London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of 2019 there are 814 hereditary peers; the numbers of peers – of England, Ireland, Great Britain, the UK – whose titles are the highest they hold are: dukes, 24. Not all hereditary titles are titles of the peerage. For instance and baronetesses may pass on their titles, but they are not peers. Conversely, the holder of a non-hereditary title may belong to the peerage, as with life peers. Peerages may be created by means of letters patent, but the granting of new hereditary peerages has dwindled. From 1963 to 1999, all peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, but since the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, only 92 are permitted to do so, unless they are life peers. Peers are called to the House of Lords with a writ of summons; the hereditary peerage, as it now exists, combines several different English institutions with analogous ones from Scotland and Ireland. English Earls are an Anglo-Saxon institution. Around 1014, England was divided into shires or counties to defend against the Danes.
When the Normans conquered England, they continued to appoint earls, but not for all counties. Earldoms began with a perquisite of a share of the legal fees in the county. Like most feudal offices, earldoms were inherited, but the kings asked earls to resign or exchange earldoms. There were few Earls in England, they were men of great wealth in the shire from which they held title, or an adjacent one, but it depended on circumstances: during the civil war between Stephen and the Empress Matilda, nine Earls were created in three years. William the Conqueror and Henry II did not make Dukes, but when Edward III of England declared himself King of France, he made his sons Dukes, to distinguish them from other noblemen, much as Royal Dukes are now distinguished from other Dukes. Kings created Marquesses and Viscounts to make finer gradations of honour: a rank something more than an Earl and something less than an Earl, respectively; when Henry III or Edward I wanted money or advice from his subjects, he would order great churchmen and other great men to come to his Great Council.
The English Order of Barons evolved from those men who were individually ordered to attend Parliament, but held no other title. This order, called a writ, was not hereditary, or a privilege. Which men were ordered to Council varied from Council to Council. Under Henry VI of England, in the 15th century, just before the Wars of the Roses, attendance at Parliament became more valuable; the first claim of hereditary right to a writ comes from this reign. The five orders began to be called Peers. Holders of older peerages began to receive greater honour than Peers of the same rank just created. If a man held a peerage, his son would succeed to it. If he had a single daughter, his son-in-law would inherit the family lands, the same Peerage. Customs changed with time. In the 13th century, the husband of the eldest daughter inherited the Earldom automatically. After Henry II became the Lord of Ireland, he and his successors began to imitate the English system as it was in their time. Irish Earls were first created in the 13th century, Irish Parliaments began in the same century.
A writ does not create a peerage in Ireland. After James II left England, he was King of Ireland alone for a time; the Irish peers were in a peculiar political position: because they were subjects of the King of England, but peers in a different kingdom, they could sit in the English House of Commons, many did. In the 18th century, Irish peerages became rewards for English politicians, limited only by the concern that they might go to Dublin and i
Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort
Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort KG was an English courtier and politician. He was 4th Duke of Beaufort and his wife, Elizabeth Berkeley. Styled Marquess of Worcester from 1746, at his father's death on 28 October 1756, he succeeded him as 5th Duke of Beaufort, 7th Marquess of Worcester, 11th Earl of Worcester, 13th Baron Herbert. Somerset matriculated at Oriel College, Oxford, on 18 October 1760, graduated on 7 July 1763 with a Doctor of Civil Laws degree, he held the office of Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England between 1767 and 1772. From 1768 to 1770, he was Master of the Horse to the Queen Consort, he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Monmouthshire in 1771 and Lord-Lieutenant of Brecknockshire in 1787, holding both offices until his death in 1803, as well as that of Lord-Lieutenant of Leicestershire from 1787 to 1799. He was invested as a Knight of the Order of the Garter on 2 June 1786, his last will was dated from 21 June 1789 to 11 September 1800. On 4 June 1803, shortly before his death, he succeeded to the title of 5th Lord Botetourt.
