A helipad is a landing area or platform for helicopters and powered lift aircraft. Larger helipads, intended for use by helicopters and other vertical take-off and landing aircraft, an example is Vertiport Chicago, which opened in 2015. Helipads may be located at a heliport or airport where fuel, air traffic control, some basic helipads are built on highrise buildings for evacuation in case of a major fire outbreak. Major police departments may use a dedicated helipad at heliports as a base for police helicopters, large ships and oil platforms usually have a helipad on board for emergency use. In such a case, the term helideck or helodeck has been used in the meaning of a helipad on board. In urban environments, these heliports are typically located on the roof of the hospital, rooftop helipads sometimes display a large two-digit number, representing the weight limit of the pad. In addition, a number may be present, representing the maximum rotor diameter in feet. Location identifiers are often, but not always, issued for helipads and they may be issued by the appropriate aviation authority.
Some helipads may have location identifiers from multiple sources, and these identifiers may be of different format, helipads are usually constructed out of concrete and are marked with a circle and/or a letter H, so as to be visible from the air. However, they are not always constructed out of concrete, sometimes wildfire fighters will construct a temporary helipad out of timbers to receive supplies in remote areas, rig mats may be used to build helipads. Landing pads may be constructed in extreme conditions such as on ice, the worlds highest helipad, built by India, is located on the Siachen Glacier at a height of 21,000 feet above sea level. The worlds largest heliport is in Morgan City and has a total of 46 helipads, used mostly to support offshore oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. A portable helipad is a structure with a rugged frame that can be used to land helicopters in any areas with slopes of up to 30 degrees, such as hillsides, riverbeds. Portable helipads can be transported by helicopter or powered-lift to place them where a VTOL needs to land, helicopter deck Heliport de Voogt, A. J
American Society of Civil Engineers
The American Society of Civil Engineers is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. Headquartered in Reston, Virginia, it is the oldest national engineering society in the United States and it was the first national engineering society created in the United States. In 1999, the ASCE elected the top-ten civil engineering achievements that had the greatest positive impact on life in the 20th century in broad categories. Monuments of the Millennium were a combination of technical engineering achievement and inspiration, and it publishes conference proceedings, manuals of practice, technical reports, and monographs. The ASCE corporate website hosts the society’s bookstore, the access to all journal articles published since 1983, all conference proceedings since 2000. Each year, more than 55,000 engineers earn continuing education units and/or professional development hours by participating in ASCE’s continuing education programs, ASCE hosts more than 15 annual and specialty conferences, over 200 continuing education seminars and more than 300 live Web seminars.
The Societys Committee on Technical Advancement has 10 divisions, each year, more than 6,000 civil engineering professionals contribute volunteer technical expertise through participation on ASCE technical committees. These committees are housed in the divisions of the Committee on Technical Activities or in the Society’s institutes, the efforts of these volunteers advance the profession in many ways including the numerous conferences held each year, manuals of practice and standards. Certification is the recognition of attaining advanced knowledge and skills in a specialty area of civil engineering, ASCE offers certifications for engineers who demonstrate advanced knowledge and skills in their area of engineering. American Academy of Water Resources Engineers Academy of Geo-Professionals Academy of Coastal, michel Award for Industry Advancement of Research and the Charles Pankow Award for innovation,11 scholarships and fellowships for student members. Special consideration is given to private practice engineering work that is recognized as a contribution to the field of environmental engineering.
The Lifetime Achievement Award has been presented annually since 1999 and recognizes five different individual leaders, one award is present in each category of design, government and management. ASCE designates national and international Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks, on February 12,2007 Lt. Gen Strock gave all expert review panel members an Outstanding Civilian Service Medals. On June 1,2007, the ASCE issued its expert review panel report, the report stated that had levees and pump stations not failed, far less property loss would have occurred and nearly two-thirds of deaths could have been avoided. The ASCE administration was criticized by the Times-Picayune for an attempt to minimize, the Corps acknowledged receiving a copy of the letter and refused to comment until the ASCEs Committee on Professional Conduct had commented on the complaint. It took over a year for the ASCE to announce the results of the CPC, the ASCE self-study panel did not file charges of ethical misconduct and blamed errors on staff and not review panel members having created the June press release.
