Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-Rousseau was a French Republican politician. Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau was born in Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, the son was a delicate child whose eyesight made reading difficult, and his early education was therefore entirely oral. He studied law at Poitiers and in Paris, where he took his licentiate in January 1869 and his fathers record ensured his reception in high republican circles. Jules Grévy stood sponsor for him at the Parisian bar, after six months of waiting for briefs in Paris, he decided to return home and to join the bar of St Nazaire early in 1870. In September he became, in spite of his youth, secretary to the municipal commission temporarily appointed to carry on the town business. In 1873, following the establishment of the Third Republic in 1871, he moved to the bar of Rennes, in the Chamber he supported the policy of Léon Gambetta. In 1881 he became minister of the interior in Gambettas grand ministry and he further voted for the abrogation of the law of 1814 forbidding work on Sundays and fast days, for compulsory service of one year for seminarists and for the re-establishment of divorce.
He made his reputation in the Chamber by a report which he drew up in 1880 on behalf of the appointed to inquire into the French judicial system. He was chiefly occupied with the relations between capital and labour, and had a share in securing the recognition of trade unions in 1884. He became again minister of the interior in the Jules Ferry cabinet of 1883–1885 and he sought to put down the system by which civil posts were obtained through the local deputy, and he made it clear that the central authority could not be defied by local officials. Waldeck-Rousseau deposed the 27 May 1885 act establishing penal colonies, dubbed Law on relegation of recidivists, the law was supported by Gambetta and his friend, the criminologist Alexandre Lacassagne. Waldeck-Rousseau had begun to practise at the Paris bar in 1886, and in 1889 he did not seek re-election to the Chamber and he received 184 votes, but retired before the second ballot to allow Faure to receive an absolute majority. Waldeck-Rousseau won a personal success in October by his successful intervention in the strikes at Le Creusot.
The Senate was staunch in support of Waldeck-Rousseau, and in the Chamber he displayed remarkable astuteness in winning support from various groups, the Amnesty Bill, passed on 19 December, chiefly through his unwearied advocacy, went far to smooth down the acerbity of the preceding years. The act came into force at the beginning of 1901, a year earlier, in 1900, seats were mandated for female clerks, But the most important measure of his administration was the Associations Bill of 1901. Like many of his predecessors, he was convinced that the stability of the republic demanded some restraint on the intrigues of the religious bodies. All previous attempts in this direction had failed, in his speech in the Chamber, Waldeck-Rousseau recalled the fact that he had tried to pass an Associations Bill in 1882, and again in 1883. His speeches on the question were published in 1901 under the title of Associations et congregations
Lyon or Lyons is a city in east-central France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, about 470 km from Paris and 320 km from Marseille. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais, Lyon had a population of 506,615 in 2014 and is Frances third-largest city after Paris and Marseille. Lyon is the capital of the Metropolis of Lyon and the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, the metropolitan area of Lyon had a population of 2,237,676 in 2013, the second-largest in France after Paris. The city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy and historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk. It played a significant role in the history of cinema, the city is known for its famous light festival, Fête des Lumières, which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical. The city contains a significant software industry with a focus on video games.
Lyon hosts the headquarters of Interpol and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014 and it ranked second in France and 39th globally in Mercers 2015 liveability rankings. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne by the Allobroges and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers, dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Roman foundation was at Fourvière hill and was officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity, the city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as Desired Mountain is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary, in contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, and dúnon. It became the capital of Gaul, partly due to its convenient location at the convergence of two rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul.
Two emperors were born in city, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic senators. Today, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as Primat des Gaules, the Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, in the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was the Easterner, Irenaeus. Burgundian refugees fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled by the commander of the west, Aëtius. This became the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom in 461, in 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, with the country beyond the Saône, went to Lothair I
Albert Auguste Gabriel Hanotaux, known as Gabriel Hanotaux was a French statesman and historian. He was born at Beaurevoir in the département of Aisne and he studied history at the École des Chartes, and became maître de conférence in the École des Hautes Études. His political career was that of a servant rather than a party politician. In 1879 he entered the ministry of foreign affairs as a secretary, and rose gradually through the diplomatic service. In 1886 he was elected deputy for Aisne, defeated in 1889, he returned to his diplomatic career, with one interruption he held this portfolio until 14 June 1898. The Fashoda Incident of July 1898 was the most notable result of this policy and this seems to have intensified Hanotauxs distrust of England, which is apparent in his literary works. Hanotaux was elected a member of the Académie française on 1 April 1897 and he served as a delegate for France with the League of Nations and participated in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Assemblies. In the early 1920s, there was a proposal for the League of Nations to accept Esperanto as their working language, ten delegates accepted the proposal with only one voice against, the French delegate, Gabriel Hanotaux.
Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing its position as the language of diplomacy. Gabriel Hanotaux died in Paris in 1944 and was interred in the Passy Cemetery and his home in Orchaise now serves as a botanical garden, the Parc botanique du Prieuré dOrchaise. Consultable en ligne et téléchargeable sur Internet Archive, Balzac imprimeur 1825-1828, with Georges Vicaire Paris, A. Ferroud,1903, 1re édition. Librairie des Amateurs, A. Ferroud, F. Ferroud,1921, La partie « Balzac imprimeur » recense et décrit tous les livres imprimés par Balzac dans son imprimerie. Le Partage de lAfrique, Fachoda La Démocratie et le Travail La Fleur des histoires françaises Jeanne dArc Une commémoration franco-américaine, pour un grand français, Champlain Études diplomatiques. La Politique de léquilibre, 1907-1911 Histoire de la nation française La France vivante, en Amérique du Nord Études diplomatiques. La guerre des Balkans et lEurope, 1912-1913 Les Villes martyres, lAllemagne et lEurope Joffre La Bataille de la Marne Georges Vicaire.
1853-1921 Histoire illustrée de la guerre de 1914, with illustrations by Auguste-Louis Lepère - Texte intégral Bibliophiles Le Général Mangin La Renaissance provençale and he edited the Instructions des ambassadeurs de France à Rome, depuis les traités de Westphalie. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Hanotaux. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Hanotaux, Albert Auguste Gabriel
Auvergne is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and it comprises four departments, Puy-de-Dôme, Cantal and Haute-Loire. The administrative region of Auvergne is larger than the province of Auvergne. The Auvergne region is composed of the old provinces, departments of Puy-de-Dôme, northwest of Haute-Loire. The province of Auvergne is entirely contained inside the Auvergne region Bourbonnais, a small part of Bourbonnais is contained inside the Centre-Val de Loire region. Velay and southeast of department of Haute-Loire, velay is entirely contained inside the Auvergne region. A small part of Gévaudan, extreme southwest of Haute-Loire, Gévaudan is essentially inside the Languedoc-Roussillon region. A small part of Vivarais, extreme southeast of Haute-Loire, Vivarais is essentially inside the Rhône-Alpes region. A small part of Forez, extreme northeast of Haute-Loire, Forez is essentially inside the Rhône-Alpes region. Velay, Gévaudan, and Vivarais are often considered to be sub-provinces of the old province of Languedoc, Forez is often considered to be a sub-province of Lyonnais.
Therefore, the region of Auvergne is composed of the provinces of Auvergne, major part of Bourbonnais. The region is home to a chain of volcanoes known collectively as the chaîne des Puys, the last confirmed eruption was around 4040 BCE. The volcanoes began forming some 70,000 years ago, and most have eroded, Auvergne has a surface area of 26,013 square kilometres equivalent to 4. 8% of Frances total surface area. Auvergne is one of the smallest regions in France, Auvergne is known for its mountain ranges and dormant volcanoes. Together the Monts Dore and the Chaîne des Puys include 80 volcanoes, the Puy de Dôme is the tallest volcano in the region, with an altitude of 1,465 metres. The Sancy Massif in the Monts Dore is the highest point in Auvergne, the northern region is covered in hills while the southern portion is mountainous and dotted with pastures. The Forest of Tronçais covers nearly 11,000 hectares and is the largest oak forest in Europe, the Loire runs through the southeast and borders the northeast, and the Allier runs from north to south down the center of Auvergne, with branches going east and west.
Over many years the Allier river has created what are known as the Allier gorges, Auvergne has about 50 freshwater ponds and lakes
Jules Develle was a French politician. He was born in Bar-le-Duc from Claude Charles Develle, insurance agent and he studied law and became a lawyer. He discovered his passion for political activity as Jules Grévy secretary and he was appointed prefect but removed for reasons of political opinion. He was 13 times French Ministry during the Third Republic including Minister of Justice and he died in Paris in 1919
Charles de Freycinet
Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet was a French statesman and four times Prime Minister during the Third Republic. He served an important term as Minister of War and he belonged to the Opportunist Republicans faction. He was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1890, Freycinet was born at Foix of a Protestant family and was the nephew of Louis de Freycinet, a French navigator. Charles Freycinet was educated at the École Polytechnique and he entered government service as a mining engineer. He was sent on several special missions, including one to the UK. It was mainly Freycinets powers of organization which enabled Gambetta to raise army after army to oppose the invading Germans and he revealed himself to be a competent strategist, but the policy of dictating operations to the generals in the field was not attended with happy results. In 1871 he published a defence of his administration under the title of La Guerre en province pendant le siège de Paris. He entered the Senate in 1876 as a follower of Gambetta and he retained his post in the ministry of William Henry Waddington, whom he succeeded in December 1879 as Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.
