Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg

Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, was the eldest son, successor, of Charles Alexander. Born in Brussels, he succeeded his father as ruler of Württemberg at the age of 9, but the real power was in the hands of Administrators Carl Rudolf, Duke of Württemberg-Neuenstadt and Carl Frederick von Württemberg-Oels, he was educated at the court of Frederick II of Prussia. In the Seven Years' War against Prussia, Charles Eugene advanced into Saxony, he ruled until his death in 1793. He was an early patron of Friedrich Schiller, he studied keyboard with Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in the 1740s. In 1765, Charles Eugene founded a public library in Ludwigsburg and was responsible for the construction of a number of other key palaces and buildings in the area including the New Palace which still stands at the centre of the Schlossplatz, Castle Solitude and Castle Hohenheim. Charles Eugene married twice, first in Bayreuth on 26 September 1748 to Margravine Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth with whom he had one daughter, Friederike Wilhelmine Augusta Luise Charlotte, born in Stuttgart on 19 February 1750 and died after 13 months in Stuttgart on 12 March 1751.

Elisabetha left Charles Eugene in 1756 to return to her parents' court in Bayreuth although they never divorced. In the meantime, Charles Eugene fathered eleven children by them; the last of these mistresses was Franziska von Hohenheim, whom he raised to the status of Countess and married in Stuttgart on 10 or 11 January 1785. Charles Eugene was known for his interest in agriculture and travel and is considered the inspiration behind today's Hohenheim university, his original botanical gardens form the basis for today's Landesarboretum Baden-Württemberg and Botanischer Garten der Universität Hohenheim, which still contain some of the specimens he planted. He built a large number of palaces and bankrupted his lands through courtly extravagance, accepting huge French government loans in exchange for maintaining large numbers of support troops in Württemberg. In his early years he ruled with an iron fist. However, he displayed humanist tendencies. For example, in 1744 he ordered that the corpse of Joseph Süß Oppenheimer – the executed Jewish financial advisor of his father, Charles Alexander – whose decaying corpse had been suspended in an iron cage by Stuttgart's Prag gallows for six years – be taken down and given a decent burial.

He was well known for his extensive library, his extravagant interest in opera, interest in large scale horticulture for the feeding of the masses. Between 1751 and 1759 Karl Eugen was involved in an bitter struggle with his adviser, the eminent Liberal jurist Johann Jakob Moser who opposed the Duke's absolutist tendencies. In 1759 Charles Eugene had Moser charged with authoring "a subversive writing" and cast into prison for the next five years. However, in 1764 Moser was released, due in part to the intercession of Friedrich the Great of Prussia, was rehabilitated and restored to his position and titles. Charles Eugene died in Hohenheim. Charles Eugene made the first of his five trips to Paris and the Palace of Versailles in 1748 with his first wife, he used these trips to sightsee and acquire Parisian goods for Ludwigsburg Palace while touring the workshops those goods were manufactured in. From 1776 Etienne Sollicoffre, a banker Charles Eugene had met in Paris, befriended the Duke and acted as the agent of his purchases in the city.

By an unknown mistress he had: Karoline and without issueBy Luisa Toscani he had: Karl von Ostheim and without issue Karl Alexander von Ostheim and without issueBy an unknown mistress he had: Charlotte, married 30 June 1783 Julius Friedrich von Lützow, without issueBy Teresa Bonafoni he had: Karl Bonafoni Karl genannt Borel, who committed suicide and without issueBy Anna Eleonora Franchi he had: Eugen Franchi and without issue Eleonore Franchi, Freiin von Franquemont, married in 1792 Jean François Louis Marie Albert Gaspard Grimod, Comte d'Orsay, had issueBy an unknown mistress he had: Friedrich Wilhelm and without issueBy Katharina Kurz he had: Karl=David von Franquemont, married firstly in May 1795 to a Freiin von Hügel, by whom he had a daughter, married secondly in May 1795 to Luise Sophie Henriette von Jett, by whom he had a daughter: Charlotte Elisabeth Piron von Franquemont, who lived in Ceylon and married Hendrik Rademaker, without issue Karoline Luise von Franquemont, married on 21 October 1819 Johann von Raben, without issueBy Regina Monti he had: Friedrich, Graf von Franquemont and without issue and War minister.

Media related to Charles Eugene, Duke of Württemberg at Wikimedia Commons

John Henry Carpenter

John Henry Carpenter was an American video equipment salesman, most known as the friend and accused murderer of actor Bob Crane in 1978. Carpenter was of Spanish heritage, he was born on an Indian reservation where as a teenager he earned money as a migrant worker harvesting apricots. Carpenter served in the U. S. Army and was married twice. Following his retirement from the Army he took a job marketing video technology, achieving expertise in that field and becoming head of the video wing of a new Japanese electronics company debuting in the United States called Sonycom to be known as Sony. John had a child, John Michael Carpenter, from his first marriage, adopted with the last name of Merrill. John Carpenter had three grandchildren from six great grandchildren. During the run of Hogan's Heroes, Richard Dawson introduced Crane to Carpenter, a regional sales manager for Sony Electronics, who helped famous clients with video and audio equipment; the two men began going to bars together. Crane introduced Carpenter as his manager.

