Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg
Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, was duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen and duke of Saxe-Altenburg. He was the youngest child, but only son, of Ernst Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, by his third wife, Princess Ernestine of Saxe-Weimar. Frederick succeeded his father Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen in 1780; until 1806 he was subject to the restrictions of the imperial debit commission, which had placed the duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen under official administration, because of his predecessors' dissolute financial policy. In 1806 Frederick joined the Confederation of the Rhine, in 1815 the German Confederation, under whose guarantee he gave 1818 the duchy a new basic condition. In Hildburghausen on 3 September 1785, Frederick married Duchess Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, she was a niece of Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the wife of King George III. Two of her sisters became the queens of Prussia and Hanover, respectively, they had twelve children: Joseph Georg Karl Frederick.
Katharina Charlotte Georgine Fredericka Sofie Therese, married on 28 September 1805 to Prince Paul of Württemberg. Caroline Auguste. Joseph Georg Friedrich Ernst Karl, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg. Fredericke Luise Marie Caroline Auguste Christiane. Therese Charlotte Luise Friederike Amalie, married on 12 October 1810 to King Ludwig I of Bavaria. Charlotte Luise Fredericka Amalie Alexandrine, married on 24 June 1814 to Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau. Franz Frederick Karl Ludwig Georg Heinrich. Georg, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg. Frederick Wilhelm Karl Joseph Ludwig Georg. Maximilian Karl Adolf Heinrich. Eduard Karl Wilhelm Christian. Frederick was considered intelligent. During his reign, along with his beautiful wife, cultural life in the small town reached its zenith. So many poets and artists spent their time there that Hildburghausen was nicknamed "Klein-Weimar"; when the last duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg died without issue in 1825, the other branches of the house decided on a rearrangement of the Ernestine duchies.
On 12 November 1826, Frederick became Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, to which he gave a first Basic Law in the year 1831. Media related to Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg at Wikimedia Commons geneall.net
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was the wife of King George III. She served as Queen of Great Britain and Queen of Ireland from her wedding in 1761 until the union of the two kingdoms in 1801, after which she was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1818, she was the Electress of Hanover in the Holy Roman Empire until the promotion of her husband to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, after which she was queen consort of Hanover. Charlotte was a patron of an amateur botanist who helped expand Kew Gardens, she was distressed by her husband's bouts of physical and mental illness, which became permanent in life and resulted in their eldest son's appointment as Prince Regent in 1811. George III and Charlotte had 15 children in total, she was the mother of two future British monarchs, George IV and William IV. Her other children included Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg. Sophia Charlotte was born on 19 May 1744, she was the youngest daughter of Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg and of his wife Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a small north-German duchy in the Holy Roman Empire. The children of Duke Charles were all born at the Unteres Schloss in Mirow. According to diplomatic reports at the time of her engagement to George III in 1761, Charlotte had received "a mediocre education", her upbringing was similar to that of a daughter of an English country gentleman. She received some rudimentary instruction in botany, natural history and language from tutors, but her education focused on household management and on religion, the latter taught by a priest. Only after her brother Adolphus Frederick succeeded to the ducal throne in 1752 did she gain any experience of princely duties and of court life; when King George III succeeded to the throne of Great Britain upon the death of his grandfather, George II, he was 22 years old and unmarried. His mother and advisors were anxious to have him settled in marriage; the 17-year-old Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz appealed to him as a prospective consort because she had been brought up in an insignificant north German duchy and therefore would have had no experience or interest in power politics or party intrigues.
That proved to be the case. The King announced to his Council in July 1761, according to the usual form, his intention to wed the Princess, after which a party of escorts, led by the Earl Harcourt, departed for Germany to conduct Princess Charlotte to England, they reached Strelitz on 14 August 1761, were received the next day by the reigning duke, Princess Charlotte's brother, at which time the marriage contract was signed by him on the one hand and Earl Harcourt on the other. Three days of public celebrations followed, on 17 August 1761, the Princess set out for Britain, accompanied by her brother, Duke Adolphus Frederick, by the British escort party. On 22 August, they reached Cuxhaven; the voyage was difficult. They set out at once for London, spent that night in Witham, at the residence of Lord Abercorn, arrived at 3:30 pm the next day at St. James's Palace in London, they were received by the King and his family at the garden gate, which marked the first meeting of the bride and groom. At 9:00 pm that same evening, within six hours of her arrival, Charlotte was united in marriage with King George III.
The ceremony was performed at the Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Secker. Only the royal family, the party who had travelled from Germany, a handful of guests were present. Upon her wedding day, Charlotte spoke no English. However, she learned English, albeit speaking with a strong German accent. Many observers considered her "ugly", one commented, "She is timid at first but talks a lot, when she is among people she knows." Less than a year after the marriage, on 12 August 1762, the Queen gave birth to her first child, Prince of Wales. In the course of their marriage, the couple became the parents of 15 children, all but two of whom survived into adulthood. St James's Palace functioned as the official residence of the royal couple, but the king had purchased a nearby property, Buckingham House, located at the western end of St James's Park. More private and compact, the new property stood amid rolling parkland not far from St James's Palace. Around 1762 the King and Queen moved to this residence, intended as a private retreat.
The Queen came to favor this residence, spending so much of her time there that it came to be known as The Queen's House. Indeed, in 1775, an Act of Parliament settled the property on Queen Charlotte in exchange for her rights to Somerset House. Most of her 15 children were born in Buckingham House, although St James's Palace remained the official and ceremonial royal residence. During her first years in Great Britain, Charlotte's strained relationship with her mother-in-law, Princess Augusta, caused her difficulty in adapting to the life of the British court; the queen mother interfered with Charlotte's efforts to establish social contacts by insisting on rigid court etiquette. Furthermore, Augusta appointed many of Charlotte's staff, among whom several were expected to report to Augusta about Charlotte's behavior; when she turned to her German companions for fr
Duchess Therese of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Duchess Therese Mathilde Amalie of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and a Duchess of Mecklenburg. Through her marriage to Karl Alexander, 5th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, Therese was a member of the House of Thurn and Taxis. Therese Mathilde Amalie of Mecklenburg was born in Hanover the daughter of Duke Charles of Mecklenburg and his first wife Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt. Therese married Karl Alexander, Hereditary Prince of Thurn and Taxis, son of Karl Anselm, 4th Prince of Thurn and Taxis and his wife Duchess Auguste of Württemberg, on 25 May 1789 in Neustrelitz, Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Therese's paternal aunt Queen Charlotte and her husband George III of the United Kingdom helped broker the marriage, in particular ensuring that Therese would be able to keep her Protestant faith. Therese and Karl Alexander had seven children: Princess Charlotte Luise of Thurn and Taxis Prince George Karl of Thurn and Taxis Princess Maria Theresia of Thurn and Taxis Princess Luise Friederike of Thurn and Taxis Princess Maria Sophia Dorothea of Thurn and Taxis Maximilian Karl, 6th Prince of Thurn and Taxis Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Thurn and Taxis Therese had illegitimate issue by Maximilian, Graf von und zu Lerchenfeld auf Köfering und Schönberg, who married on 25 May 1789 Maria Anna Philippine Walburga Groschlag von Dieburg, by whom he had one son.
Children include: Georg Adolf, Graf von Stockau, a Lutheran, married on 25 November 1830 to Franziska de Paula Maria Elisabeth, Gräfin von Fünfkirchen, a Roman Catholic, heiress of Napajedl castle and estate in Maehren, widow of Clemens Graf von Kesselstatt, had issue, now extinct in male line Amalie von Sternfeld, married at Köfering, 31 August 1825 to Georg-Alexander, Freiherr von Krüdener, had female issueIn 1790 Anne-César, Chevalier de la Luzerne, the French ambassador to Great Britain, reported that Therese's husband was being considered for the new throne of the Austrian Netherlands and that Therese's aunt Queen Charlotte would support this. After the mediatization of the Principality of Thurn and Taxis to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1806 during the German Mediatisations, the end of the Holy Roman Empire and creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, the subsequent end of the Imperial Reichspost, Therese's initiative and negotiating skills were influential in maintaining the Thurn and Taxis-run postal system as the private company, Thurn-und-Taxis-Post.
Like her sister, Queen consort of Prussia, she failed in their negotiations with Napoleon I of France, but during the Congress of Vienna, she was successful in enforcing the interests of the Thurn and Taxis family. Therese and Karl Alexander had their first residence in the Palais Thurn und Taxis in Frankfurt am Main. Early on in their marriage, Therese took over her young husband's representational tasks. After her father-in-law's resignation as Post Master General and Principal Commissioner of the Perpetual Imperial Diet at Regensburg, Therese's husband Karl Alexander became Principal Commissioner in 1797. Therese took an active role in the administration of the Princely House and lands as well as the postal administration and was devoted to art and literature, she hosted in her salon poets and writers including Jean Paul, Friedrich Rückert, Johann Kaspar Lavater, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. Only with the predictable demise of the Imperial Reichspost, the German Mediatisations of 1803, the mediatization of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis, the loss of position of Post Master General in the time of Napoleon I of France, Therese became outwardly politically active, most after the death of her father-in-law in 1805.
Since Therese reinforced the sovereignty of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis and its traditional postal rights. In 1806, she and her husband negotiated with her brother-in-law Frederick William III of Prussia along with Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg, the former Archbishop-Elector of Mainz and Prince-Primate of Regensburg, for the first time in 1807 with Napoleon, they negotiated with Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria in Munich and proposed to him the nationalization of the Thurn and Taxis Lehnspost there. In 1808, Therese and her husband took the interests of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis to the Congress of Erfurt. There, a secret meeting occurred between Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord and Alexander I of Russia in her salon. After fruitless negotiations in Erfurt were lost, Therese traveled at the end of 1809 to Paris, where she met with Napoleon concerning the future status of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis, the withdrawal of the media, the re-acquisition of rights to the postal system.
From this trip survives a correspondence with her husband Karl Alexander in which he laments the impoverishment of the House of Thurn and Taxis and asks Therese to limit her expenses. Through their negotiations with Napoleon, the Pri
Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
Adolf Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg
Adolf Frederick I was the reigning Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin from his father's death in 1592 until 1628 and again from 1631 to 1658. Between 1634 and 1648 Adolf Frederick ruled the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin as its administrator, he was a son of John VII, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Sophia, daughter of Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, his wife Christine of Hesse. At first Adolf Frederick and his brother John Albert II reigned under the guardianship of Duke Ulrich III of Mecklenburg-Güstrow and Charles I of Mecklenburg; the two brothers Adolf Frederick and John Albert took over governance of Mecklenburg-Schwerin beginning on 16 April 1608, after the death of Charles on 22 July 1610 they governed in Mecklenburg-Güstrow. In 1621 the duchy of Mecklenburg was formally divided between the two brothers, with Adolf Frederick ruling in Mecklenburg-Schwerin and John Albert ruling in Mecklenburg-Güstrow. During the Thirty Years' War, Albrecht von Wallenstein ousted the dukes after they secretly sided with King Christian IV of Denmark against Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II.
Wallenstein ruled the duchies from 1627 until 1631, when the dukes were restored by the Swedes under King Gustavus Adolphus. In 1634 Adolf Frederick succeeded Ulrik of Denmark as last Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Schwerin before its securalisation. Adolf Frederick I fathered 19 children in all, he was married for the first time on 4 September 1622 to Anna Maria of East Frisia, daughter of Count Enno III of East Frisia and Anna of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp. They had the following children: Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Sophie Agnes, Abbess of Rühn. Charles, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow. Anna Maria, married in 1647 to August, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels. John George, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow. Hedwig. Gustav Rudolph, married Erdmuthe Sophie, daughter of Duke Francis Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg. Juliane. Adolf Frederick married for a second time in 1635 to Marie Katharina, daughter of Duke Julius Ernest, Duke of Brunswick-Dannenberg, Maria of East Frisia, they had the following children: Abbess of Rühn.
Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Grabow. Christina, Abbess of Gandersheim. Bernhard Sigismund. Augusta. Maria Elisabeth, Abbess of Rühn, Abbess of Gandersheim. Anna Sophia, married in 1677 to Julius Siegmund, Duke of Württemberg-Juliusburg. Adolph Ernest. Philipp Louis. Henry William. Adolf Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars; the goal was not to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe. France lost all its recent conquests while Prussia and Russia made major territorial gains. Prussia added smaller German states in Swedish Pomerania and 60 % of the Kingdom of Saxony. Russia gained parts of Poland; the new Kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just months before, included Austrian territory that in 1830 became Belgium.
The immediate background was Napoleonic France's defeat and surrender in May 1814, which brought an end to 23 years of nearly continuous war. Negotiations continued despite the outbreak of fighting triggered by Napoleon's dramatic return from exile and resumption of power in France during the Hundred Days of March to July 1815; the Congress's "final act" was signed nine days before his final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815. The Congress has been criticized for causing the subsequent suppression of the emerging national and liberal movements, it has been seen as a reactionary movement for the benefit of traditional monarchs. However, others praise it for having created long-term stability and peaceful conditions in most of Europe. In a technical sense, the "Congress of Vienna" was not properly a congress: it never met in plenary session, most of the discussions occurred in informal, face-to-face sessions among the Great Powers of Austria, France and sometimes Prussia, with limited or no participation by other delegates.
On the other hand, the congress was the first occasion in history where, on a continental scale, national representatives came together to formulate treaties instead of relying on messages among the several capitals. The Congress of Vienna settlement, despite changes, formed the framework for European international politics until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914; the Treaty of Chaumont in 1814 had reaffirmed decisions, made and that would be ratified by the more important Congress of Vienna of 1814-15. They included the establishment of a confederated Germany, the division of Italy into independent states, the restoration of the Bourbon kings of Spain, the enlargement of the Netherlands to include what in 1830 became modern Belgium; the Treaty of Chaumont became the cornerstone of the European Alliance that formed the balance of power for decades. Other partial settlements had occurred at the Treaty of Paris between France and the Sixth Coalition, the Treaty of Kiel that covered issues raised regarding Scandinavia.
The Treaty of Paris had determined that a "general congress" should be held in Vienna and that invitations would be issued to "all the Powers engaged on either side in the present war". The opening was scheduled for July 1814; the Congress functioned through formal meetings such as working groups and official diplomatic functions. The Four Great Powers had formed the core of the Sixth Coalition. On the verge of Napoleon's defeat they had outlined their common position in the Treaty of Chaumont, negotiated the Treaty of Paris with the Bourbons during their restoration: Austria was represented by Prince Metternich, the Foreign Minister, by his deputy, Baron Johann von Wessenberg; as the Congress's sessions were in Vienna, Emperor Francis was kept informed. Britain was represented first by Viscount Castlereagh. In the last weeks it was headed by the Earl of Clancarty, after Wellington left to face Napoleon during the Hundred Days. Tsar Alexander I controlled the Russian delegation, formally led by the foreign minister, Count Karl Robert Nesselrode.
The tsar had two main goals, to gain control of Poland and to promote the peaceful coexistence of European nations. He succeeded in forming the Holy Alliance, based on monarchism and anti-secularism, formed to combat any threat of revolution or republicanism. Prussia was represented by Prince Karl August von Hardenberg, the Chancellor, the diplomat and scholar Wilhelm von Humboldt. King Frederick William III of Prussia was in Vienna, playing his role behind the scenes. France, the "fifth" power, was represented by its foreign minister, Talleyrand, as well as the Minister Plenipotentiary the Duke of Dalberg. Talleyrand had negotiated the Treaty of Paris for Louis XVIII of France; these parties had not been part of the Chaumont agreement, but had joined the Treaty of Paris: Spain – Marquis Pedro Gómez de Labrador Portugal – Plenipotentiaries: Pedro de Sousa Holstein, Count of Palmela. Sweden – Count Carl Löwenhielm Denmark – Count Niels Rosenkrantz, foreign minister. King Frederick VI was present in Vienna.
The Netherlands – Earl of Clancarty, the
Karl Alexander, 5th Prince of Thurn and Taxis
Karl Alexander, 5th Prince of Thurn and Taxis, full German name: Karl Alexander Fürst von Thurn und Taxis was the fifth Prince of Thurn and Taxis, head of the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post, Head of the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis from 13 November 1805 until his death on 15 July 1827. With the death of his father on 13 November 1805, he became nominal Generalpostmeister of the Imperial Reichspost until the resignation of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. Karl Alexander studied at the Universities of Strasbourg, Würzburg, Mainz and subsequently went on a European tour. In 1797, he was appointed successor to his ailing father's position as Prinzipalkommissar at the Perpetual Imperial Diet in Regensburg. Karl Alexander worked for the Thurn and Taxis postal empire, operating during a decline due to the gradual loss of territory as a result of the Napoleonic Wars. Karl Alexander married Duchess Therese of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, fourth eldest child and third eldest daughter of Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg and his wife Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt, on 25 May 1789 in Neustrelitz, Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Karl Alexander and Therese had seven children: Princess Charlotte Luise of Thurn and Taxis Prince George Karl of Thurn and Taxis Princess Maria Theresia of Thurn and Taxis, ancestress of Gloria, Princess of Thurn and Taxis Princess Luise Friederike of Thurn and Taxis Princess Maria Sophia Dorothea of Thurn and Taxis Maximilian Karl, 6th Prince of Thurn and Taxis Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Thurn and Taxis After the end of the Holy Roman Empire, the Thurn and Taxis postal system continued to survive as a private company. Since 1806, Karl Alexander headed the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post, it existed first as a feud of some of the Confederation of the Rhine members, such as Baden, Württemberg. Bavaria, nationalized the postal system two years later. After the Congress of Vienna, Karl Alexander took over the Hessian and Thuringian postal services, as well as those in the Hanseatic League cities of Bremen, Lübeck, Schaffhausen. From 1820, the company began to prosper again, so Karl Alexander began to acquire large amounts of land holdings.
According to the Confederation of the Rhine Act, agreed upon between Napoleon I of France and the Confederation of the Rhine princes, the Principality of Thurn and Taxis lost its independence and was mediatised in 1806. Since the Princes of Thurn and Taxis and hence Karl Alexander, depending on the territory, were subjects of either the King of Württemberg, or the Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. In return, the House of Thurn and Taxis received the Imperial Abbey of St. Emmeram and associated territories in Regensburg. Karl Alexander received as the family head of the House of Thurn and Taxis, Prussian possessions in the Grand Duchy of Poland. In 1822/23, he bought from others the Burg Richenburg in Bohemia. 22 February 1770 – 17 March 1773: His Serene Highness Prince Karl Alexander of Thurn and Taxis 17 March 1773 – 13 November 1805: His Serene Highness The Hereditary Prince of Thurn and Taxis 13 November 1805 – 15 July 1827: His Serene Highness The Prince of Thurn and Taxis Grand Master of the Order of Parfaite Amitié Knight of the Austrian Order of the Golden Fleece Wolfgang Behringer: Thurn und Taxis, München 1990 ISBN 3-492-03336-9 Wolfgang Behringer: Im Zeichen des Merkur, Göttingen 2003 ISBN 3-525-35187-9 Wolfgang Behringer: Innovative Reichsfürsten, in: Damals, Juli 2005 Martin Dallmeier: Quellen zur Geschichte des europäischen Postwesens, Kallmünz 1977 Ludwig Kalmus: Weltgeschichte der Post, Wien 1937 Max Piendl: Das fürstliche Haus Thurn und Taxis, Regensburg 1980 Europäische Stammtafeln Band V, Genealogie Thurn und Taxis, Tafel 131 Eugen Lennhoff/Oskar Posner: Internationales Freimaurer-Lexikon.
Wien 1932, Nachdruck: Almathea-Verlag München 1980 Media related to Karl Alexander, 5th Prince of Thurn and Taxis at Wikimedia Commons