On November 14,2007, ASCE announced that U. S, congressman Sherwood Boehlert, R‑N. Y. would lead an independent task force of outside experts to review how ASCE participated in engineering studies of national significance. ASCE President David Mongan said the review was to address criticism of ASCE´s role in assisting the Army Corps of Engineers-sponsored investigation of Katrina failures
The Lovell Telescope /ˈlʌvəl/ is a radio telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory, near Goostrey, Cheshire in the north-west of England. It was originally known as the 250 ft telescope or the Radio Telescope at Jodrell Bank and it was renamed to the Lovell Telescope in 1987 after Sir Bernard Lovell, and became a Grade I listed building in 1988. The telescope forms part of the MERLIN and European VLBI Network arrays of radio telescopes, both Bernard Lovell and Charles Husband were knighted for their roles in creating the telescope. In September 2006, the won the BBCs online competition to find the UKs greatest Unsung Landmark. 2007 marked the 50th anniversary of the telescope and it can be seen from the Terminal 1 restaurant area and departure lounges of Manchester Airport. Bernard Lovell built the Transit Telescope at Jodrell Bank in the late 1940s and this turned out to be Charles Husband, whom Lovell first met on 8 September 1949. Two bearing assemblies from 15-inch gun turrets were bought cheaply in 1950, these came from the World War I battleships HMS Revenge and Royal Sovereign, the bearings became the two main altitude rotator bearings of the telescope, with the appropriate parts of the telescope being designed around them.
Husband presented the first drawings of the giant, fully steerable radio telescope in 1950. After refinements, these plans were detailed in a Blue Book, which was presented to the DSIR on 20 March 1951, construction began on 3 September 1952. The foundations for the telescope were completed on 21 May 1953 after being sunk 90 ft into the ground and it took until Mid-March 1954 to get the double railway lines completed due to their required accuracy. The central pivot was delivered to the site on 11 May 1954, although the funding was not ultimately made available from the Air Ministry, the planning process had already progressed too far and so this improvement was made anyway. The telescope was constructed so that the bowl could be completely inverted, originally, it was intended to use a movable tower at the base of the telescope to change the receivers at the focus. However, the tower was never built, due jointly to funding constraints. Instead, receivers were mounted on 50-foot long steel tubes, which were inserted by a winch into the top of the aerial tower while the bowl was inverted.
The cables from the receivers ran down the inside of this tube, the telescope moved for the first time on 3 February 1957, by an inch. It was first moved azimuthally under power on 12 June 1957, the bowl was tilted under power for the first time on 20 June 1957. By the end of July the dish surface was completed, and first light was on 2 August 1957, the telescope was first controlled from the control room on 9 October 1957, by a purpose-built analogue computer. There were large cost overruns with the construction, mainly due to the steeply rising cost of steel at the time the telescope was constructed
University of Bradford
The University of Bradford is a public, plate glass university located in the city of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. The university received its Royal Charter in 1966, making it the 40th university to be created in Britain, there are two campuses, the main campus located on Richmond Road and the School of Management, at Emm Lane. The student population includes 8,395 undergraduate and 2,815 postgraduate students, mature students make up around a third of the undergraduate community. 22% of students are foreign, and come from over 110 different countries, there were 14,406 applications to the university through UCAS in 2010, of which 3,421 were accepted. It was the first British university to establish a Department of Peace Studies in 1973, the division has a reputation as a centre of excellence in peace research, international relations, security studies, conflict resolution and development and peace studies. The universitys origins date back to the Mechanics Institute, founded in 1832, in 1882, the institute became the Bradford Technical College.
In 1957, the Bradford Institute of Technology, was formed as a College of Advanced Technology to take on the running of higher education courses, construction of the Richmond Building, the largest building on campus, began in 1963. The Horton Building and Chesham building were added, on the opposite side of Richmond Road. The Charter of Incorporation was granted in 1966, to create the University of Bradford, expansion of the main campus continued in the 1970s and onwards, with the addition of the Library and Computer Centre, Communal Building, Pemberton Building and Ashfield Building. An extension to the Library and Computer Centre was completed in the mid-1990s, in 1996, the university joined with the former Bradford and Airedale College of Health, which became the School of Health Studies within the university. The Department of Physics was closed in the 1980s, the Department of Mathematics has since been reopened within the School of Computing and Media. In 1987, the university one of the twelve founding members of the Northern Consortium.