The 5th Duke of Beaufort is buried at All Angels Church, Badminton. On 2 January 1766 he married Elizabeth Boscawen, daughter of Hon. Edward Boscawen, Admiral of the Blue, sister to George Boscawen, 3rd Viscount Falmouth, she died 15 June 1828. With her he had nine sons and four daughters: Henry Charles Somerset, 6th Duke of Beaufort, his heir and successor Lord Charles Henry Somerset Lord Edward Somerset Lord Norborne Berkeley Henry Somerset Lady Elizabeth Somerset, who married, on 27 June 1796, Very Reverend Charles Talbot, Dean of Salisbury, grandson of Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot, with whom she had three sons and three daughters Lady Frances Elizabeth Somerset Lady Harriet Isabella Elizabeth Somerset, married Colonel Hugh Henry Mitchell and had one son and two daughters Lord Robert Edward Henry Somerset Lord Arthur John Henry Somerset Rev. Lord William George Henry Somerset, Prebendary of Bristol, married twice. Sir Thomas Molyneux, 5th Baronet, with whom he had five sons, in 1844 to Frances Westby Brady, with whom he had no issue Lady Anne Elizabeth Somerset Col. Lord John Thomas Henry Somerset, married Lady Catherine Annesley, daughter of Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Mountnorris on 4 December 1814 Fitzroy James Henry Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan Y-DNA of his descendants did not match Richard III
Earl of Devon
The title of Earl of Devon was created several times in the English peerage, was possessed first by the de Redvers family, by the Courtenays. It is not to be confused with the title of "Earl of Devonshire", together with the title Duke of Devonshire, by the Cavendish family of Chatsworth House, although the letters patent for the creation of the latter peerages used the same Latin words, Comes Devon, it was a re-invention, if not an actual continuation, of the pre-Conquest office of Ealdorman of Devon. Close kinsmen and powerful allies of the Plantagenet kings Edward III, Richard II, Henry IV and Henry V, the Earls of Devon were treated with suspicion by the Tudors unfairly because William Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, had married Princess Catherine of York, a younger daughter of King Edward IV, bringing the Earls of Devon close to the line of succession to the English throne. During the Tudor period all but the last Earl were attainted, there were several recreations and restorations; the last recreation was to the heirs male of the grantee, not to the heirs male of his body.
When he died unmarried, it was assumed the title was extinct, but a much very distant Courtenay cousin, of the family seated at Powderham, whose common ancestor was Hugh de Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon, seven generations before this Earl claimed the title in 1831. During this period of dormancy the de jure Earls of Devon, the Courtenays of Powderham, were created baronets and viscounts. During this time, an unrelated earldom of similar name, now called for distinction the Earldom of Devonshire, was created twice, once for Charles Blount, 8th Baron Mountjoy, who had no legitimate children, a second time for the Cavendish family, now Dukes of Devonshire. Unlike the Dukes of Devonshire, seated in Derbyshire, the Earls of Devon were connected to the county of Devon, their seat is near Starcross on the River Exe. The Earl of Devon has not inherited the ancient and original Barony of Courtenay or the Viscountcy of Courtenay of Powderham. Before the Norman Conquest of 1066 the highest sub-regal authority in Devon was the Ealdorman, of which office the Earldom of Devon was a re-invention, if not an actual continuation.
Odda, under Alfred the Great, led Anglo-Saxon forces in the Battle of Cynwit defeating an army led by Viking chieftain Ubba. Ordgar, under King Edgar, he founded Tavistock Abbey in 961. His son was Ordwulf; the first Earl of Devon was Baldwin de Redvers, son of Richard de Redvers, feudal baron of Plympton, one of the principal supporters of King Henry I. It was believed by some that Richard de Redvers had in fact been created the first Earl of Devon, although in the past this caused confusion concerning the numerical ordering of the Earls of Devon, the point is now more settled in favour of Baldwin as the first. Baldwin de Redvers was a great noble in Devon and the Isle of Wight, where his seat was Carisbrooke Castle, was one of the first to rebel against King Stephen, he seized Exeter Castle, mounted naval raids from Carisbrooke, but was driven out of England to Anjou, where he joined the Empress Matilda. She created him Earl of Devon after she established herself in England in early 1141. Baldwin de Redvers, 1st Earl of Devon, was succeeded by his son, Richard de Redvers, 2nd Earl of Devon, grandson, Baldwin de Redvers, 3rd Earl of Devon, the latter was succeeded by his brother, Richard de Redvers, 4th Earl of Devon, who died without issue.
William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon was the third son of the 1st Earl. He had only two children, his son Baldwin died 1 September 1216 at the age of sixteen, leaving his wife Margaret pregnant with Baldwin de Redvers, 6th Earl of Devon. King John forced her to marry Falkes de Breauté, but she was rescued at the fall of Bedford Castle in 1224 and divorced from him, as having been in no true marriage, she is thus called Countess of Devon in several records. The fifth Earl's youngest daughter, Mary de Redvers, known as'de Vernon', was sole heiress of the 1141 Earldom, she married firstly, Pierre de Preaux, secondly, Robert de Courtenay, feudal baron of Okehampton, Devon. The 6th Earl was succeeded by his son, Baldwin de Redvers, 7th Earl of Devon, who died without progeny, his sister, Isabella de Forz, widow of William de Forz, 4th Earl of Albemarle, became Countess of Devon suo jure. Her children predeceased she had no grandchildren, her lands were inherited by her second cousin once removed, Hugh de Courtenay, feudal baron of Okehampton, the great-grandson of Mary de Redvers and Robert de Courtenay of Okehampton.
