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Charles Eliot Norton

Charles Eliot Norton was an American author, social critic, professor of art. He was a progressive social reformer and a liberal activist whom many of his contemporaries considered the most cultivated man in the United States. Norton was born at Massachusetts, his father, Andrews Norton, was a Unitarian theologian, Dexter professor of sacred literature at Harvard. Charles William Eliot, president of Harvard, was his cousin. Norton graduated from Harvard in 1846, where he was a member of the Hasty Pudding, started in business with an East Indian trading firm in Boston, travelling to India in 1849. After a tour in Europe, where he was influenced by John Ruskin and pre-Raphaelite painters, he returned to Boston in 1851, devoted himself to literature and art, he translated the Divina Commedia. He worked tirelessly as secretary to the Loyal Publication Society during the Civil War, communicating with newspaper editors across the country, including the journalist Jonathan Baxter Harrison who became a lifelong friend.

From 1864 to 1868, he edited the influential magazine North American Review, in association with James Russell Lowell. In 1861 he and Lowell helped Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his translation of Dante and in the starting of the informal Dante Club. In 1862 Norton married Susan Ridley Sedgwick, daughter of Theodore Sedgwick III and Sara Morgan Ashburner, they were the parents of six children: Eliot, Elizabeth, Rupert and Richard. Susan died at age thirty-three in Dresden, following the birth of their sixth child. "Probably only someone with Norton’s experiences and scholarly range – who had written about the Mound Builders, roamed India, organized classical archaeology, scoured medieval archives, published nineteenth-century painting – could have concocted Western Civilization. And only if he had filtered these materials through the sieve of college teaching during years of curricular anarchy. For Western civilization had a scholarly and pedagogical specificity about it." From 1855 to 1874 Norton spent much time in travel and residence on the continent of Europe and in England, it was during this period that his friendships began with Thomas Carlyle, John Ruskin, Edward FitzGerald and Leslie Stephen, an intimacy which did much to bring American and English men of letters into close personal relation.

Another friend was father of Rudyard Kipling. Father and son visited Norton in Boston and the younger Kipling recalled the visit years in his autobiography: We visited at Boston old friend, Charles Eliot Norton of Harvard, whose daughters I had known at The Grange in my boyhood and since, they were Brahmins of the Boston Brahmins, living delightfully, but Norton himself, full of forebodings as to the future of his land’s soul, felt the established earth sliding under him, as horses feel coming earth-tremors.... Norton spoke of Emerson and Wendell Holmes and Longfellow and the Alcotts and other influences of the past as we returned to his library, he browsed aloud among his books. Norton was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1860, he began teaching at Harvard in 1874. In 1875, he was appointed professor of the history of art at Harvard, a chair, created for him and which he held until retirement in 1898, he "centered his teaching upon the golden ages of art history -- classical Athens, the Italian Gothic style of Venetian architecture, the Florence of the early Renaissance."The Archaeological Institute of America chose him as its first president.

Norton had a peculiar genius for friendship, it is on his personal influence rather than on his literary productions that his claim to fame rests. In 1881 he inaugurated the Dante Society, whose first presidents were Longfellow and Norton himself. From 1882 onward he confined himself to the study of Dante, his professorial duties, the editing and publication of the literary memorials of many of his friends. In 1883 came the Letters of Carlyle and Emerson. Norton was made Ruskin's literary executor, he wrote various introductions for the American "Brantwood" edition of Ruskin's works, his other publications include Notes of Travel and Study in Italy, an Historical Study of Church-building in the Middle Ages: Venice, Florence. He organized exhibitions of the drawings of Turner and of Ruskin, for which he compiled the catalogues. In 1886, he opposed the opening of a'drinking saloon' on the main street near his home, in a letter which reveals little empathy for, or understanding of the significance of, Irish immigration to Cambridge in that era.

