Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem was a German Lutheran theologian during the Age of Enlightenment. He was known as "Abt Jerusalem", he was court-preacher and a major advisor to Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, to whom he suggested the foundation of the Collegium Carolinum in 1745 - this was the forerunner of the present-day TU Braunschweig. He had a strong influence on the Duchy of Brunswick's educational policy as well as becoming one of the most important German theologians of his era, he is considered one of the heads of the German school of natural theology, which radically departed from conventional Lutheran theological dogma. His main work, "Reflections on the Noble Truths of Religion" looked into speculative-universalist philosophy of history and harmonised salvation history with the secular history of progress. Born in Osnabrück, he was the son of the town's Lutheran pastor. On his father's death in 1726, he went to study theology at Leipzig and Wittenberg, graduating with a master's degree in 1731.
He spent two years in the Dutch Republic before his return to Germany in 1734. He was given a court position in Göttingen in 1737 before spending several years in England, he became a private tutor in the household of Friedrich von Spörcken in Hannover and in 1742 he was summoned to the Brunswick court, where he became court preacher and tutor to the Duke's son and heir Charles William Ferdinand. In 1742 he married widow of a man whose surname was Albrecht, they had five children, including Karl Wilhelm, whose 1772 suicide provided part of the inspiration for Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther. Jerusalem himself died in Brunswick and is buried in the abbey church at Riddagshausen Abbey, of which he had been made abbot in 1752. A prize named after him has been jointly awarded since 2009 by the Braunschweigische Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Brunswick, the Braunschweig University of Technology and the Stiftung Braunschweigischer Kulturbesitz for "outstanding scientific contributions to the dialogue between theology and technology".
Its winners have been: 2009: Nicole C. Karafyllis 2012: Wolfgang König 2015: Gerd de Bruyn 2017: Jürgen Osterhammel: Betrachtungen über die vornehmsten Wahrheiten der Religion, 1768–1779, zahlreiche weitere Auflagen. Übersetzung, ebenso ins Holländische und Schwedische. Andreas Urs Sommer: Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem: Schriften. Reprint der Schriften mit einer Einleitung von Andreas Urs Sommer. ISSN 1430-8320 Band 1: Briefe über die Mosaischen Schriften und Philosophie. Betrachtungen über die vornehmsten Wahrheiten der Religion. Erster Theil. Olms-Weidmann, Hildesheim / Zürich / New York 2007, ISBN 978-3-487-13220-4. Band 2: Betrachtungen über die vornehmsten Wahrheiten der Religion. Zweyter Theil. Olms-Weidmann, Hildesheim/ Zürich/ New York 2007, ISBN 978-3-487-13221-1. Band 3: Betrachtungen über die vornehmsten Wahrheiten der Religion. Zweyten Theils zweyter Band oder viertes Stück. Olms-Weidmann, Hildesheim/ Zürich/ New York 2007, ISBN 978-3-487-13222-8. Band 4: Nachgelassene Schriften. Erster Theil: Fortgesetzte Betrachtungen über die vornehmsten Wahrheiten der Religion.
Hinterlaßne Fragmente. Olms-Weidmann, Hildesheim/ Zürich/ New York 2007, ISBN 978-3-487-13223-5. Band 5: Nachgelassene Schriften. Zweyter und letzter Theil. Olms-Weidmann, Hildesheim/ Zürich/ New York 2007, ISBN 978-3-487-13224-2. Wolfdietrich von Kloeden. "JERUSALEM, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 3. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 62–67. ISBN 3-88309-035-2. Friedrich Th. Koldewey: Jerusalem, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm. In: Encyklopädisches Handbuch der Pädagogik. 2. Auflage. Beyer & Mann, Langensalza 1906, S. 660–663. Fritz Meyen, "Jerusalem, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 10, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 415–416. Braunschweigisches Jahrbuch Band 53, 1972, S. 159–182. Wolfgang Erich Müller: Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem: eine Untersuchung zur Theologie der „Betrachtung über die vornehmsten Wahrheiten der Religion“.. de Gruyter, Berlin/ New York 1984, ISBN 3-11-009680-3. Klaus Erich Pollmann: Abt Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem.