He was summoned by writ to Parliament in 1299 as Hugo de Curtenay, whereby he is held to have become Baron Courtenay. However, forty-one years after the death of Isabel de Forz, letters patent were issued on 22 February 1335 declaring him Earl of Devon, stating that he "should assume such title and style as his ancestors, Earls of Devon, had wont to do", by which he was confirmed as Earl of Devon. Although some sources consider this a new grant the wording of the grant arguably indicates a confirmation and that he became thereby 9th Earl. Historic sources thus variously refer to him as either 1st Earl or 9th Earl, the position cannot be decided either way due to the uncertainty of the surviving evidence. For the last years of his life he th
Edward Stanley, 19th Earl of Derby
Edward Richard William Stanley, 19th Earl of Derby, is a British peer and landowner. Edward Stanley otherwise Lord Derby was born to his wife Rose Stanley, he lives at Knowsley Hall near Liverpool, has a residence in London. Stanley inherited other family titles in 1994, on the death of his uncle, he inherited the Knowsley Estate, the Knowsley Safari Park and Stanley House Stud on Hatchfield Farm. He is President of the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, serves as a member of the University of Liverpool Council and is one of seven trustees of the foundation which funds bursaries to Cameron House pre-prep and prep school in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, where fees exceed £16,000 per year. Derby was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Merseyside in 1999, serving alongside Rt Hon. Frank Field MP and Mark Blundell among others. Stanley married the daughter of the 10th Lord Braybrooke; the couple have three children: Lady Henrietta Mary Rose Stanley Edward John Robin Stanley, Lord Stanley, heir to titles The Honourable Oliver Henry Hugh Stanley.
Their elder son Lord Stanley is a godson of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, was Page of Honour to Queen Elizabeth II between 2008 and 2012, appearing in three Garter services and four State Openings of Parliament. He held the Garter around the leg of Prince William during his installation as 1000th Knight of the Garter; the Knowsley Estate has residential properties in the rural parishes of Knowsley, Rainford and Ormskirk. It offers commercial properties as part of the Stanley Grange Business Village, converted from a range of Victorian farm buildings on the estate and opened in June 2013; the Grade II* listed Knowsley Hall and surrounding 2,500 acres of parkland have been used as locations for several television programmes and films including Apparitions, The Liver Birds as well as television soap operas and Coronation Street. In 2008, the house received a five-star gold rating for accommodation from inspectors at VisitEngland, the only stately home to be so rated. In 2010, Lord Derby announced his ‘Green’ policies for the estate, which included conservation and generation of efficient energy usage.
Stanley's maternal grandmother, was a well known racehorse trainer in Wiltshire notably College House, from where she sent out The Schweppes Gold Trophy winner Ra Nova, among others. The Epsom Derby was named after the 12th Earl of Derby while The Oaks was named after the 12th Earl's house near Epsom; the Derby family can trace its horse racing heritage back to the 5th Earl of Derby in the sixteenth century. Stanley has one or sometimes two horses in training each year from Hatchfield stud farm, managed by his brother Hon. Peter Stanley. Home to a small number of broodmares, the Earl's policy is to sell his colts and race the fillies; the Earl owns Ouija Board, winner of seven The Group/Grade 1 races, including The Oaks, Irish Oaks and Breeders' Cup Filly & Mare Turf in 2004, the last-named race again in 2006. She won the Prince of Wales's Stakes at Royal Ascot in June 2006, she was third in the Japan Cup following that last win, was retired after going lame before her intended final start in the Hong Kong Vase at Sha Tin in December 2006.