Like his friend Ruskin, Norton believed one of the best things one could do for working-class people was to give them opportunities to gain satisfaction by engaging in workmanship, as opposed to monotonous routine labor where they have to work like machines. T. J. Jackson Lears has described Norton as the foremost American proponent of the Arts and Crafts movement. Norton was a founding member of The Society of Crafts of Boston. During the first years of the twentieth century, Norton spoke out in favor of legalized euthanasia, he lent his name to a movement led by Ohio socialite Anna S. Hall to pass physician-assisted suicide legislation in Ohio and Iow

Bardoc, Western Australia

Bardoc is an abandoned town in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia. It is situated between Menzies along the Goldfields Highway; the towns name is taken from a hill close to town. The word barduk means close in the local dialect; the town was gazetted on 3 June 1896. Alluvial gold was first discovered in the area in 1894, by 1895 over 400 men were working the area; some of the mines that were operating in the area included Zoroastrian and Wycheproof. A telegraph line was established in 1896 and four hotels were known to be open in town. More gold deposits were found in 1896 at the Mount Eva and neighbouring The Australian leases, which were described to have "stone hat exceeds the richness of anything stuck so far in Bardoc". Parcels of ore were being sent to the Mount Burgess battery for treatment. A police station was constructed by 1897, in 1898 a coach service to Kalgoorlie was running three times a week; the population of the town was 206 in 1898. The area had received good rainfall and had abundant herbage on the ground in 1900.

A 10-head stamp mill was being constructed at the Zoroastrian mine in the same year. A crushing plant at the Nerrin Nerrin mine, open for public crushing, a 20 head mill was in action of the Excelsior lease about 5 miles north of the town. By 1908 no mines were in operation and the town was deserted. A drought hit the area over 1911 causing further hindrance to mining. A petition was submitted to extend the branch pipeline from the Goldfields Water Scheme the same year; the plan was to extend the line to Ora Banda via Broad Arrow. The police station was closed the same year and relocated to Westonia in 1914; the area was flooded following heavy rains with the few remaining residents receiving provision from Broad Arrow and fuel being available a Vetters Station

History of pound sterling in Oceania

The pound sterling was the currency of many, but not all parts of the British Empire. This article looks at the history of the pound sterling in the Australia, New Zealand, Pacific region; the British victory at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 heralded the beginning of a new world order in which Britain would be the supreme world power for the next one hundred years. At the time of Waterloo, the British Empire consisted of the New World territories in the West Indies and North America, retained following the loss of the Thirteen Colonies. In addition to this, there was the penal colony of New South Wales, the Rock of Gibraltar at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, the territories controlled by the British East India Company. Victory in the Napoleonic Wars brought spoils to Britain which added more territories such as Malta, British Guiana, Mauritius to the empire, it was the beginning of a golden era for Britain, the new Royal Mint at Tower Hill coined a new gold sovereign in 1817. At the same time, the Spanish Empire was in decline with revolutions underway in the New World.

The silver Spanish pieces of eight that had formed the staple international currency for nearly four hundred years were minted at the New World mints at Potosí, Lima. The supplies of these silver dollars were cut off due to revolutionary wars, since Britain had formally adopted a successful gold specie standard in 1821, the British government decided in 1825 to introduce the sterling coinage in all of its colonies. An imperial order-in-council was issued to set ratings for the sterling coinage against the already-circulating Spanish and other foreign coins, for the purposes of facilitating the transition to sterling. While this measure was remarkably unsuccessful in the British North American colonies and in some of the British West Indies, the situation in New South Wales was different due to the absence of any fully entrenched monetary system; as such, the British sterling currency was adopted in New South Wales with relative ease, as this region of British influence expanded over the course of the nineteenth century to incorporate the rest of the Australian continent, New Zealand and a large number of Pacific islands, the British sterling currency followed.

From the latter half of the 19th century until the outbreak of the First World War, a monetary union, based on the British gold sovereign existed in a part of the British Empire. This sterling part of the British Empire consisted of Australia, New Zealand, the British Islands in the Pacific, British Southern Africa, British West Africa, the British West Indies, Gibraltar and the South Atlantic territories, it had been the plan of the British government in 1825 to have sterling coinage circulating in all of the British colonies. But, by the 1860s, the British government had given up trying to impose sterling coinage in territories such as Canada, British India, Hong Kong against resistance from existing entrenched practices, just as the British East India Company has given up trying to impose the rupee on the Straits Settlements. India and the Straits Settlements adopted a sterling exchange standard, leaving only Canada, British Honduras, Hong Kong outside the sterling system; this sterling monetary union existed throughout much the same period that the Latin Monetary Union existed, in both cases, the First World War was the major factor that signalled the end of the union.