In September 2009, it was announced that the University was to merge with Leeds College of Music and it was announced that this merger would not go ahead due to financial constraints. LCMs degrees are now validated by the University of Hull, the university is currently undergoing a £84 million redevelopment programme, including Student Central, which is now home to the brand new student union and study zones and bars. The School of Health Studies was recently moved from the Trinity Road Campus to the universitys City Campus in summer 2011, after major refurbishment, in 2005, a £84 million redevelopment of the campus was announced, and a project to create the worlds first Ecoversity was formed. The university aimed to reduce its footprint by reducing waste. As part of this, Bradford became a Fairtrade University in December 2006, as of 2008, several of the redevelopment projects have been completed. Redevelopment of the facilities was completed in summer 2009
The Mott MacDonald Group is a multidisciplinary consultancy with headquarters in the United Kingdom. It provides engineering and development services internationally, with 16,000 staff in 150 countries, Mott MacDonald is one of the largest employee-owned companies in the world. It was established in 1989 by the merger of Mott, Hay and it has won more than 500 industry awards in the last five years and is among the top ranked firms in the annual league tables published by Engineering News Record and New Civil Engineer. Projects completed by the firm include the Hong Kong International Airport, Mott MacDonald was formed in 1989 through the merger of Mott and Anderson, and Sir M MacDonald & Partners. The merger made Mott MacDonald one of the first international engineering, Mott and Anderson was founded as a private partnership between Basil Mott and David Hay in 1902, with the original firm name of Mott & Hay. Prior to forming the partnership and Hay had spent time building London tube railways.
Both engineers had worked together since 1888 on the City and South London Railway under Sir Benjamin Baker and Hay employed a young engineer called David Anderson as resident engineer for the latter project. The firm advised on proposals for railways in Sydney, Africa. David Anderson was made a partner in 1920 after returning from army service, the firm was thereafter known as Mott and Anderson. During the 1920s, it designed the bridge over the River Dee at Queensferry, the Tyne Bridge in Newcastle. It designed the enlargement of the City & South London Railway tunnels and their extension past Camden Town, both founding partners died in 1938, at which time most of the construction projects stopped. Sir M MacDonald & Partners was named after Murdoch MacDonald, a British civil engineer and politician, the company formed out of affairs relating directly to British infrastructure development in Egypt between 1890 and 1930, in particular MacDonalds involvement with Aswan Low Dam, starting in 1898.
MacDonald was involved in the construction of the Aswan Dam. He became closely associated with the development and first heightening of the Aswan Low Dam for the development of hydroelectricity, MacDonald retired from his service with the Egyptian government in 1921 and returned to Britain where he began a partnership with Archibald MacCorquodale. In 1927, the two were joined by PH East and OL Prowde, at which time the name of the company was changed to Sir M MacDonald & Partners. One of the first major projects of the partnership included the second heightening of the Aswan Low Dam, the firm continued on projects through its merger with Mott and Anderson in 1989. Mott MacDonald began to expand after the 1989 merger, early acquisitions included the consultancies of Husband and Company as well as James Williamson & Partners. These acquisitions brought Mott MacDonalds total staffing to 3,300 and its 1994 acquisition of Ewbank Preece expanded its reach into the power and telecommunication fields, with its 2000 purchase of Cambridge Education Associates expanding its education consultancy
Robert Stephenson FRS was an early railway and civil engineer. The only son of George Stephenson, the Father of Railways, Robert has been called the greatest engineer of the 19th century. Robert was born in Willington Quay, Northumberland, to George and Frances née Henderson, before moved to Killingworth. Robert attended the middle-class Percy Street Academy in Newcastle and at the age of fifteen was apprenticed to the mining engineer Nicholas Wood and he left before he had completed his three years to help his father survey the Stockton and Darlington Railway. Robert spent six months at Edinburgh University before working for three years as an engineer in Colombia. When he returned his father was building the Liverpool and Manchester Railway and he was appointed chief engineer of the London and Birmingham Railway in 1833 with a salary of £1,500 per annum. By 1850 Robert had been involved in the construction of a third of the railway system. He designed the High Level Bridge and Royal Border Bridge on the East Coast Main Line and he eventually worked on 160 commissions from 60 companies, building railways in other countries such as Belgium, Norway and France.
In 1829 Robert married Frances Sanderson who died in 1842, the couple had no children, in 1847 he was elected Member of Parliament for Whitby, and held the seat until his death. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1849 and he served as President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and Institution of Civil Engineers. Roberts death was widely mourned, and his funeral cortège was given permission by Queen Victoria to pass through Hyde Park and he is buried in Westminster Abbey. Robert Stephenson was born on 16 October 1803, at Willington Quay, east of Newcastle upon Tyne, to George Stephenson and Frances née Henderson and she was twelve years older than George, and when they met was working as a servant where George was lodging. Fanny was suffering from tuberculosis, so George would take care of his son in the evening, in autumn 1804 George became a brakesman at the West Moor Pit and the family moved to two rooms in a cottage at Killingworth. On 13 July 1805 Fanny gave birth to a daughter who lived for three weeks, Fannys health deteriorated and she died on 14 May 1806.
