Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era, his works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, by the 20th century and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories are still read today. Born in Portsmouth, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors' prison. Despite his lack of formal education, he edited a weekly journal for 20 years, wrote 15 novels, five novellas, hundreds of short stories and non-fiction articles and performed readings extensively, was an indefatigable letter writer, campaigned vigorously for children's rights and other social reforms. Dickens's literary success began with the 1836 serial publication of The Pickwick Papers. Within a few years he had become an international literary celebrity, famous for his humour and keen observation of character and society.

His novels, most published in monthly or weekly instalments, pioneered the serial publication of narrative fiction, which became the dominant Victorian mode for novel publication. Cliffhanger endings in his serial publications kept readers in suspense; the installment format allowed Dickens to evaluate his audience's reaction, he modified his plot and character development based on such feedback. For example, when his wife's chiropodist expressed distress at the way Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield seemed to reflect her disabilities, Dickens improved the character with positive features, his plots were constructed, he wove elements from topical events into his narratives. Masses of the illiterate poor chipped in ha'pennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up and inspiring a new class of readers, his 1843 novella A Christmas Carol remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. Oliver Twist and Great Expectations are frequently adapted and, like many of his novels, evoke images of early Victorian London.

His 1859 novel A Tale of Two Cities is his best-known work of historical fiction. The most famous celebrity of his era, he undertook in response to public demand, a series of public reading tours in the part of his career. Dickens has been praised by many of his fellow writers—from Leo Tolstoy to George Orwell, G. K. Chesterton, Tom Wolfe—for his realism, prose style, unique characterisations, social criticism. However, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of psychological depth, loose writing, a vein of sentimentalism; the term Dickensian is used to describe something, reminiscent of Dickens and his writings, such as poor social conditions or comically repulsive characters. Charles John Huffam Dickens was born on 7 February 1812, at 1 Mile End Terrace, Landport in Portsea Island, the second of eight children of Elizabeth Dickens and John Dickens, his father was temporarily stationed in the district. He asked Christopher Huffam, rigger to His Majesty's Navy and head of an established firm, to act as godfather to Charles.

Huffam is thought to be the inspiration for Paul Dombey, the owner of a shipping company in Dickens's novel Dombey and Son. In January 1815, John Dickens was called back to London, the family moved to Norfolk Street, Fitzrovia; when Charles was four, they relocated to Sheerness, thence to Chatham, where he spent his formative years until the age of 11. His early life seems to have been idyllic, though he thought himself a "very small and not-over-particularly-taken-care-of boy". Charles spent time outdoors, but read voraciously, including the picaresque novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding, as well as Robinson Crusoe and Gil Blas, he reread The Arabian Nights and the Collected Farces of Elizabeth Inchbald. He retained poignant memories of childhood, helped by an excellent memory of people and events, which he used in his writing, his father's brief work as a clerk in the Navy Pay Office afforded him a few years of private education, first at a dame school, at a school run by William Giles, a dissenter, in Chatham.

This period came to an end in June 1822, when John Dickens was recalled to Navy Pay Office headquarters at Somerset House, the family moved to Camden Town in London. The family had left Kent amidst mounting debts, living beyond his means, John Dickens was forced by his creditors into the Marshalsea debtors' prison in Southwark, London in 1824, his wife and youngest children joined him there. Charles 12 years old, boarded with Elizabeth Roylance, a family friend, at 112 College Place, Camden Town. Roylance was "a reduced old lady, long known to our family", whom Dickens immortalised, "with a few alterations and embellishments", as "Mrs Pipchin" in Dombey and Son, he lived in a back-attic in the house of an agent for the Insolvent Court, Archibald Russell, "a fat, good-natured, kind old gentleman... with a quiet old wife" and lame son, in Lant Street in Southwark. They provided the inspiration for the Garlands in The Old Curiosity Shop. On Sundays—with his sister Frances, free from her studies at the Royal Academy of Music—he spent the day at the Marshalsea.

