A loading gauge defines the maximum height and width for railway vehicles and their loads to ensure safe passage through bridges and other structures. Classification systems vary between different countries and gauges may vary across a network if the track gauge remains constant; the loading gauge limits the size of passenger carriages, goods wagons and shipping containers that can be conveyed on a section of railway line. It varies across the world and within a single railway system. Over time there has been more standardization of gauges. Containerisation and a trend towards larger shipping containers has led rail companies to increase structure gauges to compete with road haulage; the term "loading gauge" can refer to a physical structure, sometimes using electronic detectors using light beams on an arm or gantry placed over the exit lines of goods yards or at the entry point to a restricted part of a network. The devices ensure that loads stacked on open or flat wagons stay within the height/shape limits of the line's bridges and tunnels, prevent out-of-gauge rolling stock entering a stretch of line with a smaller loading gauge.
Compliance with a loading gauge can be checked with a clearance car. In the past, these were physical feelers mounted on rolling stock. More lasers are used; the loading gauge is the maximum size of rolling stock. This is distinct from the structure gauge, the minimum size of bridges and tunnels, must be larger to allow for engineering tolerances and car motion; the difference between the two is called the clearance. The terms "dynamic envelope" or "kinematic envelope" – which include factors such as suspension travel, overhang on curves and lateral motion on the track – are sometimes used in place of loading gauge; the height of platforms is a consideration for the loading gauge of passenger trains. Where the two are not directly compatible, stairs may be required, which will increase loading times. Where long carriages are used at a curved platform, there will be gaps between the platform and the carriage door, causing risk. Problems increase where trains of several different loading gauges and train floor heights use the same platform.
The size of load that can be carried on a railway of a particular gauge is influenced by the design of the rolling stock. Low-deck rolling stock can sometimes be used to carry taller 9 ft 6 in shipping containers on lower gauge lines although their low-deck rolling stock cannot carry as many containers. Larger out-of-gauge loads can sometimes be conveyed by taking one or more of the following measures: Operate at low speed in places with limited clearance, such as platforms. Cross over from a track with inadequate clearance to another track with greater clearance if there is no signalling to allow this. Prevent operation of other trains on adjacent tracks. Use refuge loops to allow trains to operate on other tracks. Use of Schnabel cars that manipulate the load up and down or left and right to clear obstacles. Remove obstacles. Use gauntlet track to shift the train to center. For locomotives that are too heavy, ensure that fuel tanks are nearly empty. Turn off power in overhead wiring or in the third rail.
Rapid Transit railways have a small loading gauge, which reduces the cost of tunnel construction. These systems only use their own specialised rolling stock; the loading gauge on the main lines of Great Britain, most of which were built before 1900, is smaller than in other countries. In mainland Europe, the larger Berne gauge was agreed to in 1913 and came into force in 1914; as a result, British trains have noticeably and smaller loading gauges and smaller interiors, despite the track being standard gauge along with much of the world. This results in increased costs for purchasing trains as they must be designed for the British network, rather than being purchased "off-the-shelf". For example, the new trains for HS2 have a 50% premium applied to the "classic compatible" sets that will be able to run on the rest of the network, meaning they will cost £40 million each rather than £27 million for the captive stock, despite the captive stock being larger; the International Union of Railways has developed a standard series of loading gauges named A, B, B+ and C.
PPI – the predecessor of the UIC gauges had the maximum dimensions 3.15 by 4.28 m with an round roof top. UIC A: The smallest. Maximum dimensions 3.15 by 4.32 m. UIC B: Most of the high-speed TGV tracks in France are built to UIC B. Maximum dimensions 3.15 by 4.32 m. UIC B+: New structures in France are being built to UIC B+. Up to 4.28 m it features a width of 2.50 m to accommodate ISO containers. UIC C: The Central European gauge. In Germany and other central European countries, the railway systems are built to UIC C gauges, sometimes with an increment in the width, allowing Scandinavian trains to reach German stations directly built for Soviet freight cars. Maximum dimensions 3.15 by 4.65 m. In the European Union, the UIC directives were supplanted by ERA Technical Specifications for Interoperability of European Union in 2002, which has def
Swindon railway works was opened by the Great Western Railway in 1843 in Swindon, England. It served as the principal west England maintenance centre until closed in 1986. In 1835 Parliament approved the construction of the Great Western Main Line between London and Bristol by the Great Western Railway, its Chief Engineer was Isambard Kingdom Brunel. From 1836, Brunel had been buying locomotives from various makers for the new railway. Brunel's general specifications gave the locomotive makers a free hand in design, although subject to certain constraints such as piston speed and axle load, resulting in a diverse range of locomotives of mixed quality. In 1837, Brunel recruited Daniel Gooch and gave him the job of rectifying the heavy repair burden of the GWR's mixed bag of purchased locomotives, it became clear that the GWR needed a central repair works so, in 1840 Gooch identified a site at Swindon because it was at the junction of the Golden Valley line and a "convenient division of the Great Western line for engine working".
