Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world of its languages and literature but of Greco-Roman philosophy and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a fundamental element of a rounded education; the study of classics has therefore traditionally been a cornerstone of a typical elite education. Study encompasses a time-period of history from the mid-2nd millennium BC to the 6th century AD; the word classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning "belonging to the highest class of citizens". The word was used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality. For example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts "classicus" and "proletarius" writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a second meaning.
Thus the two modern meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum, both derive from Roman use. In the Middle Ages and education were intertwined. Medieval education taught students to imitate earlier classical models, Latin continued to be the language of scholarship and culture, despite the increasing difference between literary Latin and the vernacular languages of Europe during the period. While Latin was hugely influential, Greek was studied, Greek literature survived solely in Latin translation; the works of major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century, the English philosopher Roger Bacon wrote that "there are not four men in Latin Christendom who are acquainted with the Greek and Arabic grammars."Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were other differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages.
Catullus, for instance, was entirely unknown in the medieval period. The popularity of different authors waxed and waned throughout the period: Lucretius, popular during the Carolingian period, was read in the twelfth century, while for Quintilian the reverse is true; the Renaissance led to the increasing study of both ancient literature and ancient history, as well as a revival of classical styles of Latin. From the 14th century, first in Italy and increasingly across Europe, Renaissance Humanism, an intellectual movement that "advocated the study and imitation of classical antiquity", developed. Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western Europe; this reintroduction was initiated by Petrarch and Boccaccio who commissioned a Calabrian scholar to translate the Homeric poems. This humanist educational reform spread from Italy, in Catholic countries as it was adopted by the Jesuits, in countries that became Protestant such as England and the Low Countries, in order to ensure that future clerics were able to study the New Testament in the original language.
The late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history, most associated with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models. Classical models were so prized that the plays of William Shakespeare were rewritten along neoclassical lines, these "improved" versions were performed throughout the 18th century. From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became important relative to that of Latin. In this period Johann Winckelmann's claims for the superiority of the Greek visual arts influenced a shift in aesthetic judgements, while in the literary sphere, G. E. Lessing "returned Homer to the centre of artistic achievement". In the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century; the poet Walter Savage Landor claimed to have been one of the first English schoolboys to write in Greek during his time at Rugby School. The 19th century saw the influence of the classical world, the value of a classical education, decline in the US, where the subject was criticised for its elitism.
By the 19th century, little new literature was still being written in Latin – a practice which had continued as late as the 18th century – and a command of Latin declined in importance. Correspondingly, classical education from the 19th century onwards began to de-emphasise the importance of the ability to write and speak Latin. In the United Kingdom this process took longer than elsewhere. Composition continued to be the dominant classical skill in England until the 1870s, when new areas within the discipline began to increase in popularity. In the same decade came the first challenges to the requirement of Greek at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, though it would not be abolished for another 50 years. Though the influence of classics as the dominant mode of education in Europe and North America was in decline in the 19th century, the discipline was evolving in the same period. Classical scholarship was becoming more systematic and scientific with the "new philology" created at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century.
Its scope was broadening: it was during the 19th century that ancient history and classical archaeology began to be s
The Peelites were a breakaway dissident political faction of the British Conservative Party from 1846 to 1859 who joined with the Whigs and Radicals to form the Liberal Party. They were led by Robert Peel, Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader in 1846; the Peelites were characterised by commitment to free trade and a managerial technocratic, approach to government. Though they sought to maintain the principles of the Conservative Party, Peelites disagreed with the major wing of that party on issues of trade, in particular the issue of whether agricultural prices should be artificially kept high by tariffs; the Peelites were called the Liberal Conservatives in contrast to Protectionist Conservatives led by Benjamin Disraeli and Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby. Facing a serious famine in Ireland in 1845, the Peelites sought to lower food prices by repealing the Corn Laws, he was able to carry the repeal vote in the House of Commons, but only at the price of splitting the Conservative Party, a split which led to the fall of Peel's government in June 1846 and its replacement by a Whig government led by John Russell, 1st Earl Russell.
The leading members of the Peelite faction that developed after the 1846 split of the Conservative Party were the following: The Peelites numbered about a third of the old Conservative party following the 1847 general election. Their main political positions at that time were closer to the Protectionist Conservatives than to the Whigs and Radicals in parliament, except on the issue of free trade; the split had been so bitter on a personal level, with attacks on Peel by Protectionist Conservatives such as Lord George Bentinck and Benjamin Disraeli, that the Conservative Party was unable to reconcile the Peelites after the Conservatives abandoned protection in 1852. The Peelites had their own newspaper The Morning Chronicle to highlight their political position. After Peel's death in 1850, the Peelite faction was led by Sir James Lord Aberdeen. In the 1852 general election, the number of Peelites was estimated at around 40. In that same year, George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen was invited by Queen Victoria to form a coalition government with the Whigs and the Radicals.