Beiträge zu einem Colloquium anläßlich seines 200. Todestages.. Braunschweig 1991, OCLC 311485810. Eberhard Rohse: Abt Jerusalem als literarische Figur. Darstellung und Bild J. F. W. Jerusalems in historischen Romanen Hermann Klenckes und Wilhelm Raabes. In: Pollmann: Abt Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem. 1991, S. 127–171. Isa Schikorsky: Gelehrsamkeit und Geselligkeit. Abt Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem in seiner Zeit. Ausstellungskatalog. Braunschweig 1989, OCLC 311566618. Andreas Urs Sommer: Neologische Geschichtsphilosophie. Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalems Betrachtungen über die vornehmsten Wahrheiten der Religion. In: Zeitschrift für neuere Theologiegeschichte. Band 9, 2002, S. 169–217. Christopher Spehr: Aufklärung und Ökumene. Reunionsversuche zwischen Katholiken und Protestanten im deutschsprachigen Raum des späteren 18. Jahrhunderts.. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2005, ISBN 3-16-148576-9, S. 53–84. Julius August Wagenmann, "Jerusalem, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 13, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 779–783 Horst Weigelt: Die Beziehungen Lavaters zu Abt Jerusalem und zu anderen Mitgliedern des Collegium Carolinum
Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Crown Princess of Prussia
Elisabeth Christine Ulrike of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was a Crown Princess of Prussia as the first wife of Crown Prince Frederick William, her cousin and the future king Frederick William II of Prussia. She was the seventh child and third daughter of Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia, the sister of Frederick the Great, she held the rank of Duchess in Brunswick with the style and title Her Serene Highness Princess Elisabeth Christine. As the maternal niece of the king of Prussia and the paternal niece of the queen of Prussia, she was selected to marry her cousin Crown Prince Frederick William, by his uncle, the childless King, with the purpose of producing heirs to the Prussian throne; the marriage ceremony between Elisabeth Christine and Crown Prince Frederick William was planned to take place at Charlottenburg Palace's Chapel, but in the end took place on 14 July 1765, on the family country estate Schloss Salzdahlum. Elisabeth Christine was described as handsome to her appearance and graceful in manner, high-spirited and impetuous in disposition, was admired for the grace of her dancing.
Her beauty and spirited manner made her a favorite of her uncle the king, otherwise seldom interested in women, who considered her to be witty and had little sympathy for the adultery of her spouse. Soon it became clear. King Frederick had hoped that the marriage would lead to the production of an heir, but instead noticed that Frederick William neglected his wife and was unfaithful to her on a daily basis with a series of dancers and actresses; when their first child proved to be a girl, Princess Frederica Charlotte, their relationship deteriorated. This was described in Vertraute Briefe as: "Frederic William was now twenty-one years of age, but he was addicted to the grossest sensuality, his time, when not occupied by his military duties, was spent with vile women and other loose companions. His young wife resented this conduct in the highest degree, she sacrificed virtue to revenge."Wounded by her husband's neglect and infidelity, the Crown Princess began to have affairs with young officers of the Potsdam Guard.
In a letter wrote to his sister Philippine Charlotte, the concerned King says: The husband and immoral, practiced a debauched life daily. Her vivacity and good opinion of herself, took her to avenge the offenses against her. Soon she found herself in such debauchery; this scandal erupted when, as was noted by Friedrich Wilhelm von Thulemeyer, the Crown Princess became pregnant by her lover, a musician called Pietro. By late January 1769 they planned to escape to Italy. On a masked ball given by Prince Henry in celebration of the king's birthday on 24 January 1769, the crown prince was informed of her affairs by an anonymous person hidden behind a mask, which enraged him despite his own adultery, made him demand a divorce. King Frederick was unwilling to agree to a divorce, as his sympathy was greater for Elisabeth Christine than for Frederick William, but the crown prince insisted in his demand for a divorce, urged in agreement with the King the annulment of his marriage on grounds to avoid claims of illegitimate offspring on the Prussian throne, to which the Brunswick court agreed.