George employed a housekeeper to look after his son and went away for three months to look after a Watt engine in Montrose, Scotland and he returned to find his housekeeper had married his brother Robert. He moved back into the cottage with his son and briefly employed another housekeeper before his sister Eleanor moved in, known to Robert as Aunt Nelly, Eleanor had been engaged to be married before travelling to London to work in domestic service. However, returning to get married Eleanors ship was delayed by poor winds, Eleanor attended the local Methodist church, whereas George would not regularly attend church, preferring on Sundays to work on engineering problems and meet his friends. Robert was first sent to a village school 1½ miles away in Long Benton, on his way to school, he would carry picks to the smiths at Long Benton to be sharpened
Sir Alfred Charles Bernard Lovell, OBE, FRS was an English physicist and radio astronomer. He was the first Director of Jodrell Bank Observatory, from 1945 to 1980, Lovell was born at Oldland Common, Bristol in 1913, the son of Gilbert and Emily Laura Lovell. His childhood hobbies and interests included cricket and music – mainly the piano and he had a Methodist upbringing and attended Kingswood Grammar School. Lovell studied physics at the University of Bristol obtaining a Bachelor of Science degree in 1934, at this time he received lessons from Raymond Jones, a teacher at Bath Technical School and organist at Bath Abbey. The church organ was one of the loves of his life. For his work on H2S Lovell received an OBE in 1946 and he attempted to continue his studies of cosmic rays with an ex-military radar detector unit, but suffered much background interference from the electric trams on Manchesters Oxford Road. He moved his equipment to a remote location, one which was free from such electrical interference.
It was an outpost of the botany department. In the course of his experiments, he was able to show that radar echoes could be obtained from daytime meteor showers as they entered the Earths atmosphere and ionised the surrounding air. With university funding, he constructed the then-largest steerable radio telescope in the world, over 50 years later, it remains a productive radio telescope, now operated mostly as part of the MERLIN and European VLBI Network interferometric arrays of radio telescopes. In 1959, he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland and he chose the subject Radio Astronomy and the Structure of the Universe. Lovell was knighted in 1961 for his important contributions to the development of astronomy, and has a secondary school named after him in Oldland Common, Bristol. A building on the QinetiQ site in Malvern is named after him, in 2009, Lovell spoke of a claimed assassination attempt in Deep-Space Communication Centre during the Cold War where the Soviets allegedly tried to kill him with a lethal radiation dose.
At the time, Lovell was head of the Jodrell Bank space telescope that was being used as part of a warning system for Soviet nuclear attacks. Lovell wrote an account of the incident, to be published only after his death. Lovell was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the first name of the fictional scientist Bernard Quatermass, the hero of several BBC Television science-fiction serials of the 1950s, was chosen in honour of Lovell. In 1965 he was invited to co-deliver the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture on Exploration of the Universe, in 1975 he gave the presidential address to the British Association meeting in Guildford. Lovell won numerous awards including, In 1937 he married Mary Joyce Chesterman, physically very frail, Lovell lived in quiet retirement in the English countryside, surrounded by music, his books and a vast garden filled with trees he himself planted many decades before
Goonhilly Satellite Earth Station
Goonhilly Satellite Earth Station is a large radiocommunication site located on Goonhilly Downs near Helston on the Lizard peninsula in Cornwall, England, UK. The site links into undersea cable lines and its first dish, Antenna One, was built in 1962 to link with Telstar. It was the first open parabolic design and is 25.9 metres in diameter and it is now a Grade II listed structure and is therefore protected. The site has played a key role in communications events such as the Muhammad Ali fights, the Olympic Games, the Apollo 11 Moon landing. The sites largest dish, dubbed Merlin, has a diameter of 32 metres, other dishes include Guinevere and Isolde after characters in Arthurian legend, much of which takes place in Cornwall. The earth station is powered by the National Grid, if power fails, all essential equipment will run off huge batteries for up to 20 minutes, during which time four one-megawatt diesel generators will take over. The nearby wind farm is not part of the complex. Until Easter 2010 the site had a visitor centre inside which the Connected Earth gallery told the history of satellite communications, there were many other interactive exhibits, a cafe, a shop and one of Britains fastest cybercafés.