In both cases, the union was maintained by virtue of the gold specie standard. During the period of monetary union, a standard issue of sterling coinage, minted at the Royal Mint at Tower Hill, London circulated in the United Kingdom and its dependencies such as Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and its dependencies such as Western Samoa, as well as in Fiji and the British Western Pacific Territories; as regards paper money, banknotes were issued by banks in England, Ireland and New Zealand. In 1910, Australia introduced its own coinage in the likeness of sterling coinage, it was much the same as the United Kingdom's coinage, differing in the use of distinctive Australian symbols on the reverse. At the same time, the law prohibited Australian banks from issuing banknotes, such authority was reserved for the newly formed Commonwealth Bank; this left an interesting situation in which Australian private banknotes were limited to circulation in New Zealand, such Australian notes were marked with the words New Zealand.

This action by Australia in issuing its own national variety of sterling coinage had no practical effect on the monetary union as such. These Australian coins were minted at the Royal Mint at Tower Hill, despite the fact that there were three Royal Mint branches operating in Australia at that time; the reason was that these Australian branch mints, in Sydney and Perth, only had the facilities to mint gold sovereigns. However, by 1916, the Australian varieties of sterling coinage were being minted locally. With the suspension of gold coin payouts on the outbreak of the First World War, the binding factor was removed and paper money in the respective territories became unanchored and hence free to float, to the extent that the common coinage would permit. In the case of Australia, there was no complication because distinct Australian coins existed. In the case of New Zealand and Fiji, the situation could have proved to be problematic, but the issue didn't arise until the Great Depression; the Great Depression was the catalyst that forced more dramatic shifts in the exchange rates between the various pound units, by 1934 both New Zealand and Fiji began to issue their own varieties of the sterling coinage.

Australia returned

Mary Beth Buchanan

Mary Beth Buchanan, née Kotcella, is the former United States Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania. She was nominated by George W. Bush on September 5, 2001, confirmed by the United States Senate on September 14, 2001. Buchanan was the first youngest person to be appointed to the position. Under Attorneys General John Ashcroft and Alberto Gonzales, Buchanan held two key Justice Department posts, splitting time between Washington, D. C. and Pittsburgh up until her resignation as Acting Director of the Department of Justice's Office on Violence Against Women in December 2007. In May 2010, Buchanan was a candidate for the United States House of Representatives for Pennsylvania's 4th congressional district, but was defeated in the Republican primary. Buchanan is a native of Pennsylvania, she is a 1984 graduate of California University of Pennsylvania, a 1987 graduate of the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. Her second husband, Thomas C. Buchanan, is the grandson of the founder of the Buchanan Ingersoll law firm.

The firm, in which he is a partner, is now called Ingersoll & Rooney. Buchanan worked temporarily as an associate at Strassburger McKenna Gutnick & Potter after her 1987 law school graduation. Buchanan is an active member of the Federalist Society, she has spoken at many of the organization's conferences on various topics and has published two articles in the society's news magazine. Buchanan was slated to speak on "Warrantless Wiretapping, Wireless Tracking, Law Enforcement" at the Boston University Student Chapter of the Federalist Society on January 28, 2009. Buchanan joined the U. S. Attorney's Office as an Assistant U. S. Attorney in 1988. From 1988 to 1992, she represented the United States in the office's Civil Division. From 1992 until her appointment as U. S. Attorney, she served in the Criminal Division. Buchanan was the United States Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania from 2001 to 2009, she was nominated by George W. Bush on September 5, 2001, confirmed by the United States Senate on September 14, 2001.

On December 3, 2008, Buchanan released a statement to the press that she did not intend to step down or offer her letter of resignation to President-elect Barack Obama despite the ordinary practice that sitting U. S. Attorneys offer a new administration their resignations; as an appointed position, U. S. Attorneys serve at the pleasure of the President. On October 29, 2009, Buchanan's office released a statement that she would step down from her post as U. S. Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania on November 16, 2009. Buchanan concurrently served in more than one position within the Department of Justice; these appointments were as follows: Between April 2003 and May 2004, Buchanan served as chair of Attorney General John Ashcroft's Advisory Committee of United States Attorneys. This committee counsels the Attorney General on law enforcement issues and plays an integral role in setting Justice Department policy. From February 2002 to 2004, she served on the Advisory Committee to the United States Sentencing Commission, established to study the effectiveness of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines.