The musician Pietro was arrested and taken to Magdeburg, where he was beheaded. Elisabeth Christine terminated her pregnancy with drugs, her brother, Prince William of Brunswick, was aware of her affairs, his attempts to hide them and defend her exposed him to suspicions that he himself had been involved in them. The divorce was pronounced on 18 April 1769. Frederick the Great forced his nephew to remarry only three months after the separation. Elisabeth Christine was firstly banished to Küstrin Fortress and placed under house arrest as a Prisoner of state in the Ducal Castle of Stettin under the care of her cousin, Duke Augustus William of Brunswick-Bevern, she was given the title of Serene Highness. At first, she lived in harsh circumstances. Being of an extrovert nature, she suffered from her isolation: she sometimes placed all the chairs in a long row in her apartments, dance "Anglaises" between them to ease her boredom, she did at one point attempt to escape, made an agreement with an officer to help her escape to Venice, but the plan was never put in fruition as her accomplice disappeared.
King Frederick improved her living conditions, in 1774, she was given a summer residence in the medieval cloister in Jasenitz. After the death of Frederick the Great in 1786, she received a visit from her former spouse, during his reign, her conditions improved: she was given permission to entertain visitors, to walk, ride on horseback in the areas of the town. According to Mirabeau, she was offered her release, but declined, as she had by that time grown used to her lifestyle. An incident is known, when she slapped an officer who insisted upon opening a New Year's gift from her mother: when he sent a complaint to the king, he an
Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Duchess Sophie Caroline Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth by marriage to Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. She was the eldest daughter of Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, his wife, Philippine Charlotte of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great. In 1753, George II of Great Britain hoped to marry Sophie Caroline to his grandson George, Prince of Wales; this was an attempt to improve relations with Prussia, as Sophie Caroline was a niece of Frederick II of Prussia and George II needed Prussian troops to help offset the alliance between France and Austria that had occurred as a result of the Diplomatic Revolution. The prince's mother Augusta, Dowager Princess of Wales, thwarted George II's plans, which increased tensions within the British royal family; the Prince of Wales himself, influenced by his mother, was vehemently opposed to the match, declaring he would not be "bewolfenbuttelled". Augusta wanted her son to marry her niece Frederica, but this union fell through.
Soon after becoming king in 1760, George III married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz instead the following year, in what was to become a happy marriage. George and his mother's refusal reflected another changing reality in British foreign policy: the relationship with the Electorate of Hanover. George II and his father George I were both descended from the House of Hanover, thus held the electorate dear to their hearts; as a daughter of the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Sophie Caroline was ancestrally related to neighboring Hanover. The Prince of Wales and his mother however did not possess the same attachment to Hanover, thus influencing their decision to reject a match with Sophie Caroline. Though this match was not to be, Sophie Caroline's brother Charles II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, married George's sister Princess Augusta in 1764, George III's son George IV married their daughter Caroline of Brunswick, thus continuing the close ties between the two houses. In Brunswick on 20 September 1759, 11 months after the death of his first wife Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia, Sophie Caroline married Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
He was 26 years older than she was, their marriage was childless. Frederick did have a daughter, Margravine Elisabeth Fredericka Sophie of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, from his first marriage. Frederick died on 26 February 1763. Without any male issue, he was succeeded on his death by Frederick Christian. Sophie Caroline died on 22 December 1817 at the age of 80, she never remarried. Black, Jeremy. George III: America's Last King. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11732-9. Black, Jeremy. George II: Puppet of the Politicians?. University of Exeter Press. ISBN 0-85989-807-5. Hibbert, Christopher. George III: A Personal History. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02724-5
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
Lorenz Heister was a German anatomist and botanist born in Frankfurt am Main. From 1702 to 1706 Heister studied at the Universities of Giessen and Wetzlar, afterwards relocating to Amsterdam, where he studied anatomy under Frederik Ruysch. In the summer of 1707, he was an assistant physician in field hospitals at Brussels and Ghent during the War of the Spanish Succession, he traveled to Leiden, where he studied anatomy under Bernhard Siegfried Albinus and Govert Bidloo attending Hermann Boerhaave’s lectures on chemistry and ocular diseases. In 1708 he earned his doctorate from the University of Harderwijk, in the summer of 1709, rejoined the Dutch military as a field surgeon during the Siege of Tournai. Shortly afterwards, he distinguished himself in treatment of the wounded from the Battle of Malplaquet. In 1711 he was appointed professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Altdorf, from 1720, was a professor of anatomy and surgery at Helmstedt, where he remained for rest of his life.