They would videotape their sexual encounters. While Crane's son Robert insisted that all of the women were aware of the videotaping and consented to it, according to one source, had no idea they had been recorded until informed by Scottsdale police after Crane's murder. Carpenter became national sales manager at Akai, arranged his business trips to coincide with Crane's dinner-theater touring schedule so that the two could continue seducing and videotaping women after Hogan's Heroes had run its course. In 1994, Crane's murder case was re-opened and Carpenter was tried and acquitted; as a result of the accusation, he was fired from work as National Service Manager at Kenwood USA, a California electronics firm. He always maintained his innocence, said he felt a huge relief after his name had been cleared. One jury member said in an interview that the jury believed there was insufficient proof to determine Carpenter's guilt and that "you cannot prove someone guilty on speculation." Carpenter's acquittal was spearheaded by defense attorney Dan Roth.

The Law Offices of Roth and Roth were located in Scottsdale, AZ. Carpenter's acquittal subsequently propelled Mr. Roth's reputation as one of Arizona's most sought-after defense attorneys. In the 2002 biopic Auto Focus, Carpenter was played by Willem Dafoe; the film suggests that Carpenter was bisexual and was sexually attracted to Crane, presented by the prosecution's case as Carpenter's motive for the crime. No witnesses or evidence were presented to support the prosecution's claims. In the special features section of the DVD, a documentary extra has Carpenter's second wife adamantly asserting that Carpenter was heterosexual; the film portrays Carpenter as suffering from colorblindness. Richard Dawson interview – Richard Dawson talks about Carpenter, see Part 2, starting at 29:25

Social Security number

In the United States, a Social Security number is a nine-digit number issued to U. S. citizens, permanent residents, temporary residents under section 205 of the Social Security Act, codified as 42 U. S. C. § 405. The number is issued to an individual by the Social Security Administration, an independent agency of the United States government. Although the original purpose for the number was for the Social Security Administration to track individuals, the Social Security number has become a de facto national identification number for taxation and other purposes. A Social Security number may be obtained by applying on Form SS-5, Application for a Social Security Number Card. Social Security numbers were first issued by the Social Security Administration in November 1935 as part of the New Deal Social Security program. Within three months, 25 million numbers were issued. On November 24, 1936, 1,074 of the nation's 45,000 post offices were designated "typing centers" to type up Social Security cards that were sent to Washington, D.

C. On December 1, 1936, as part of the publicity campaign for the new program, Joseph L. Fay of the Social Security Administration selected a record from the top of the first stack of 1,000 records and announced that the first Social Security number in history was assigned to John David Sweeney, Jr. of New Rochelle, New York. However, since the Social Security numbers were not assigned in chronological order, Sweeney did not receive the lowest Social Security number, 001-01-0001; that distinction belongs to Grace D. Owen of New Hampshire. Before 1986, people did not obtain a Social Security number until the age of about 14, since the numbers were used for income tracking purposes, those under that age had substantial income; the Tax Reform Act of 1986 required parents to list Social Security numbers for each dependent over the age of 5 for whom the parent wanted to claim a tax deduction. Before this act, parents claiming tax deductions were trusted not to lie about the number of children they supported.

During the first year of the Tax Reform Act, this anti-fraud change resulted in seven million fewer minor dependents being claimed. The disappearance of these dependents is believed to have involved either children who never existed or tax deductions improperly claimed by non-custodial parents. In 1988, the threshold was lowered to two years old, in 1990, the threshold was lowered yet again to one year old. Today, an SSN is required regardless of the child's age to receive an exemption. Since parents have applied for Social Security numbers for their children soon after birth; the original purpose of this number was to track individuals' accounts within the Social Security program. It has since come to be used as an identifier for individuals within the United States, although rare errors occur where duplicates do exist; as numbers are now assigned by the central issuing office of the SSA, it is unlikely that duplication will occur again. A few duplications did occur when prenumbered cards were sent out to regional SSA offices and Post Offices.

Employee, patient and credit records are sometimes indexed by Social Security number. The U. S. Armed Forces has used the Social Security number as an identification number for Army and Air Force personnel since July 1, 1969, the Navy and Marine Corps for their personnel since January 1, 1972, the Coast Guard for their personnel since October 1, 1974; the United States military used a much more complicated system of service numbers that varied by service. Beginning in June 2011, DOD began removing the Social Security number from military identification cards, it is replaced by a unique DOD identification number known as the EDIPI. Social Security was a universal tax, but when Medicare was passed in 1965, objecting religious groups in existence prior to 1951 were allowed to opt out of the system; because of this, not every American is part of the Social Security program, not everyone has a number. However, a Social Security number is required for parents to claim their children as dependents for federal income tax purposes, the Internal Revenue Service requires all corporations to obtain SSNs from their employees, as described below.

The Old Order Amish have fought to prevent universal Social Security by overturning rules such as a requirement to provide a Social Security number for a hunting license. Social Security cards printed from January 1946 until January 1972 expressly stated that people should not use the number and card for identification. Since nearly everyone in the United States now has an SSN, it became convenient to use it anyway and the message was removed. Since Social Security numbers have become de facto national identification numbers. Although some people do not have an SSN assigned to them, it is becoming difficult to engage in legitimate financial activities such as applying for a loan or a bank account without one. While the government cannot require an individual to disclose their SSN without a legal basis, companies may refuse to provide service to an individual who does not provide an SSN; the card on which an SSN is issued is still not suitable for primary identification as it has no photograph, no physical description, no birth date.

All it does is confirm. Instead, a driver's license or state ID card is used as an identification for adults. Internal Revenue Code section 6109 provides: "The social security account number issued to an individual for purposes of section 205 of the Social Security Act shall, excep