This government fell in 1855 as a result of the unpopularity of its hesitant attitude during the Crimean War. After the fall of the Aberdeen government, the Peelite faction took most of the blame for their management of the war in the Crimea; the party further lost cohesion with some members including William Ewart Gladstone, Sir James Graham, 2nd Baronet and Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Lea accepting cabinet posts in the new government led by Viscount Palmerston only to resign a few weeks when the government agreed to hold a commission on the conduct of the recent war. Others stayed, including George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll and Stratford Canning, 1st Viscount Stratford de Redcliffe after which the Peelites with now no agreed overall leader appeared to be a band of independents rather than a political faction. In the 1857 general election, their numbers further decreased to around 26, or maybe less than 20 as identifying, and, not a Peelite became difficult); the Peelites disappeared as a distinctive political faction when they agreed to combine with the Whigs, the Radicals and the Independent Irish Party Members of the United Kingdom Parliament to bring down the Conservative government of Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby in 1859.
The subsequent creation of Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston's ministry out of this combination was the birth of the British Liberal Party. Several leading Peelites accepted cabinet posts in this ministry, though some Peelites became independents or returned to the Conservatives. Jones, Wilbur Devereux. Erickson; the Peelites 1846-1857. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University
Governor-General of India
The Governor-General of India was the head of British India and after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William; the officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India". In 1858, as a consequence of the Indian Mutiny the previous year, the territories and assets of the East India Company came under the direct control of the British Crown; the Governor-General headed the central government of India, which administered the provinces of British India, including the Punjab, Bombay, the United Provinces, others. However, much of India was not ruled directly by the British Government. From 1858, to reflect the Governor-General's new additional role as the Monarch's representative in re the fealty relationships vis the princely states, the additional title of Viceroy was granted, such that the new office was entitled Viceroy and Governor-General of India.
This was shortened to Viceroy of India. The title of Viceroy was abandoned when British India split into the two independent dominions of India and Pakistan, but the office of Governor-General continued to exist in each country separately—until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1956, respectively; until 1858, the Governor-General was selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, to whom he was responsible. Thereafter, he was appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the British Government. After 1947, the Sovereign continued to appoint the Governor-General, but thereafter did so on the advice of the newly-sovereign Indian Government. Governors-General served at the pleasure of the Sovereign, though the practice was to have them serve five-year terms. Governors-General could have their commission rescinded; the first Governor-General of British India was Lord William Bentinck, the first Governor-General of independent India was Louis, Lord Mountbatten. Many parts of the Indian subcontinent were governed by the East India Company, which nominally acted as the agent of the Mughal Emperor.
In 1773, motivated by corruption in the Company, the British government assumed partial control over the governance of India with the passage of the Regulating Act of 1773. A Governor-General and Supreme Council of Bengal were appointed to rule over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal; the first Governor-General and Council were named in the Act. The Charter Act 1833 replaced the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with the Governor-General and Council of India; the power to elect the Governor-General was retained by the Court of Directors, but the choice became subject to the Sovereign's approval. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the East India Company's territories in India were put under the direct control of the Sovereign; the Government of India Act 1858 vested the power to appoint the Governor-General in the Sovereign. The Governor-General, in turn, had the power to appoint all lieutenant governors in India, subject to the Sovereign's approval. India and Pakistan acquired independence in 1947, but Governors-General continued to be appointed over each nation until republican constitutions were written.
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma remained Governor-General of India for some time after independence, but the two nations were otherwise headed by native Governors-General. India became a secular republic in 1950; the Governor-General had power only over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The Regulating Act, granted them additional powers relating to foreign affairs and defence; the other Presidencies of the East India Company were not allowed to declare war on or make peace with an Indian prince without receiving the prior approval of the Governor-General and Council of Fort William. The powers of the Governor-General, in respect of foreign affairs, were increased by the India Act 1784; the Act provided that the other Governors under the East India Company could not declare war, make peace or conclude a treaty with an Indian prince unless expressly directed to do so by the Governor-General or by the Company's Court of Directors. While the Governor-General thus became the controller of foreign policy in India, he was not the explicit head of British India.