He passed an amnesty for the Communards, but in attempting to steer a course on the question of the religious associations, he lost Gambettas support. In January 1882 he again became Prime Minister and Foreign Minister and his refusal to join Britain in the bombardment of Alexandria was the death-knell of French influence in Egypt. He attempted to compromise by occupying the Isthmus of Suez, but the vote of credit was rejected in the Chamber by 417 votes to 75, and the ministry resigned. He returned to office in April 1885 as Foreign Minister in Henri Brissons cabinet and he came to power with an ambitious programme of internal reform, but apart from settling the question of the exiled pretenders, his successes were chiefly in the sphere of colonial extension. In spite of his skill as a parliamentary tactician, he failed to keep his party together. In April 1888 he became Minister of War in Charles Floquets cabinet — the first civilian since 1848 to hold that office. The introduction of the service and the establishment of a general staff, a supreme council of war.
His premiership was marked by heated debates on the clerical question and he failed to clear himself entirely of complicity in the Panama scandals, and in January 1893 resigned the Ministry of War. In November 1898 he once again became Minister of War in the Charles Dupuy cabinet, but resigned office on 6 May 1899
Haute-Loire is a department in south-central France named after the Loire River. Haute-Loire is part of the current region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and is surrounded by the departments of Loire, Ardèche, Lozère, the inhabitants of the department are called Altiligériens. The department covers the upper reaches of the Loire and consists of the Loire Valley and it is one of the original 83 departments of France created in 1790 during the French Revolution. Parts of the department are included in the Livradois-Forez Regional Natural Park, the first known inhabitants of this region were hunter-gatherers and it was occupied by pastoralists, shepherds living in caves or simple huts. It came under the control of a Gaulish tribe called Vellavi and at the time of Julius Caesars Gallic Wars, the area became a Roman province in 121 BC, originally under the name Gallia Transalpina. The name distinguished it from Cisalpine Gaul on the side of the Alps to Rome. In 40 BC, during the Second Triumvirate, Lepidus was given responsibility for Narbonese Gaul, after the Gothic takeover, the Visigothic dominions were generally known as Septimania.
The king of the Visigoths, Alaric I was killed at the Battle of Vouillé in 507, a battle won by Clovis I and Velay came under Frankish rule. On Clovis death in 511, his kingdom was divided among his four sons and these subdivisions were united under the auspices of his longest surviving son Chlothar I, only to be split again under his four sons at his death. It was reunited once more under Chlothar II who became the ruler of the Frankish people in 613. In about 928, the became a fiefdom of the Count of Toulouse. In 1137, Eleanor of Aquitaine succeeded to the Duchy of Aquitaine and her marriage to Henry, Duke of Normandy, by the end of the thirteenth century the area was known as the Dauphiné d’Auvergne. Haute-Loire is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, the new departments were to be uniformly administered and approximately equal to one another in size and population. Haute-Loire was formed parts of the former provinces of Auvergne, Languedoc.
Two thirds of the department, centred on Le Puy-en-Velay, used to be part of the province of Languedoc and is known as Velay. The geographical distance from Toulouse had allowed this region to enjoy a great deal of autonomy, Haute-Loire is a department in south central France and is part of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The capital and largest town in the department is Le Puy-en-Velay, to the north of Haute-Loire lie Puy-de-Dôme and Loire, to the east lies Ardèche, to the south lies Lozère and to the west lies Cantal. The river Loire rises in the part of the department and flows northwards
Prime Minister of France
The French Prime Minister in the Fifth Republic is the head of government and of the Council of Ministers of France. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government position was called President of the Council of Ministers, the Prime Minister proposes a list of ministers to the President of the Republic. Decrees and decisions of the Prime Minister, like almost all decisions, are subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. Few decrees are taken after advice from the Council of State, all prime ministers defend the programs of their ministry, and make budgetary choices. The extent to which those decisions lie with the Prime Minister or President depends upon whether they are of the same party, manuel Valls was appointed to lead the government in a cabinet reshuffle in March 2014, after the ruling Socialists suffered a bruising defeat in local elections. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic, the President can choose whomever they want.
On the other hand, because the National Assembly does have the power to force the resignation of the government, for example, right after the legislative election of 1986, President François Mitterrand appointed Jacques Chirac prime minister. Chirac was a member of the RPR and an opponent of Mitterrand. Despite the fact that Mitterrands own Socialist Party was the largest party in the Assembly, the RPR had an alliance with the UDF, which gave them a majority. Such a situation, where the President is forced to work with a minister who is an opponent, is called a cohabitation. So far, Édith Cresson is the woman to have ever held the position of prime minister. Aristide Briand holds the record for most nomination as Prime Minister with 11 between 1909 and 1929 with some terms as short as 26 days, other members of Government are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister can engage the responsibility of his or her Government before the National Assembly and this process consists of placing a bill before the Assembly, and either the Assembly overthrows the Government, or the bill is passed automatically.
In addition to ensuring that the Government still has support in the House, the Prime Minister may submit a bill that has not been yet signed into law to the Constitutional Council. Before he is allowed to dissolve the Assembly, the President has to consult the Prime Minister, the office of the prime minister, in its current form, dates from the formation of the French Third Republic. Under the French Constitutional Laws of 1875, he was imbued with the powers as his British counterpart. In practice, the minister was a fairly weak figure. Most notably, the legislature had the power to force the cabinet out of office by a vote of censure