but nobody seems to leave - except in death. Book ThreeIn a present-day recognisable reality, Robbie’s parents from Book One are now pensioners, their story alternates with that of “the kid”, a runaway 13-year-old obsessed with science fiction stories such as Doctor Who, with the idea that “in an infinite universe everything is possible”. He meets a middle aged man; the stranger could be the parallel-world Robert grown older - or a terrorist engaged in identity theft. Resisting logical resolution, the novel reprises and reworks themes that have recurred throughout the course of the book, creating an aesthetic unity, ambivalent: a juxtaposition of the comic tone of Book One with the dark pessimism of Book Two.

Telegraph Observer Times Scotland On Sunday Guardian New Statesman Spectator Sunday Telegraph Independent on Sunday Scotsman Andrew Crumey's website

Mangal (barbecue)

Mangal is a Middle Eastern barbecue—both the event and the grilling apparatus itself. The word mangal is derived from the Arabic word manqal meaning "portable" and referred to portable indoors heaters replaced by Western-type stoves. A mangal is used to grill various cuts of meat, such as steak, kebab, chicken wings and chicken breasts. Roasted vegetables and other cold foods accompany the meal. In Turkey, şalgam or ayran are common drinks during mangal parties as well as rakı. Mangal refers to the social gathering of family or friends in gardens or picnic areas, similar to the South African braai. In Israel, holding a mangal is traditional on Israel Independence Day and the intermediate days of Passover; the Independence Day Barbecue, More than American Tradition