During his tenure at Helmstedt, he taught classes in botany and practical medicine. In 1730 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. Among his numerous writings, his best-known work is Chirurgie, a book on surgery, translated into several languages, it was used extensively in Japan, was still employed as a standard text at Vienna as late as 1838. Heister's botanical garden in Helmstedt was considered one of the most beautiful in Germany. In 1718, he coined the word "tracheotomy", he is credited for being the first physician to perform a post-mortem section of appendicitis. His name is lent to the plant genus Heisteria, as well as to the spiral valves of Heister, defined as anatomical folds of the cystic duct, he died in Bornum am Elm. His botanical writings were published as Beschreibung eines neuen Geschlechts in 1755, with illustrated descriptions of plants. Compendium anatomicum published in 1721, 10 editions overall. Chirurgie published in 1731, 15 editions overall. Institutiones chirurgicae, 1749.
Beschreibung eines neuen Geschlechts, Braunschweig 1755 Lorenz Heister at Who Named It
Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia
Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia was a Duchess consort of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by marriage to Charles I of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and a known intellectual in contemporary Germany. She is listed as a female composer as she is thought to have written other music. Philippine Charlotte was the fourth child and third daughter of Frederick William I of Prussia and his spouse Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. On 2 July 1733 in Berlin, Princess Philippine Charlotte married Duke Charles of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, eldest son of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Charles inherited the dukedom on his father's death in 1735; the double marriage alliance between Prussia and Brunswick by her marriage to Charles I, that of her brother Frederick to Charles' sister Elisabeth Christine, led to a permanent alliance of the most important North German Protestant houses Prussia and Brunswick. The family ties of the two dynasties resulted the alliance of Brunswick and Prussia in the Seven Years' War, the career of Philippines sons in the Prussian service.
Philippine Charlotte was described as subtle educated and a child of the enlightenment. She worked independently of an extract of the philosophical writings of Christian von Wolff in French; the Duchess pursued because of the influence of the ducal adviser Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem, the German intellectual life closely. She appreciated the poet Salomon Gessner and maintained a personal relationship Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock; the dramatist Lessing were among her circle. As Duchess consort, Philippine Charlotte's court life focused on the circle of conversation she held before and after dinner in her state apartments in the Grauer Hof, to which she attracted scholars and men of letters with positions at court; the Brunswick court attended a few opera performances and public balls a year in accordance with court etiquette, but the large expenditure of her spouse soon made it necessary to have a more economic court life. She raised her son Charles in reverence of her brother, Frederick of Prussia, gave him a humanist education with Abbé Jerusalem among his tutors, sent him on a Grand Tour with the archaeologist Winckelmann as his companion.
In 1773, Charles I was obliged to make his son regent, in 1780, he died, was succeeded by her son. The Swedish Princess Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte described her, as well as her family, at the time of a visit in August, 1799: Our cousin, the Duke, arrived the next morning. After he left us, I visited the aunt of my consort, she is an agreeable educated and well respected lady, but by now so old that she has lost her memory. Philippine Charlotte left to the Wolfenbüttel Library her own collection of 4,000 volumes. Media related to Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia at Wikimedia Commons
Technical University of Braunschweig
The Technische Universität Braunschweig referred to as TU Braunschweig, is the oldest Technische Universität in Germany. It was founded in 1745 as Collegium Carolinum and is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the most renowned and largest German institutes of technology, it is ranked among the top universities for engineering in Germany. TU Braunschweig’s research profile is interdisciplinary, but with a focus on aeronautics, vehicle engineering including autonomous driving and electric mobility, life sciences, metrology. Research is conducted in close collaboration with external organizations such as the German Aerospace Center, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, several Fraunhofer Institutes, Germany's national metrology institute, among many others; as one of few research institutions of its type in the world, the university has its own research airport. Its complete name is Technische Universität Braunschweig. Translating the name into English is discouraged by the university, but its preferred translation is University of Braunschweig - Institute of Technology or its short form Braunschweig Institute of Technology.
While the word "technology" in its name implies a focus on science and engineering, it is still a university in the sense that it represents a wide range of subjects. It is subdivided into six faculties with different degree specialisations; the TU Braunschweig focuses its research in four main areas: Future City, Metrology and Infections and Therapeutics. The university's researchers cooperate with other research institutions in Braunschweig; the scientists at the TU Braunschweig are developing concepts for the intelligent future cities. The aim is to find solutions for efficient, eco-friendly, healthy and green Smart Cities. Nanoscale materials and components measuring only millionths of a millimetre have become indispensable in many procedures, their measurement requires new approaches in nanometrology. The Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology and Analytics is investigating the limits of the measurable together with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; the researchers are working towards a seamless multimodal mobility system.
This focus bundles research in aerospace technology and rail technology. Important topics are intelligent and interconnected mobility, low-emission vehicles using non-fossil energies and sustainable production. In addition, traffic management and social impacts are considered. Together with scientists from around the world, TU Braunschweig aims at reducing the number of traffic accidents; the researchers are developing novel materials and surfaces that help reduce fuel consumption and noise, are developing next-generation energy sources. Interdisciplinary research is tied together in the NFL - Aeronautics Research Centre Niedersachsen and the NFF – Automotive Research Centre Niedersachsen; the Braunschweig Integrated Centre of Systems Biology combines natural sciences and information technology to systems biology. Together with the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and the Leibniz Institute DSMZ strategies against infectious microorganisms are developed; this includes natural substances consisting of microorganisms.
The manufacturing and processing of these agents is the subject of the Center of Pharmaceutical Engineering. In addition to the main areas of research, the research profile of the TU Braunschweig is shaped by several interdisciplinary and interdepartmental research associations, which are structured in research centres. BLB is a research centre of the TU Braunschweig; the centre is an interdisciplinary research platform for the development of production processes as well as diagnosis and simulation for current lithium-ion batteries and future battery technologies such as solid state and lithium-sulphur batteries. BLB unites 13 professorships from three universities as well as battery experts from the PTB and integrates the necessary competences along the value chain for excellent R&D in the field of batteries in Lower Saxony; the BRICS is an interdisciplinary centre in cooperation with the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research. Three departments of the Helmholtz Centre as well as institutes from three faculties of the TU Braunschweig work together.
At BRICS, microorganisms in the fields of biotechnology and infection research are investigated using systems biology methods. Mathematical models will be used to develop new anti-infectives and new biotechnological production processes. In the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology, institutes of the TU Braunschweig conduct research together with departments of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Research topics are method developments as well as ubiquitous sensors and standards; the focus is on the metrology of 3-dimensional Nano systems. At the Automotive Research Centre in Lower Saxony, scientists working on the Metropolitan Car are collaborating to find answers to the social and ecological challenges associated with increased urbanization. In addition to the TU Braunschweig, which plays a leading role, the German Aerospace Center and Leibniz Universität Hannover are involved; the Technical University of Braunschweig, the DLR and the Leibniz University Hannover are pooling their wide-ranging expertise in the Lower Saxony Research Centre for Aeronautics to promote basic, coordinated research programmes in the field of aeronautics and space technology.
The researchers at PVZ want to make it possible to produce