Dickens used the prison as a setting in Little Dorrit. To pay for his board and to help his family, Dickens was forced to leave school and work ten-hour days at Warren's Blacking Warehous


XpressMusic was a brand name for a line of Nokia mobile phones that were specially designed for music playback. All of the XpressMusic handsets came with expandable MicroSD memory slots and dedicated music keys, so these phones could be used as MP3 players; the XpressMusic range was launched in September 2006 to compete with the Walkman brand series from Sony Ericsson. Except from one device, all XpressMusic models were applied to the 5000 series models. In September 2009, Nokia announced the X3-00 and X6-00; the Xseries replaced the XpressMusic brand. The original XpressMusic lineup was announced on September 27, 2006, consisting of the twisting candybar Nokia 3250 XpressMusic and the slider Nokia 5300 XpressMusic. Another slider similar to 5300 was launched called Nokia 5200, but that one is not XpressMusic, they were first released before the end of the 2006. A few months in 2007 the 5700 was added to the line, using a twisting keypad like the 3250; the 2008 lineup saw the first 3G XpressMusic phones, first the 5610 and the 5320, which included HSDPA.

The lineup added support for MicroSDHC, allowing cards larger than 2GiB. The 5610 would be the only XpressMusic phone without a 3.5 mm headphone jack, instead having a 2.5 mm jack. The 2009 lineup started with the 5800, one of two new phones to use the new touch-based S60 5th Edition designed as a response to the increasing popularity of touchscreen handsets in the market. However, Nokia used the resistive instead of capacitive touchscreen to appeal to the global market. In this technology, touch is registered when two thin layers of the screen got pushed together under the finger; the 5800 featured a 3.2 megapixel camera with Carl Zeiss technology. Apart from the 5130 and lesser-known 5330, the rest of the lineup are 3G phones running Symbian S60 software, as the Nseries handsets of the time. Despite being a part of the XpressMusic series, the 5800 combined many standard smartphone capabilities too. Nokia 5200, similar to 5300 but not "XpressMusic" branded Nokia 5030 XpressRadio, extension of the brand tailored for radio Nokia N91, music-oriented device from the Nseries Nokia N81, another music-oriented Nseries device Nokia Comes With Music Sony Ericsson Walkman Motorola ROKR

List of Polish gminas (M)

This is a list of all 2,478 gminas of Poland. For more information about what these are and how they are named, see the article on gminas. Note that some gminas in different parts of the country have identical names; the following information is provided for each gmina in the list: type. Polish official population figures 2006 Gmina Maciejowice Gmina Magnuszew Gmina Majdan Królewski Gmina Maków Maków Mazowiecki Gmina Maków Podhalański Gmina Mała Wieś Gmina Malanów Malbork Gmina Malbork Gmina Malczyce Gmina Małdyty Gmina Malechowo Gmina Małkinia Górna Gmina Małogoszcz Gmina Małomice Gmina Mały Płock Gmina Manowo Gmina Marcinowice Gmina Marciszów Gmina Margonin Gmina Marianowo Marki Gmina Marklowice Gmina Markowa Gmina Markusy Gmina Markuszów Gmina Masłów Gmina Masłowice Gmina Maszewo Gmina Maszewo Gmina Męcinka Gmina Mędrzechów Gmina Medyka Gmina Mełgiew Gmina Miączyn Gmina Miasteczko Krajeńskie Miasteczko Śląskie Gmina Miastko Gmina Miastków Kościelny Gmina Miastkowo Gmina Michałów Gmina Michałowice Gmina Michałowice Gmina Michałowo Gmina Michów Gmina Miechów Gmina Miedziana Góra Gmina Miedzichowo Gmina Miedzna Gmina Miedźna Gmina Miedźno Gmina Międzybórz Gmina Międzychód Gmina Międzylesie Międzyrzec Podlaski Gmina Międzyrzec Podlaski Gmina Międzyrzecz Gmina Miejsce Piastowe Gmina Miejska Górka Gmina Miękinia (rural, Środa Śląska County, Lower Silesian Voiv