There were tours around the main BT site and into the heart of Arthur. At its prime, the site attracted around 80,000 visitors a year, on 11 January 2011 it was announced that part of the site is to be sold to create a space science centre. This will involve upgrading some of the dishes to make suitable for deep space communication with spacecraft missions. A new company has formed to manage the operations, Goonhilly Earth Station Ltd. The company will lease most of the antennas for at least three years with the option to buy the complex in the future. Goonhilly Earth Station Limited took ownership of the site in January 2014, there are plans to connect one or more of the Goonhilly dishes into global radio astronomy interferometer networks. There are plans to upgrade the former visitor centre into an outreach centre promoting space and space science for visitors, including local residents and schools. In July 2015 European Space Agency has begun a 9-month feasibility study to examine if antenna Goonhilly 6 could be used to support Exploration Mission 1 of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle
Radiology is a specialty that uses medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases seen within the body. Interventional radiology is the performance of medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies, the acquisition of medical images is usually carried out by the Radiographer, often known as a Radiologic Technologist. Depending on location, the Diagnostic Radiologist, or Reporting Radiographer, interprets or reads the images and produces a report of their findings and this report is transmitted to the Clinician who requested the imaging, either routinely or emergently. Radiographs are produced by transmitting X-rays through a patient, the X-rays are projected through the body onto a detector, an image is formed based on which rays pass through versus those that are absorbed or scattered in the patient. Röntgen discovered X-rays on November 8,1895 and received the first Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery in 1901, in film-screen radiography, an X-ray tube generates a beam of X-rays, which is aimed at the patient.
The film is developed chemically and an image appears on the film, film-screen radiography is being replaced by computed radiography but more recently by digital radiography and the EOS imaging. In the two latest systems, the X-rays strike sensors that converts the signals generated into digital information, in digital radiography the sensors shape a plate, but in the EOS system, which is a slot-scanning system, a linear sensor vertically scans the patient. Plain radiography was the imaging modality available during the first 50 years of radiology. Due to its availability and lower costs compared to other modalities, despite the large amount of data in CT scans, MR scans and other digital-based imaging, there are many disease entities in which the classic diagnosis is obtained by plain radiographs. Examples include various types of arthritis and pneumonia, bone tumors, congenital skeletal anomalies, mammography and DXA are two applications of low energy projectional radiography, used for the evaluation for breast cancer and osteoporosis, respectively.
Fluoroscopy and angiography are special applications of X-ray imaging, in which a fluorescent screen and this allows real-time imaging of structures in motion or augmented with a radiocontrast agent. Two radiocontrast agents are presently in common use, barium sulfate is given orally or rectally for evaluation of the GI tract. Iodine, in multiple forms, is given by oral, intra-arterial or intravenous routes. Iodine contrast may be concentrated in areas more or less than in normal tissues. CT imaging uses X-rays in conjunction with computing algorithms to image the body, in CT, an X-ray tube opposite an X-ray detector in a ring-shaped apparatus rotate around a patient, producing a computer-generated cross-sectional image. CT is acquired in the plane, with coronal and sagittal images produced by computer reconstruction. Radiocontrast agents are used with CT for enhanced delineation of anatomy. Although radiographs provide higher resolution, CT can detect more subtle variations in attenuation of X-rays
Jodrell Bank Observatory
The Jodrell Bank Observatory is a British observatory that hosts a number of radio telescopes, and is part of the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics at the University of Manchester. The managing director of the observatory is Professor Simon Garrington, the main telescope at the observatory is the Lovell Telescope, which is the third largest steerable radio telescope in the world. There are three other active telescopes located at the observatory, the Mark II, as well as 42 ft and 7 m diameter radio telescopes and it is reached from the A535. The telescope can be seen when travelling by train, as the Crewe to Manchester Line passes right by the site, Jodrell Bank was first used for academic purposes in 1939 when the University of Manchesters Department of Botany purchased three fields at the site from the Leighs. The site was extended in 1952 by the purchase of a farm from a local farmer, the new land included the site upon which the Lovell Telescope was sited. The first use of the site for astrophysics was in 1945, the equipment he was using was a GL II radar system working at a wavelength of 4.2 m, provided by J. S.