Ouija Board won over three million pounds in prize money. The Earl has published Ouija Board: A Mare in a Million. Stanley's proposal to build 1,200 houses and a large industrial estate on historic studland at Hatchfield Farm in Newmarket, was met with opposition from local residents and the area's largest employers, including Tattersalls, the Jockey Club, Newmarket Racecourse, Newmarket's elected councillors, leading trainers and the local resident group Save Historic Newmarket. Baron Stanley of Alderley Stanley baronets Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Derby www.hereditarypeers.com www.thepeerage.com www.tatler.com
Hugh Courtenay, 18th Earl of Devon
Hugh Rupert Courtenay, 18th Earl of Devon, DL, styled as Lord Courtenay until 1998, of Powderham Castle in Devon, was a British peer and surveyor. He was the son and heir of Charles Christopher Courtenay, 17th Earl of Devon by his wife Venetia Taylor. From his birth in 1942, until he succeeded to the earldom in 1998, he was known by the courtesy title of Lord Courtenay, he was a direct descendant in an unbroken male line of Robert de Courtenay, son of Reginald II de Courtenay by his wife Hawise de Curcy, heiress of the feudal barony of Okehampton in Devon. Robert married Mary de Vernon, daughter of William de Redvers, 5th Earl of Devon, feudal baron of Plympton in Devon. From this marriage the Courtenays inherited the barony of Plympton in 1293 and in 1335 were declared Earls of Devon; the House of Courtenay were not Normans who "came over with William the Conqueror", as did much of the ancient English aristocracy, but were Frenchmen who were seated within the Kingdom of France, one of whom came to England some time after the Norman Conquest, having had his lands seized by the French king.
The Courtenay family of Powderham was a junior branch of the family descended from Sir Philip Courtenay, 5th or 6th son of Hugh Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon of Tiverton Castle, Devon, by his wife Margaret de Bohun and heiress of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, by his wife Elizabeth Plantagenet, a daughter of King Edward I. The ancient Earls of Devon of Tiverton Castle were extinguished in the 15th century during the Wars of the Roses, but the title was revived soon after for close cousins who successively died without male progeny; the Courtenays of Powderham, by very distant relations, in 1644 created baronets, were retrospectively recognised in the 19th century by the House of Lords to have been rightful Earls of Devon since the 16th century, being heirs male of the last earl seated at Tiverton Castle, from that time adopted the title. Devon was the younger child of Charles Courtenay, 17th Earl of Devon and Venetia Taylor, who had two other children from her previous marriage to Mark Everard Pepys, 6th Earl of Cottenham.
Born the day after Exeter was bombed during the Baedeker Blitz and while his father was away in North Africa with the Coldstream Guards, it was reported that his sisters and household staff had been hiding in the cellars while his mother insisted on giving birth in the state bed rather than evacuate. He was educated at St Peter's School and Winchester College and graduated with a B. A. degree from Magdalene College, Cambridge, in 1964. From 1971 to 1977 he served in the Royal Devon Yeomanry, he held the office of Deputy Lieutenant of Devon in 1991. After succeeding to the family titles in 1998, Devon was the last of the hereditary peers to make a maiden speech in the House of Lords. Devon was an Associate of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors and helped the family seat at Powderham Castle move into the black; the family finances had fallen on hard times after the deaths of three earls between 1927 and 1935 brought triple death duties. By the 1970s, the family lands had shrunk by 90 percent.
The family was in talks to place Powderham in the hands of the National Trust, but the 17th earl backed out when the National Trust insisted on a £60,000 endowment. The castle was opened to the public in 1957; the 18th earl improved the estate, expanding its farmlands from 400 to 2,000 acres and reviving the 18th-century gardens and deer park. He ran horse trials from Powderham, managed one of the leading herds of cattle in South Devon, sued the Queen to regain the family's medieval land rights on the foreshore of the estuary of the River Exe. Once regained, he was set up a thriving business of shell fishing and the renting of moorings. Powderham, which now sees 35,000 visitors each summer, has been a popular events venue for concerts including Elton John and Tom Jones, sporting events; the earl worked as the land agent for other estates, including Blickling Hall in Norfolk, Broughton Castle in Oxfordshire and Monteviot House in Roxburghshire. In 2008, the earl had his licence to hold civil ceremonies at Powderham Castle revoked by Devon County Council, as he had refused permission to allow a gay civil partnership ceremony to take place there, an action the Council said was in contravention of the Equality Act 2006.
He reversed his stance in 2013. On 9 September 1967 he married Diana Frances Watherston, daughter of former Scotland rugby player Jack Watherston, by whom he had four children: Lady Rebecca Eildon Courtenay, married to Jeremy Lloyd Wharton, they have three daughters: Emilia Rose Wharton and Tatiana Elizabeth Wharton. Lady Eleonora Venetia Courtenay, married to Edward Robert Hamilton Clarkson, they have three children Lady Camilla Mary Courtenay, married to Daniel Bruce Duff. They have three children. Charles Peregrine Courtenay, 19th Earl of Devon, married to the American actress Allison Joy Langer, with two children: a daughter, Lady Joscelyn Skye Courtenay, a son, Jack Haydon Langer Courtenay, Lord Courtenay; the current Lady Devon was the patron of Devon-based charity, the Helen Foundation, takes part in equestrian activities. The 18th Earl of Devon died peacefully on 18 August 2015 at the age of 73, his death was announced by his family on 20 August. He was succeeded in the earldom by 19th Earl of Devon.