That status came only with the Charter Act 1833, which granted him "superintendence and control of the whole civil and military Government" of all of British India. The Act granted legislative powers to the Governor-General and Council. After 1858, the Governor-General functioned as the chief administrator of India and as the Sovereign's representative. India was divided into numerous provinces, each under the head of a governor, Lieutenant Governor or Chief Commissioner or Administ
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
James Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie
James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie, styled Lord Ramsay until 1838 and known as The Earl of Dalhousie between 1838 and 1849, was a Scottish statesman and colonial administrator in British India. He served as Governor-General of India from 1848 to 1856, he is credited with introducing passenger trains in railways, electric telegraph and uniform postage in India which he describes as the "three great engines of social improvement". He founded Public Works Department in India. To his supporters he stands out as the far-sighted Governor-General who consolidated East India Company rule in India, laid the foundations of its administration, by his sound policy enabled his successors to stem the tide of rebellion. To his critics, he stands out as the destroyer of both the East India Company's financial and military position through reckless policies, his critics hold that he laid the foundations of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and led the final transformation of profitable commercial operations in India into a money-losing colonial administration.
His period of rule in India directly preceded the transformation into the Victorian Raj period of Indian administration. He was denounced by many in Britain on the eve of his death as having failed to notice the signs of the brewing Indian Rebellion of 1857, having aggravated the crisis by his overbearing self-confidence, centralizing activity and expansive annexations. James Andrew Broun-Ramsay was the third and youngest son of George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie, one of Wellington's generals, after being Governor General of Canada, became Commander-in-Chief in India, of his wife, Christian of Colstoun, Haddingtonshire; the 9th Earl was in 1815 created Baron Dalhousie of Dalhousie Castle in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, had three sons, of whom the two elder died young. James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, his youngest son, was described as small in stature, with a firm chiseled mouth and high forehead. Several years of his early boyhood were spent with his mother in Canada. Returning to Scotland he was prepared for Harrow School, where he entered in 1825.
Two years he and another student, Robert Adair, were expelled after bullying George Rushout, nephew of John Rushout, 2nd Baron Northwick. The two boys dunked Rushout in water for 30 minutes, leaving him ill, he nearly died, thanks to lackluster medical response from the school, whose headmaster claimed his illness was blamed on constipation. His uncle intervened, the two boys were forced to leave school. George Rushout did not return, until 33 years when, having succeeded his uncle as the 3rd Baron Northwick, he became headmaster; until he entered university, Dalhousie's entire education being entrusted to the Rev. Mr Temple, incumbent of a quiet parish in Staffordshire. In October 1829, he passed on to Christ Church, where he worked hard, won some distinction, made many lifelong friends, his studies, were so interrupted by the protracted illness and death in 1832 of his only surviving brother, that Lord Ramsay, as he became, had to content himself with entering for a pass degree, though he was placed in fourth class of honours for Michaelmas 1833.
He travelled in Italy and Switzerland, enriching with copious entries the diary which he religiously kept up through life, storing his mind with valuable observations. An unsuccessful but courageous contest at the general election in 1835 for one of the seats in parliament for Edinburgh, fought against such veterans as the future speaker, James Abercrombie, afterwards Lord Dunfermline, John Campbell, future lord chancellor, was followed in 1837 by Ramsay's return to the House of Commons as member for Haddingtonshire. In the previous year he had married Lady Susan Hay, daughter of the Marquess of Tweeddale, whose companionship was his chief support in India, whose death in 1853 left him a heartbroken man. In 1838 his father had died after a long illness, while less than a year he lost his mother. Succeeding to the peerage, the new earl soon made his mark in a speech delivered on 16 June 1840 in support of Lord Aberdeen's Church of Scotland Benefices Bill, a controversy arising out of the Auchterarder case, in which he had taken part in the General Assembly in opposition to Dr Chalmers.
In May 1843 he became Vice-President of the Board of Trade, Gladstone being President, was sworn in as a privy counsellor. He was given the honorary post of Captain of Deal Castle the same year. Succeeding Gladstone as President of the Board of Trade in 1845, he threw himself into the work during the crisis of the Railway Mania with such energy that his health broke down under the strain. In the struggle over the Corn Laws he ranged himself on the side of Sir Robert Peel, after the failure of Lord John Russell to form a ministry he resumed his post at the board of trade, entering the cabinet on the retirement of Lord Stanley; when Peel resigned office in June 1846, Lord John offered Dalhousie a seat in the cabinet, an offer which he declined from a fear that acceptance might involve the loss of public character. Another attempt to secure his politics; as Governor-General of India and Governor of Bengal on 12 January 1848, shortly afterwards he was honoured with the green ribbon of the Order of the Thistle.
