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Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham

Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham, known as Howard of Effingham, was an English statesman and Lord High Admiral under Elizabeth I and James I. He was commander of the English forces during the battles against the Spanish Armada and was chiefly responsible for the victory that saved England from invasion by the Spanish Empire. Few details of Charles Howard's early life are known, he was born in 1536, was the cousin of Queen Elizabeth. He was son of William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham and Margaret Gamage, daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage, he was a grandson of 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He was the cousin of Anne Boleyn, held several prominent posts during the reign of Anne's daughter, Elizabeth I, it is believed that Charles Howard was taught French and a bit of Latin at the house of his uncle, the 3rd Duke of Norfolk. He was educated in penmanship, chivalric exercises, some legal traditions, he served as a page to his cousin Thomas who became the 4th Duke of Norfolk.

He fished and hunted fervently throughout his life. Howard served at sea under his father's command as a youth. In 1552, he was sent to France to become well-educated in the French language, but was soon brought back to England at the request of his father because of questionable or unexpected treatment. Howard went to the peace negotiations between England and France which led to the Treaty of Câteau-Cambrésis of 1559, he informed Elizabeth of its ratification. He served as Ambassador to France in 1559. In December 1562, he became the keeper of the Queen's park at Oatlands. In his early years at court he and five other gentlemen bore the canopy of state when Queen Elizabeth opened her second Parliament on 11 January 1563, he is recorded as having been a regular participant in jousts and tournaments, but despite his relationship to the Queen it is said that it took some time before he was able to gain any personal benefit from his situation. Howard was a member of the House of Commons, yet he was not as distinguished as many others have been.

He represented Surrey in Parliament in 1563 and again in 1572. In 1564 he became a member of Gray's Inn, received his Master of Arts at Cambridge in 1571; this was not because he had any legal ambitions, but because it was the normal thing for men of his status to do. He suppressed a Catholic rebellion in northern England, he commanded a squadron of ships escorting the Queen of Spain on a state visit in 1570. Howard was knighted in 1572 and became Lord Howard of Effingham following his father's death in 1573. From 1576–1603 he was patron of a playing company, Nottingham's Men called the Admiral's Men. On 3 April 1575 Howard was elected to the Order of the Garter to replace his cousin, Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, executed in 1572, he was installed at Windsor on 8 May 1575. Howard was named Lord High Admiral in 1585; the French ambassador wrote to Sir Francis Walsingham, saying Elizabeth's appointment of Howard was "a choice worthy of her virtue and prudence and necessary for the Admiralty.

I pray you tell her that the King has written to me by an express to thank her for having elected so good an admiral, from whom he hopes great things for the peace of his subjects". Howard attended the Privy Council during the Babington Plot, he was named as one of the commissioners to try Mary, Queen of Scots but is not subsequently mentioned as one of those who sat on the trial. William Davison alleged that Howard spoke to Elizabeth on 1 February 1587 "of the great danger she continually lived in" as there were rumours of new plots against her life and spoke of the stories that Mary had escaped from prison. Elizabeth was "moved by his lordship to have some more regard to the surety of herself and the state than she seemed to take" and made up her mind, telling Howard to send for Davison and Mary's death warrant. Howard met Davison and informed him that Elizabeth was now "fully resolved" and ordered him to bring forth the warrant to be signed, "that it might be forthwith despatched and deferred no longer".

Elizabeth would blame Davison for breaking orders that no-one must be told of what had happened. The Privy Council decided to take responsibility for the execution of Mary. In early December 1587 orders were drawn up for Howard to take the fleet to sea. On 21 December Howard's commission was signed, requiring Howard "according as there shall be occasion, wherever and whenever he shall deem it fitting, to invade, enter and make himself master of the kingdoms, lands and all other places whatever belonging to the said Spaniards", he was furthermore given full authority over the army at sea. Between 15 December and 1 April 1588 he sat on the Privy Council only four times and attended court every five or six days to meet with Walsingham. Writing on 27 January 1588, Howard believed the peace negotiations with Spain were a trap and expressed his dismay in a letter to Walsingham: I have made of the French King, the Scottish King, the King of Spain, a Trinity that I mean never to trust to be saved by.