From June 2004 until June 2005, Buchanan served as Director of the Executive Office for United States Attorneys. This Washington, D. C.-based office provides administrative support to the 94 United States Attorneys' Offices nationwide. Buchanan held this post at the start of the period that relates to the Dismissal of U. S. attorneys controversy. Buchanan hired Monica Goodling to work in the executive office. From November 2006 through December 2007, Buchanan served as the Acting Director of the Department of Justice's Office on Violence Against Women; this office, based in Washington, DC, administers financial and technical assistance to communities nationwide that are creating programs and practices aimed at ending domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, provides leadership in developing the nation's capacity to reduce violence against women through implementation of the Violence Against Women Act. Buchanan oversaw Operation Pipe Dreams, a $12 million law enforcement operation targeted at individuals conducting online sales of water pipes and other devices that could be considered drug paraphernalia.

The investigation resulted in 55 individuals being charged, most notably comedian and actor Tommy Chong, charged for his role in the financing and promoting of Chong Glass/Nice Dreams, a company started by his son, Paris Chong. Chong's case never went through a federal trial. Of the 55 individuals charged through the investigation, Tommy Chong was the only individual without a prior criminal history who received jail time. Chong's jail time, the tactics utilized by the DEA agents during the investigation, the investigation's focus on Tommy rather than Paris Chong, raised concern among critics of selective prosecution; when asked why the government had focused on Tommy Chong instead of the company's CEO, Buchanan responded that "Tommy Chong was the more responsible corporate officer because he financed and marketed the product." When questioned on the disparity between sentences/fines that the other 54 individuals received compared to Tommy Chong, Buchanan stated, "He wasn't the biggest supplier.

He was a new player, but he had the ability to market products like no other."Chong was released from federal prison after nine months. He has been an avid critic of the prosecution in his case. In 2006, Chong wrote a book about his experiences in jail and his inte

Dene Grigar

Dene Grigar is an award-winning digital artist and scholar based in Vancouver, Washington. She is the current President of the Electronic Literature Organization. In 2016, Grigar received the International Digital Media and Arts Association's Lifetime Achievement Award. Grigar is Professor and Director of the Creative Media & Digital Culture Program at Washington State University Vancouver, her scholarship is focused on electronic literature, has appeared in journals like Computers and Composition and Technoculture. She co-authored Traversals: The Use of Preservation for Early Electronic Writing with Stuart Moulthrop; the book was a product of a 2013 NEH Startup Grant. Grigar's scholarly interests can be traced back to the early 1990s, when she took a class with Nancy Kaplan. Grigar has done extensive work curating exhibitions of digital art and electronic literature, including for the Library of Congress and Modern Language Association. Grigar has produced a number of multimodal artworks, including Curlew, featured at the 2014 OLE.1 festival in Naples, When Ghosts Will Die, a finalist in the 2006 Drunken Boat Panliterary Awards.

"Fallow Fields: A Story in Two Parts" was published in The Iowa Web Review, while the NEH funded her Fort Vancouver Mobile project

Søren Christian Sommerfelt (diplomat)

Søren Christian Sommerfelt was a Norwegian diplomat. He was born in Kristiania as a son of Søren Christian Sigrid Nicolaysen, he was a great-grandson of Søren Christian Sommerfelt and grandnephew of Adam Hiorth, Halfdan and Karl Linné Sommerfelt. In 1947 he married Frances Bull Ely, he held the cand.jur. Degree, started working for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1941, he was promoted to assistant secretary in 1952 and deputy under-secretary of state in 1956. He served as Norwegian ambassador to The United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland from 1960, West Germany from 1968, the United States from 1973 and Italy to 1978 to 1981. From 1970 to 1972 he led the Norwegian delegation, he was a member of the gentlemen's skiing club SK Fram since 1970. He died in December 2003 in Middleburg, Virginia