During this period, he was said to be an hard worker working sixteen to eighteen hours a day. The shortest workday Dalhousie would take began at half-past eight and would continue until half-past five, remaining at his desk during lunch. During this period, he sought to expand the reach of the empire and ride long distances on horseback, in spite of having a bad back. In con
Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head. Founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII, it is one of the larger colleges of the University of Oxford with 629 students in 2016, it is the second wealthiest college with an endowment of £550m as of 2018. Christ Church has a number of architecturally significant buildings including Tom Tower, Tom Quad, the Great Dining Hall, the seat of the parliament assembled by King Charles I during the English Civil War; the buildings have inspired replicas throughout the world in addition to being featured in films such as Harry Potter and The Golden Compass. This has helped Christ Church become the most popular Oxford college for tourists with half a million visitors annually. Christ Church has many notable alumni including thirteen British prime ministers, King Edward VII, King William II of the Netherlands, seventeen Archbishops, writers Lewis Carroll and W.
H. Auden, philosopher John Locke, scientist Robert Hooke. Christ Church is partly responsible for the creation of University College Reading, which gained its own Royal Charter and became the University of Reading; the first female undergraduates matriculated at Christ Church in 1980. In 1525, at the height of his power, Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal Archbishop of York, suppressed the Priory of St Frideswide in Oxford and founded Cardinal College on its lands, using funds from the dissolution of Wallingford Priory and other minor priories, he planned the establishment on a magnificent scale, but fell from grace in 1529, with the buildings only three-quarters complete, as they were to remain for 140 years. In 1531 the college was itself suppressed, but it was refounded in 1532 as King Henry VIII's College by Henry VIII, to whom Wolsey's property had escheated. In 1546 the King, who had broken from the Church of Rome and acquired great wealth through the dissolution of the monasteries in England, refounded the college as Christ Church as part of the reorganisation of the Church of England, making the demolished priory church the cathedral of the created Diocese of Oxford.
Christ Church's sister college in the University of Cambridge is Trinity College, founded the same year by Henry VIII. Since the time of Queen Elizabeth I the college has been associated with Westminster School; the dean remains to ex officio member of the school's governing body. Major additions have been made to the buildings through the centuries, Wolsey's Great Quadrangle was crowned with the famous gate-tower designed by Sir Christopher Wren. To this day the bell in the tower, Great Tom, is rung 101 times at 9 pm at the former Oxford time every night, for the 100 original scholars of the college. In former times this was done at midnight, signalling the close of all college gates throughout Oxford. Since it took 20 minutes to ring the 101, Christ Church gates, unlike those of other colleges, did not close until 12:20; when the ringing was moved back to 9:00 pm, Christ Church gates still remained open until 12.20, 20 minutes than any other college. Although the clock itself now shows GMT/BST, Christ Church still follows Oxford time in the timings of services in the cathedral.
King Charles I made the Deanery his palace and held his Parliament in the Great Hall during the English Civil War. In the evening of 29 May 1645, during the second siege of Oxford, a "bullet of IX lb. weight" shot from the Parliamentarians warning-piece at Marston fell against the wall of the north side of the Hall. Several of Christ Church's deans achieved high academic distinction, notably Owen under the Commonwealth and Fell in the Restoration period and Gaisford in the early 19th century and Liddell in the high Victorian era. For over four centuries Christ Church admitted men only. Christ Church, formally titled "The Dean and Students of the Cathedral Church of Christ in Oxford of the Foundation of King Henry the Eighth", is the only academic institution in the world, a cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Oxford; the Visitor of Christ Church is the reigning British sovereign, the Bishop of Oxford is unique among English bishops in not being the Visitor of his own cathedral. The head of the college is the Dean of Christ Church, an Anglican cleric appointed by the crown as dean of the cathedral church.
There are a senior and a junior censor the former of whom is responsible for academic matters, the latter for undergraduate discipline. A censor theologiae is appointed to act as the dean's deputy; the form "Christ Church College" is considered incorrect, in part because it ignores the cathedral, an integral part of the unique dual foundation. The governing body of Christ Church consists of the dean and chapter of the cathedral, together with the "Students of Christ Church", who are not junior members but rather the equivalent of the fellows of the other colleges; until the 19th century, the students differed from fellows in that they had no governing powers in their own college, these residing with the dean and chapter. Christ Church si