Earl of Lincoln
Earl of Lincoln is a title, created eight times in the Peerage of England, most in 1534. The title was borne by the Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne from 1768 to 1988, until the dukedom became extinct. William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Lincoln and 1st Earl of Arundel The Earldom was created for the first time around 1141 as William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel, is mentioned as Earl of Lincoln in 1143 in two charters for the Abbey of Affligem, representing his wife Adeliza of Louvain, former wife of King Henry I. William de Roumare, Earl of Lincoln The Earldom was created for a second time by King Stephen sometime after 1143 for William de Roumare. However, in 1149 or 1150, as William had gone over to the side of Empress Matilda, the King Stephen took the earldom from him and elevated Gilbert de Gant as Earl of Lincoln. Gilbert de Gant, Earl of Lincoln The Earldom was created for a third time by King Stephen in 1149 or 1150 for Gilbert de Gant, but on his death in 1156 it reverted to the Crown.
The Earldom was created for a fourth time in 1217 for Ranulph de Blondeville. He had no issue. In April 1231, with the consent of the King, before his death he passed the Earldom to his sister Hawise of Chester, she was formally invested by King Henry III in October 1232. Royal consent was needed for this, because the Earldom would otherwise have reverted to the crown in the absence of a legitimate male heir, she in turn passed the Earldom, again with the consent of the King, to her daughter Margaret de Quincy suo jure, her son-in-law John de Lacy, Baron of Pontefract. They were formally invested by Henry III in November 1232, their grandson, the third Earl, married Margaret Longespee. Their daughter Alice inherited the earldom, she was the wife of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster. They had no children and the earldom reverted to the Crown on Alice's death in 1348. 1217–1231 Ranulf de Blondeville, 1st Earl of Lincoln 1231–1232 Hawise of Chester, 1st Countess of Lincoln suo jure 1232–1240 John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln 1232–1266 Margaret de Quincy, 2nd Countess of Lincoln suo jure 1272–1311 Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln 1311–1348 Alice de Lacy, 4th Countess of Lincoln suo jure The above list does not contain the men who became Earl of Lincoln by right of their wives who were Countess of Lincoln suo jure, except for John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln.
He is included in the above list. The other men who became Earl of Lincoln by right of their wives were: Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke, married Margaret de Quincy in January 1242, died November 1245 Thomas of Lancaster, husband of Alice de Lacy, became Earl of Lincoln on the death of his father-in-law in February 1311, died March 1322 Sir Eubulus le Strange, married Alice de Lacy before November 1324, died September 1335 Hugh de Freyne, married Alice de Lacy before March 1336, died c. January 1337As Earl of Lincoln, these husbands had immense power with the right to control the estates of their wives; the above list does not include Margaret Longespee, the lady, titled Countess of Lincoln by right of her husband Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln. The Earldom was created for a fifth time in the following year, 1349, when it was revived for Alice's nephew-in-law Henry of Grosmont, created Duke of Lancaster, it became extinct on his death in 1361. John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln The Earldom was created for a sixth time in 1467 for John de la Pole.
He was the eldest son of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, Elizabeth of York. He predeceased his father and the title became extinct on his death in 1487. Henry Brandon, 1st Earl of Lincoln The Earldom was created for the seventh time in 1525 for Henry Brandon, he was the only son of 1st Duke of Suffolk, by his wife Mary Tudor. He died at the age of eleven in 1534; this creation of the Earldom was made for the eighth time in 1572 for the naval commander Edward Clinton, 9th Baron Clinton. He served as Lord High Admiral under Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I, he was succeeded by the second Earl. He represented Lancashire in the House of Commons, his son, the third Earl, sat as Member of Parliament for Great Lincolnshire. In 1610 he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Clinton, his great-grandson, the fifth Earl, died without surviving issue in 1692 when the earldom and barony separated. The barony fell into abeyance between his aunts.
He was succeeded in the earldom by the sixth Earl. He was the grandson of second son of the second Earl, his son, the seventh Earl, served as Paymaster of the Forces, as Constable of the Tower and as Cofferer of the Household. Lord Lincoln married daughter of Robert Sydney, 2nd Earl of Leicester, his eldest son, the eighth Earl, died as a child and was succeeded by his younger brother, the ninth Earl. He was Cofferer of the Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire and Cambridgeshire, he married his first cousin Catherine Pelham (d. 17