With Brunel's support, Gooch made his proposal to the GWR directors, who, on 25 February 1841, authorised the establishment of the works at Swindon. Construction started and they became operational on 2 January 1843. There are several stories relating to. A well-circulated myth that Brunel and Gooch were surveying a vale north of Swindon Hill and Brunel either threw a stone or dropped a sandwich and declared that spot to be the centre of the works; however Swindon's midway point between GWR terminals and the topography of land near the town were more factors. The GWR mainline was planned to cut through Savernake Forest near Marlborough, but the Marquess of Ailesbury, who owned the land, objected; the Marquess had objected to part of the Kennet & Avon Canal running through his estate. With the railway needing to run near to a canal at this point, as it was cheaper to transport coal for trains along canals at this time, Swindon was the next logical choice for the works, 20 miles north of the original route.
The line was laid in 1840. Tracks were laid at Didcot in 1839 and for some time this seemed a more site. Gooch noted that the nearby Wilts & Berks Canal gave Swindon a direct connection with the Somerset coalfield, he realised that engines needed to be changed at Swindon or close by as the gradients from Swindon to Bristol were much more arduous than the easy gradients between London and Swindon. Drawing water for the engines from the canals was considered, an agreement to this effect was completed in 1843. Gooch recorded at the time: Once the plan was set for the railway to come to Swindon, it was at first intended to bring it along the foot of Swindon Hill, so as to be as close as possible to the town without entailing the excessive engineering works of building on the hill. However, the Goddard family, following the example the Marquess of Ailesbury, objected to having it near their property, so it was laid a couple of miles further north. With many of the early structures built and adorned by stone extracted from the construction of Box Tunnel, the first building the locomotive repair shed, was completed in 1841 using contract labour, with the necessary machinery installed within it by 1842.
Only employing 200 men, repairs began in 1843, with the first new locomotive, the "Premier", built in 1846 in under two weeks and renamed "Great Western". This was followed by six more, with the Iron Dukes, including The Lord of the Isles, considered the fastest broad-gauge engine of its day. By 1851 the works were employing over 2,000 men and were producing about one locomotive a week, with the first standard-gauge engine built in 1855. A rolling mill for manufacturing rails was installed in 1861. Although some rolling stock was built at Wolverhampton and Saltney near Chester, most of the work was concentrated at Swindon. Like most early railways, the GWR was built with gentle gradients and the minimum of curves, which meant that it was able to operate fast, lightweight'single-wheelers', 2-2-2 and 4-2-2. However, from 1849 Gooch built 4-4-0 saddle tanks for the hillier routes in Devon; the Works transformed Swindon from a small 2,500 population market town into a bustling railway town. Built to the north of the main town centre, the works had need to build locally accessible housing and services for the workers.