Sir, there was never, since England was England, such a stratagem and mask made to deceive England withal as this is of the treaty of peace. I pray God we have not cause to remember one thing, made of the Scots by the Englishmen. You know; the next day he wrote again to Walsingham that if there was going to

Helen Rockel

Helen Margaret Rockel is a New Zealand artist. Rockel was born in 1949 in New Zealand, she attended the Ilam School of Fine Arts between 1968 -- 1971. Known as a painter, her work is notable for its vivid feminist references. Many of Rockel's paintings are portraits influenced by her travels through Turkey, Iran, Pakistan and India. Rockel has exhibited with the Canterbury Society of Arts and The Group in 1973 and 1975. In 1975 she was part of the exhibition Six Women Artists, organised by Allie Eagle at the Robert McDougall Art Gallery, exhibiting with Stephanie Sheehan, Joanna Harris, Rhondda Bosworth, Joanne Hardy, Jane Arbuckle, her works are held in collections at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa and Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu. Artist files for Helen Rockel are held at: E. H. McCormick Research Library, Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki Robert and Barbara Stewart Library and Archives, Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu Hocken Collections Uare Taoka o Hākena Macmillan Brown Library, University of CanterburyAlso see: Concise Dictionary of New Zealand Artists McGahey, Kate Gilt Edge Official website

Komal Rizvi

Komal Rizvi is a Pakistani actress, songwriter, a television host. She is famous for her songs in Coke Studio. Rizvi was born in Dubai and raised in England and Nigeria; as a teenager, she came to Pakistan and launched her career in Karachi where she was a student. She started her career at age 16 when her talent was spotted by a family friend of her brother Hasan Rizvi, a dancer and entrepreneur and performed with Komal at various fashion events, she released her first song in 1999 which went on to become the super hit bhangra song "Bauji bauji bhangra saaday naal paoji". She became an overnight sensation. Rizvi moved onto hosting with her debut show BPL Oye, she became a household name. She writes the lyrics of her own songs. Rizvi's first screen role was for Pakistan Television, the super hit Hawaain in 1997, followed by Lehrein. TV serials like Kabhi Kabhi, Teesra Peher and Samandar Hai Dharmiyan helped establish her as one of the leading actresses of the Pakistani TV industry, she received a lot of praise for her role in Hum TV's Mujhe Roothney Na Dena.

Despite the critical acclaim she has received for her acting, Rizvi is selective about her acting projects as she tries to maintain her main focus on singing. "There are a few things. The major thing is the production team. I accept only if the script is strong and relatable. I don't accept to act if the part I am going to play and the script are not good enough," Rizvi said in an interview given to You! Magazine. In September 2016, it was reported that Rizvi would star in a Hollywood movie under the banner of a Canadian production house; this new film, named Afreen, was scheduled to be released in 2017. Rizvi said in a newspaper interview, about the film's subject and plot, "It's an anti-ISIS and a pro-Muslim film". Rizvi started her TV hosting career with BPL Oye; the highlight of her hosting career remains the TV show she did for Channel V in India where she interviewed some of the biggest names of the Indian industry. Rizvi has hosted Karachi Nights With Komal, Hum TV Mornings With Komal and Nachley, the popular dance reality show for ARY.

Rizvi was a part of Coke Studio’s third season where she performed "Daaneh Pe Daanah" with folk singer Akhtar Chanal Zahri. Written and composed by Zahri himself, the song fondly sings the praises of the province Balochistan he hails from. Presenting an unconventional alliance, this Coke Studio rendition of the popular folk song fused with Sindhi Sufi classic "Lal Meri Path" took both well-loved anthems to a new level in 2011. Reborn against the backdrop of a modern funk groove, the song became a colorful musical demonstration of diversity with Zahri and Rizvi, two strong yet vastly different personalities, combining their voices in a symbolic celebration of individuality. Rizvi performed "Lambi Judaai", a classic Reshma number. Reshma caused a stir across the border in India when "Lambi Judaai" from the soundtrack of 1983 Bollywood film Hero became a massive hit. Coke Studio presented the nostalgic melody against a fluid backdrop of rich chordal elements to take on the quality of a ballad from the 1950s.

Both the numbers were featured on the Top 10 all-time hits of Coke Studio. Rizvi is the only female singer to be featured twice on that list. Komal Rizvi on IMDb Komal Rizvi's channel on YouTube

Minette (ore)

Minette is a type of mineral deposit, consisting of iron ore of sedimentary origin, found in the south of Luxembourg and in Lorraine. Minette ore was deposited in the Early Middle Jurassic; the term "Minette" came from French miners. It is a diminutive form of "la mine", might be translated as "little mine, little colliery" or "little vein", referring to its poor iron content of between 28% and 34%. In other uses, "Minette" is an archaic rock term used to locally describe a particular type of lamprophyre; the deposit is one of the largest iron reserves in the world. The reserves have been estimated with an iron content of 2 billion tons; the phosphorus content of Minette rendered its industrial processing impossible for a long time, which changed with the introduction of the Thomas-Gilchrist procedure. After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, large parts of Lorraine were annexed by Germany; the borders were determined such. The geologist Wilhelm Hauchecorne, a member of the border commission, had argued for this.

Although the German authorities awarded more mining concessions than the French had, iron ore production hardly increased until 1879. This changed in the 1880s, due to a greater number of railway lines in the Minette area and the construction of a railway line from Thionville in France to Völklingen in Germany, which from 1883 enabled a direct link with the Saarland industrial area. Explorations in the 1880s showed that the Minette reserves reached further to the West than had been assumed, increased in volume and iron content the deeper they went. By 1909, 16 mines had been dug in the French part of Lorraine, the département Meurthe-et-Moselle in the basin of Briey, which mined Minette through mine shafts. After World War I, Lorraine belonged to France again. In 1919, yearly production went over 41 million tons, 21 million tons of these in the département Moselle and 20 million tons in the département Meurthe-et-Moselle. Lorraine was, after the United States, the second-largest iron producer in the world.

The high point of ore production was reached with 62 million tons in France and 6 million tons in Luxembourg in 1960. After 150 years of mining 3 billion tons of ore have been produced; the low iron content, meant that Lotharingian Minette-ore was successively replaced by more concentrated imported ores. As a consequence and more mins were closed down; the last pit in Luxembourg, closed in 1981, the last French one, at Audun-le-Tiche in the Moselle department did so in 1997

Bashful Brother Oswald

Beecher Ray Kirby, better known as Bashful Brother Oswald, was an American country musician who popularized the use of the resonator guitar and Dobro. He was a member of the Grand Ole Opry. Though he released only a few recordings as a solo artist, he played as a session musician on numerous records, including the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band's 1972 album Will the Circle be Unbroken. Beecher Ray Kirby was born in rural Sevier Tennessee in the Great Smoky Mountains, his father, G. W. Kirby, was an Appalachian folk musician who played banjo; as a child, Kirby sang gospel music. By his teens, he was playing for square dances. In the late 1920s, Kirby followed the path of many people from the Appalachian region and moved to the northern United States to find work, he went to Flint and worked on the Buick assembly line. He lost his job, though, in the economic downturn of the Great Depression in the 1930s. Kirby returned to music, playing at informal square dance parties held in the homes of other transplanted southerners.

It was at one such party. "That was. He was a real Hawaiian boy, from over in the islands, he was playing this way and I loved it. I'd go to them parties just to watch him play," Kirby said. "Then I'd get my guitar and try to do the same thing. I was just playing a straight guitar and I had to raise the strings up, put a nut under the strings."With the music of Hawaii, played by Sol Hoʻopiʻi and other performers, gaining in popularity, Kirby bought his first resonator guitar, an early National model, joined in the trend, playing in bars and beer gardens. He visited the Chicago World's Fair in 1933, gaining a following; some of the clubs he played in were owned by Al Capone. In a bid to find more steady work, Kirby moved to Knoxville, Tennessee in 1934. Taking the stage name Pete Kirby, he played resonator guitar with local bands, among them Roy Acuff's Crazy Tennesseans to become the Smoky Mountain Boys. Acuff joined the Grand Ole Opry in 1938, Kirby joined the Opry with Acuff's band on New Year's Day 1939.

It was with the Acuff band that Kirby became introduced as Bashful Brother Oswald, with Kirby posing as the brother of the band's banjoist, Rachel Veach, so that it would appear to audiences that the unmarried Veach was being chaperoned by a family member. To fit his new persona, Kirby created the clownish Oswald character, wearing a floppy, wide-brimmed hat, tattered bib overalls, oversized work shoes and adopting a braying laugh. Featured on the nationwide broadcasts of the Opry, Oswald created a sensation playing his resonator guitar on such songs as "Old Age Pension Check"; the instrument, developed in the late 1920s, was still new. Oswald and the Acuff band were featured in a Hollywood film, Grand Ole Opry for Republic Pictures, which gave the instrument greater exposure. "People couldn't understand how I played it and what it was, they'd always want to come around and look at it."In addition to his guitar and banjo playing, Oswald was a vocalist, his tenor voice can be heard on Acuff's hit songs, "Precious Jewel" and "Wreck on the Highway".

Oswald began his career as a solo session musician in the 1960s. He released his self-titled debut album in 1962 on Starday Records, he joined the Rounder Records label in the 1970s, releasing around a half dozen albums over the years until his last recording, Carry Me Back, in 1999. His session work included working with the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band on Will the Circle Be Unbroken, an album that paid tribute to the old-time, traditional country musicians of Nashville, Roy Acuff, Maybelle Carter, Earl Scruggs, Merle Travis, Doc Watson and others. Bill Monroe declined to participate. Solo tracks by Kirby on Circle include "The End of the World" and his own composition, "Sailin' to Hawaii". Oswald was present for the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band's follow-up album, Will the Circle Be Unbroken: Volume Two in 1989, singing backing vocals on the title track. Oswald was the sole member of the 1939 Smoky Mountain Boys that still accompanied Acuff at the time of Acuff's death in 1992. With former Smoky Mountain Boys bandmate Charlie Collins, Oswald formed the musical comedy duo "Os and Charlie", a fixture at the Opryland theme park and on the Grand Ole Opry.

He participated in 1994's The Great Dobro Sessions album, featured alongside such other resonator guitarists as Mike Auldridge, Jerry Douglas, Josh Graves, Rob Ickes, Tut Taylor and Gene Wooten. Gibson Guitar Corporation, owner of the Dobro brand of resonator guitars, created a "Brother Oswald" signature series Dobro in 1995; the model has since been retired. Oswald died on October 17, 2002, at his home in Madison, Tennessee, at the age of 90. Bashful Brother Oswald at AllMusic

Sydney Law School

Sydney Law School is the law school at the University of Sydney, Australia's oldest university. Sydney Law School began a full program of legal instruction in 1890 following the appointment of its first dean, having offered legal examinations since 1855. Sydney Law School is regarded as being one of Australia's top law schools. In 2019, QS World University Rankings ranked the law school 12th in the world for law; the Social Science Research Network ranks the law school as first in Australia and fifth in the world in the number of downloads of academic papers which have been uploaded to its website. Sydney Law School has won the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition on a record five occasions: in 1996, 2007, 2011, 2015, 2017; the law school has produced many leaders in law and politics, including former Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull and five other Prime Ministers, four Federal Opposition Leaders, two Governors-General, nine Federal Attorneys-General, 18 out of 52 Justices of the High Court —more than any other law school in Australia.

The school has produced 24 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars. Sydney Law School has 1,700 LLB and JD students. There are now 24 chairs, including the Challis Professors of Law and International Law. In 2010, the School replaced its graduate-entry Bachelor of Laws degree with the Juris Doctor degree; the LL. B. degree remains as part of an undergraduate double degree program. The law school was inaugurated in 1855 and established by the Act to Incorporate and Endow the University of Sydney 1850 and an 1855 University Senate by-law, becoming the third faculty of the University of Sydney; the Faculty of Law commenced its work in 1859 as a body of assessment and examination rather than teaching. In 1890, the first chair was appointed to the faculty and a full legal academic programme commenced at the Faculty. Prior to 2011, Sydney Law School was the sole school under the Faculty of Law, under the College of Arts and Humanities, one of the three constituent colleges of the university; as part of a re-organisation of faculty organisation, in 2011 the Faculty of Law was renamed Sydney Law School, adopting the better-known name of its sole school.

The law school building on Phillip Street in the centre of Sydney's legal and business district was the home of the Sydney Law School until early 2009. While the faculty is now located in the New Law School building on the main Camperdown campus of the university, some classes and other functions continued to be hosted on the St. James campus until 2015, students could still submit assignments there; as of 1 July 2015, the building is no longer owned by the university, the law school's CBD operations have been relocated to 133 Castlereagh Street, Sydney. The former St. James campus is bounded by Elizabeth and Phillip Streets and is opposite the Supreme Court of New South Wales; the building consists of 13 dedicated levels. Level four is the ground entrance level and housed the assembly hall, a foyer, some offices; the Sydney University Law Library and the Faculty of Law's information desk were located on levels seven to ten and twelve, respectively. These facilities have since relocated to level zero to one and level three of the New Law Building, respectively.

The building was constructed in 1969 in the brutalist architectural style. Busts of classical orators and jurists adorn the Phillip Street entrance, while the University of Sydney crest is found on the Elizabeth Street and Phillip Street entrance; the former St. James campus is located near St. James railway station and Martin Place railway station and is serviced by a bus stop outside its entrance on Elizabeth Street. Sydney Law School had changed location several times in the past but had always remained in the centre of the city because of the tradition of teaching by practitioners, for easy access to the courts and members of the profession. However, with the increased number of enrolled students, the campus in the city was no longer sufficient for both staff and students and hence, the faculty proposed to shift the law school to the main campus in Camperdown. A new law school was constructed at the main Camperdown campus, adjacent to Fisher Library and on the site of the former Edgeworth David Building.

Completed in February 2009, the faculty administration began occupation in mid-February, prior to classes beginning in early March. On 30 April 2009, the New Law School Building was opened by Governor-General of Australia Quentin Bryce. In attendance were Robert French, Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia. Numerous seminars and other sessions were held as part of the building's opening day program; the design and construction of the New Law School Building were each performed by local Australian firms, namely FJMT Architects and Baulderstone Pty Ltd, respectively. The building is in the style of late-20th-century International Style architecture and is characterised by its bl