Hey. He originally intended to use the equipment in Manchester, consequently, he moved the equipment to Jodrell Bank,25 miles south of the city, on 10 December 1945. Lovells main topic of research at the time were transient radio echoes, the first staff were Alf Dean and Frank Foden and meteors were observed by the naked eye while Lovell observed the electromagnetic signal on the equipment. Coincidentally, the first time he turned the radar on at Jodrell Bank –14 December 1945 – the Geminids meteor shower was at a maximum. Over the next few years, he accumulated more ex-military radio hardware, including a portable cabin, the first permanent building on the site was located near to this cabin, and was named after it. Today, Jodrell Bank is primarily used for investigating radio waves from the planets, a searchlight was loaned to Jodrell Bank in 1946 by the Army, a broadside array was constructed on the mount of this searchlight by J. Clegg, consisting of a number of Yagi antennas. This was first used for observations in October 1946.
On 9 and 10 October 1946, the telescope was used to observe the ionisation in the atmosphere caused by meteors in the Giacobinids meteor shower, shortly after this, the telescope was used to determine the radiant points for meteors. This was possible as the rate is at a minimum at the radiant point. The telescope, as well as other receivers on the site, was used to study auroral streamers that were visible at the site in early August 1947. The Transit Telescope was a 218 ft parabolic reflector zenith telescope built at Jodrell Bank in 1947, at the time, it was the largest radio telescope in the world. It consisted of a wire suspended from a ring of 24 ft scaffold poles. The telescope mainly looked directly upwards, but the direction of the beam could be changed by small amounts by tilting the mast to change the position of the focal point
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its derives from the River Sheaf. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is 569,700, Sheffield is the third largest English district by population. The metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000, in the 19th century, Sheffield gained an international reputation for steel production. Known as the Steel City, many innovations were developed locally, including crucible and stainless steel, Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield along with other British cities. Sheffields gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007, the economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber.
The city is in the foothills of the Pennines, and the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin. 61% of Sheffields entire area is space, and a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have inhabited since at least the late Upper Palaeolithic period. The earliest evidence of occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes and it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts in and around Sheffield. Gradually, Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira, a Celtic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield. The settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the half of the first millennium. In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, after the Norman conquest, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, and a small town developed that is the nucleus of the modern city.
By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, from 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had previously been possible
Owen Williams (engineer)
Williams ultimately believed architecture and engineering must be inseparable. Williams born at 16 Caroline Terrace in Tottenham, England and he was the son of Evan Owen Williams, a Welsh-born grocer and Mary Roberts. Originally both farmers, they moved to London some years before Owen was born. Williams had two sisters and two brothers, Mary Kate, died young, but the second born, Elizabeth Maud, became an author. Owen had a brother, Robert Osian, who was a successful banker. Williams attended Tottenham Grammar School and Williams excelled in mathematics and he was apprenticed to the Electrical Tramways Co. in London in 1907 and at the same time did an engineering degree at the University of London. In 1912 Williams assumed a position as engineer and designer with the Trussed Concrete Company, seven years later, he started his own consulting firm, Williams Concrete Structures. Appointed chief consulting engineer to the British Empire Exhibition which included the old Wembley Stadium. The commission included the Palace of Industry building in Brent, the building was listed in 1997 in recognition of this but was delisted in 2004 after an appeal by a property developer.
Williams was recognised for his achievements and recognised a knighthood in 1924, through the exhibition, Williams came into an association with its architect, Maxwell Ayrton, which led to their working together on the design of Williamss bridges in Scotland. Williams designed his buildings as functional structures sheathed with decorative facades, more an engineer than an architect, Williams produced a series of reinforced concrete buildings during the period between the wars. After World War II he worked on developing the first plan for Britains motorway system and his other works include the Dorchester Hotel, the Boots pharmaceutical factory in Beeston, the M1 motorway and the Pioneer Health Centre in Peckham, south London. In the 1940s the company expanded and became Sir Owen Williams and this followed the building of the Daily Express Building, Manchester which Williams designed. Contrary to popular belief, the Manchester building was the one of the three Express Buildings which Williams designed – the others in Glasgow and London were designed by Ellis.
Although Williams was more of an engineer than an architect, the Manchester Express Building was lauded for architecture and demonstrated his proficiency as an architect. His nephew is quoted as saying Just fancy Taid taking all that time over the trip to Barnet, Owen Williams grandson, Richard Williams, was Chief Executive of the Owen Williams Group until its acquisition by Amey in 2006. Architect, Maxwell Aryton 1925–26 – Crubenmore and Loch Alvie Bridges, Maxwell Aryton 1925–26 – Duntocher Bridge. O