The development of the railway village was on the lines of similar Victorian-era socially-encompassing lifestyle concepts, such as that at Bournville, but architect/builder Rigby's were given license to create a commercially viable development by the GWR. The completed village provided to the town medical and educational facilities, sorely lacking, plus St Mark's Church and the Bakers Arms public house, all completed before 1850; the terraced two-storey cottages were built on two blocks of four parallel streets, not dissimilar in appearance to passing trains. Each road was named after the destinations of trains that passed nearby: Bristol, Taunton, London and Reading among them. Built in the nearby open area, named Emlyn Square after GWR director Viscount Emlyn, was the Mechanics Institute, paid for via subscription by the workers. Designed and constructed by Edward Roberts, it was completed in 1855, containing the UK’s first lending library and provided health services to workers. Enlarged in 1892-93, Nye
The GWR 0-6-0PT, is a type of steam locomotive built by the British Great Western Railway with the water tanks carried on both sides of the boiler, in the manner of panniers. They were used for local and branch line passenger and goods traffic, for shunting duties, as banker engines on inclines; the early examples, such as the 1901 and 2021 classes, were rebuilt from saddle or side tanks when the locos received a Belpaire firebox – this type of firebox has a square top and is incompatible with a curved saddle tank. This process took place during the tenure at Swindon Works of George Jackson Churchward. Only a small number of saddle tank locomotives escaped rebuilding as panniers, notably the 1361 Class built new under Churchward in 1910, by which date a few of the 1813 Class had been rebuilt as pannier tanks; the GWR pannier tank locomotives were classified as follows: Small engines, rebuilt from saddle or side tanks 93, 850, 1901 Classes · G. Armstrong/W'hampton 1874-95, 292 locos 2021, 2101 Classes · Dean/W'hampton 1897-1905, 140 locosSmall engines, built as pannier tanks from new 5400 Class · Collett/Swindon 1930, 25 locos 6400, 7400 Classes · Collett/Swindon 1932-50, 90 locos 1366 Class · Collett/Swindon 1934, six locos 1600 Class · Hawksworth/Swindon 1949-55, 80 locosLarge engines, rebuilt from saddle or side tanks 302 Class · J. Armstrong/W'hampton 1864-5, eight locos 1016 Class · G. Armstrong/W'hampton 1867-71, eight locos 1076, 1134 Classes · J. Armstrong/Swindon 1870-1881, 266 locos 645, 1501 Classes · G. Armstrong/W'hampton 1872-81, 106 locos 119 Class · G. Armstrong/W'hampton 1878-83, 11 locos 322 Class · G. Armstrong/W'hampton 1878-85, six locos 1813 Class · Dean/Swindon 1882-4, 40 locos 1661 Class · Dean/Swindon 1886-7, 40 locos 655 Class · G. Armstrong/W'hampton 1892-7, 52 locos 1854 Class · Dean/Swindon 1890-95, 120 locos 2721 Class · Dean/Swindon 1897-1901, 80 locosLarge engines, built as pannier tanks from new GWR 5700 Class · Collett/Swindon and outside firms 1929-50, 863 locos GWR 9400 Class · Hawksworth/Swindon and outside firms 1947-56, 210 locosLarge boiler/short wheelbase GWR 1500 Class · Hawksworth/Swindon 1949, 10 locos In the Railway Series of children's books by the Rev. W. Awdry, the character Duck the Great Western Engine is based on a 5700 Class pannier tank.
No. 5775 is featured in the 1970 film The Railway Children, in a brown livery, with the initials of the fictitious Great Northern and Southern Railway on the tank sides. No. 6412 starred in the 1970s children's TV series The Flockton Flyer. No. 5764 starred in the 1976 short film "The Signalman", loosely based on the Charles Dickens book of the same name. Site with much detail information on boilers etc
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A boat train is a passenger train operating to a port for the specific purpose of making connection with a passenger ship, such as a ferry or ocean liner. Through ticketing is available. Admiraal de Ruijter, London Liverpool Street – Amsterdam Centraal Benjamin Britten, London Liverpool Street – Amsterdam Centraal La Flèche d'Or, Paris Gare du Nord – Calais-Maritime The Golden Arrow, London Victoria – Dover Marine The Cunarder London Waterloo – Southampton Docks London Euston – Liverpool Riverside Glasgow Central – Greenock Prince’s Pier Night Ferry, London Victoria – Paris Nord / Brussels Midi/Zuid The Statesman, London Waterloo – Southampton Docks The Steam Boat, Toronto – Port McNicoll Train ferry, which carries rail vehicles as well as passengers Dutchflyer, London to Amsterdam Lyttelton Line Boat trains, New Zealand On the Wigan Boat Express, a song Venice-Simplon Orient Express, London to Paris and beyond
Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges