Charles II known as Charles the Lame, was King of Naples, Count of Provence and Forcalquier, Prince of Achaea, Count of Anjou and Maine. He was the son of Charles I of Anjou—one of the most powerful European monarchs in the second half of the 13th century—and Beatrice of Provence, his father granted Charles the Principality of Salerno in the Kingdom of Sicily in 1272 and made him regent in Provence and Forcalquier in 1279. After the uprising known as the Sicilian Vespers against Charles' father, the island of Sicily became an independent kingdom under the rule of Peter III of Aragon in 1282. A year his father made Charles regent in the mainland territories of the Regno. Charles held a general assembly where unpopular taxes were abolished and the liberties of the noblemen and clerics were confirmed, he could not prevent the Aragonese from occupying the islands in the Gulf of Naples. The Sicilian admiral, Roger of Lauria, captured him in a naval battle near Naples in 1284; as he was still in prison when his father died on 7 January 1285, his realms were ruled by regents.
Born in 1254, Charles was the son of Charles I of Beatrice of Provence. He was the sole heir of his father's vast dominion. By the time of Charles' birth, his father had seized Provence and Forcalquier and Maine, the Kingdom of Sicily. In the 1270s, his father proclaimed himself King of Albania asserted his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, inherited Achaea. Charles' mother died in 1267, but his father's determination to keep his empire intact deprived Charles of his maternal inheritance during his father's lifetime. Charles I arranged a double marriage alliance with Stephen V of Hungary in 1269. Stephen's daughter, Maria was engaged to Charles, Charles' sister, Isabelle to Maria's brother, Ladislaus. Charles fell ill in late 1271. To encourage prayers for his recovery, his father donated Charles' wax sculptures to churches frequented by pilgrims in the whole kingdom. After Charles recovered, his father made a pilgrimage at the shrine of Saint Nicholas in Bari and sent gifts to the sanctuary of Mary the Virgin at Rocamadour.
Charles was knighted together with his brother, 100 Italian and French young noblemen at Pentecost 1272. On this occasion, his father granted him the Principality of Salerno, which had customarily been held by the crown princes during the reign of the Norman kings of Sicily; the king stipulated that Charles could not claim other territories, most in reference to Provence. His father appointed him to administer Provence in late 1279, he accompanied his cousin, Philip III of France, to a meeting with Peter III of Aragon at Toulouse in December 1280. Peter was the son-in-law of Manfred of Sicily who had lost the Kingdom of Sicily to Charles' father in 1266. Peter insolently ignored Charles during the meeting, although both Philip III and James II of Majorca, present, reminded Peter that Charles was related to him. Y no means could find a cheerful countenance nor any comfort in.... And took into a chamber one day and asked him how it was that he did not speak with, but though there were many ties between them, they could obtain nothing from him in the end.
And invited, to a banquet, but would not accept it, wherefore the banquet had to be given up. But showed great civility to and to him, and so, on their departure from the interview, left with and saw them both enter Perpignan, a great feast was made for them, detained for eight days. The envoys of Charles' father with the representatives of Rudolf I of Germany and the Holy See started negotiations about the restoration of the Kingdom of Arles in 1278, they reached a compromise, that Pope Martin IV included in a papal bull on 24 May 1281. The bull prescribed that the kingdom, which should include the Dauphiné, Savoy and the nearby territories, was to be given to Charles' son, Charles Martel, on the day of his marriage with Rudolf's daughter, Clemence. Charles was appointed regent for his minor son. Heavy taxation, forced loans and purveyance caused widespread discontent among Charles I's Italian subjects in the island of Sicily. A French soldier's arrogance caused a popular riot—known as the Sicilian Vespers—in Palermo on 30 March 1282.
The riot spread and put an end to Charles I's rule in the island. Peter III of Aragon came to Sicily accompanied by a large fleet in late August, he was proclaimed king on 4 September. Charles I and Peter III agreed. Before leaving for France in January 1283, Charles I appointed Charles and Charles' cousin, Robert II, Count of Artois, co-regents, he authorized them to take measures, after consulting with the papal legate, Gerard of Parma, to prevent the spread of the rebellion to the mainland territories. Charles and his troops left Reggio Calabria and marched as far as San Martino di Taurianova—an defensible town—o
An Age is a 1967 science fiction novel by English writer Brian Aldiss. The book, set principally in 2093, combines the popular science fiction themes of time travel, totalitarian dystopia, the untapped potential of the human mind, it was nominated for a Ditmar Award in 1969 in the "Best International Science Fiction of any length, or collection" category. The future society described in the novel has developed a form of psychological time travel called "mind travel" by which, with the aid of the psychoactive drug CSD can travel in their minds to the distant past. While mind traveling, they are unable to interact with the world of the past, but they can sense and interact with other travelers from their own time, it has been discovered that the functioning of the human mind is influenced and limited by "the undermind", a mysterious force which aids in mind travel. The story concerns an artist searching for inspiration in the past; when Bush returns from a long stay in the Jurassic, he finds that his nation has been taken over by a totalitarian government.
He is drafted into the military and given the mission to kill the scientist Silverstone. As Bush mind travels again to fulfill his mission, he learns of Silverstone's new philosophical and scientific discoveries. Bush and Silverstone meet, travel to the Cryptozoic with a few allies, decide together to usher in a new era of humanity, one enlightened by the realization that time flows backward. Bush returns to his present time, only to be imprisoned in a mental institution. Bush's father tries to see him but is prevented by doctors, who explain his son has had a breakdown brought on by excessive mind travel. Outside, a girl stands watching the hospital planning a rescue. Algis Budrys reviewed the novel unfavorably, calling it "a useless book tells us that the writer thinks he's clever, it proves that he is, notionally facile, admirable for having gone into doing advertising". An Age on Brian Aldiss's official site
CCC Film is a German film production company founded in 1946 by Artur Brauner. A Polish Jew who survived the Nazi era by fleeing to the Soviet Union, he lost dozens of relatives to the Nazis, his primary interest was making films about the Nazi era, but after his first such film failed at the box office, throwing him into debt, he began producing entertainment films, the commercial success of which financed his Holocaust-related films, some of which became successful. In 2009, Brauner donated 21 Holocaust-related films to Yad Vashem. On September 16, 1946, Brauner founded CCC Film with Joseph Einstein, his brother-in-law, a black marketeer in Berlin, with a capital investment of 21,000 Reichsmarks in the American sector of postwar Germany, they had money, but no license from the American authorities, without which, it was impossible to produce anything. Two months Einstein quit the enterprise, leaving Brauner as sole owner; the first CCC-produced film was the 1947 King of Hearts, followed in 1948 by self-autobiographical Morituri, directed by Eugen York.
Morituri tells the story of a Polish refugee from a Nazi concentration camp. After a few theaters were damaged, the film was boycotted by other theaters and became a box office disaster, nearly ruining CCC Film and Brauner, causing him to begin producing "normal films" in order to pay off his debt, as he told Time magazine in 2003. Postwar German audiences, struggling with devastated cities and hunger, wanted escapist movies in the aftermath of World War II and Brauner filled that desire with a mixture of comedies, crime stories and the occasional drama. In 1949, Brauner received his license from the American authorities and CCC Film produced three successful films and moved to a former Nazi munitions and poison gas factory in Haselhorst, a locality in the Spandau district of Berlin. Brauner said, "Out of the poison-gas factory I wanted to make a dream factory."In the 1950s, CCC continued producing its proven mix of light-hearted fare and hired directors such as Carl Boese, Helmut Käutner, Robert Adolf Stemmle, Géza von Bolváry, Akos von Ratony, Kurt Neumann, Paul Martin and Erich Engel.
Actors and actresses such as Heinz Rühmann, Maria Schell, Gert Fröbe, Klaus Kinski, Curd Jürgens and Romy Schneider were featured, like Kinski, making his film debut. It became one of the largest producers of postwar German-language films and helped to establish Berlin as a center of German film and television production. CCC produced International Counterfeiters directed by Franz Cap in 1952. In 1955, the company produced The Plot to Assassinate Hitler, directed by Falk Harnack and co-written by Günther Weisenborn, about the failed July 20, 1944 attempt on Adolf Hitler's life. Other more challenging films from the 1950s were Die Ratten adapted from a play by Nobel Prize winner Gerhart Hauptmann. CCC began working on large productions. By the end of the 1950s, the company had built five additional film studios on its Haselhorst property, outfitting them with equipment for film and television production. At the end of the 1950s, CCC began a string of Karl May films and historical dramas and Brauner brought important directors back from exile, such as Fritz Lang, Robert Siodmak, William Dieterle and Gerd Oswald.
In 1959, the company produced The Indian Tomb, directed by Lang. The company began co-producing low-budget films by American B movie directors like Hugo Fregonese and Russ Meyer. Brauner tried to establish a London production base, but abandoned this after making two films, one of, Station Six-Sahara by Seth Holt. In the mid-1960s, the French New Wave introduced a new, more realistic and contemporary way of filmmaking. Brauner pursued just one such project, directed by Edwin Zbonek; the effort was neither an artistic success. CCC returned to its safe formula of entertainment ventures, such as Karl May films, a series of Doctor Mabuse films and movies with sequels, such as The Treasure of the Aztecs and its sequel, The Pyramid of the Sun God. Nonetheless, when German television station ZDF moved to Mainz and no longer used CCC facilities to produce their programs, Brauner was forced to reverse his company's expansion of just a few years earlier. In 1970, CCC Film co-produced The Garden of the Finzi Continis directed by Vittorio De Sica, which won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.
With his large studio space less in demand and his staff reduced from over 200 in the 1950s to 85, Brauner closed the studios and laid off his remaining employees in September 1970, afterwards working instead on occasional projects, such as Sie sind frei, Dr. Korczak in 1974, directed by Aleksander Ford, he continued to produce projects related to Nazi war crimes, such as Die Weiße Rose in 1983, directed by Michael Verhoeven. In 2003, he produced Babi Yar, directed by the American director Jeff Kanew, about the mass executions at Babi Yar, which included 12 members of Brauner's family. In 2006, Brauner produced The Last Train, directed by Joseph Vilsmaier and Dana Vávrová, about the last transport of Jews from Berlin to Auschwitz. In 2009, Brauner donated 21 of his Holoca