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Charles II of Spain

Charles II known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire. He is now best remembered for his physical disabilities, the war for his throne that followed his death, he died childless in 1700 with no immediate Habsburg heir. His will named his successor as 16-year-old Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV and Charles's half-sister Maria Theresa. Disputes over the inheritance led to the War of the Spanish Succession. Charles was born in Madrid to his second wife, Mariana of Austria; the only surviving son of his father's two marriages, he was given the title Prince of Asturias, traditionally held by the heir to the Spanish throne. The Habsburgs achieved their prominence due to advantageous marriages, protected their holdings by frequent intermarriage between the Spanish and Austrian branches. Philip and Mariana were uncle and niece, making Charles their great-nephew and first cousin as well as their son. All eight of his great-grandparents were Philip I of Castile.

The impact of this is not understood, his elder sister Margaret Theresa did not have the same issues. It has been suggested he may have had the endocrine disease acromegaly and a combination of rare genetic disorders transmitted through recessive genes, including combined pituitary hormone deficiency and distal renal tubular acidosis. However, "evidence supporting inbreeding as an important factor in the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg lineage not conclusive. In his case, the so-called Habsburg lip was so pronounced he spoke and ate only with difficulty, did not learn to talk until the age of four or walk until eight. However, foreign observers such as the Marquess of Torcy reported his mental capacities remained intact, it has been suggested his physical ailments were exaggerated by his mother to restrict access; when Charles became King in 1665, the Spanish Empire or'Monarchy' remained an enormous global confederation in terms of territory, but decades of war ended Spain's supremacy in Europe.

The 1648 Treaty of Westphalia recognised the Dutch Republic and ended the 1568-1648 Eighty Years' War, but agreed peace between the Austrian Habsburgs and France. After centuries of mutual support, this left the Spanish Habsburgs fighting the 1635-1659 war with France, a Portuguese revolt, which only ended in 1668; the Kingdom of Spain comprised the two Crowns of Castile and Aragon, each with different political cultures and traditions. This made it hard to enact reforms or collect taxes and government finances were in perpetual crisis. Spain declared bankruptcy nine times between 1557 and 1666, including 1647, 1652, 1661 and 1666. However, the 17th century was a period of crisis for many European states and Spain was not alone in facing these problems. Infighting between those who ruled in Charles' name did little to help but it is debatable how far they or he can be held responsible for long-term trends predating his reign. Charles was three years old when his father, Philip IV, died on 17 September 1665.

While Charles theoretically ruled in his own name after her death in 1696, frequent ill-health meant power was exercised by others. Internal struggles for control further weakened government, the feud between his mother and illegitimate half-brother John of Austria the Younger being damaging; the system of delegating duties to a personal minister or validos was established by Philip with the appointment of the Count-Duke of Olivares in 1621. Mariana followed this precedent, the first being her Austrian personal confessor, Father Juan Everardo Nithard; when Charles came to the throne, his administration was faced by the long-running Portuguese Restoration War and the War of Devolution with France. The Crown had declared bankruptcy in 1662 and 1666 and reducing their military commitments was a matter of extreme urgency. In 1668, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war with France and the Treaty of Lisbon accepted the restoration of the Crown of Portugal and loss of the Portuguese Empire. Spain was no longer strong enough to retain Portugal against its will, while Aix-la-Chapelle restored most of their losses in the Spanish Netherlands and Franche-Comté.

However, John exploited discontent within the ruling class to instigate a revolt in Aragon and Catalonia, compelling Mariana to dismiss Nithard in February 1669 and replace him with Fernando de Valenzuela. When Charles turned 14 in 1675, he was able to rule on his own and John used this to remove Valenzuela; the 1672 Franco-Dutch War dragged Spain into another war with France over the Spanish Netherlands, the cost of which placed intolerable strain on the economy. In January 1678, John took charge of government, expelled Mariana and exiled Valenzuela, his government faced an impo

UAAP Season 72 men's basketball tournament

The UAAP Season 72 men's basketball tournament is the University Athletic Association of the Philippines's men's basketball tournament for the 2009–10 season. The Ateneo Blue Eagles qualified for their second consecutive Finals appearance after amassing a 13–1 elimination round record, beating 2006 Finals opponent UST Growling Tigers in the semifinals, their opponent, the UE Red Warriors, finished third in the elimination round, had to defeat the FEU Tamaraws twice in the semifinals in order to qualify. After both teams split the first two games, Ateneo went on to beat UE in Game 3, 71–58, to win their second straight title. Ateneo's Rabeh Al-Hussaini won; the tournament host is Far Eastern University, which led the opening ceremonies on July 11 at the Araneta Coliseum. ABS-CBN UHF channel Studio 23 broadcast all of the games, including Finals. In two key preseason tournaments, the FEU Tamaraws advanced in the semifinals of both the Nike Summer League and the Filoil Flying V Cup. In the Nike Summer League, the Tamaraws were beaten by 3-time NCAA champions San Beda Red Lions 74–72 in the semifinals en route to their championship.

In the Filoil Flying V Cup, the Tamaraws held off fellow UAAP team UE Red Warriors in the final 84–78 to win the championship. With NCAA Season 84 commissioner Joe Lipa at the helm, new rules were set up: Instituting a more thorough system in breaking ties after the elimination round to determine seedings, Teams may now challenge the validity of a three-point field goal at any point of the game via instant replay, During the final two minutes of a game, in all overtimes, a jump ball will settle all jump ball situations, with the players in question participating in a jump ball similar to the start of the game; the possession arrow is discarded. Those which were retained are: The adhesive pro-grip. Teams are still limited to two foreign nationals in their rosters, with only one allowed to play at a time. League president Anton Montinola of Far Eastern University said that the method in breaking ties will use "common sense" as the tournament is prolonged by holding unnecessary matches. Due to the high demand of tickets for Ateneo-La Salle games, host FEU has devised a way for allocating tickets for fans of the two schools, although the Ateneo-La Salle game will still be a part of a doubleheader, tickets will be sold separately for the Ateneo-La Salle and the following FEU-UE game.

The patrons who only have tickets for one game has to watch only the game stated on their tickets and has to leave when the other game is being held. The two-hour gap between the games was to allow Araneta Coliseum personnel to clear the arena for the second game. During last year's finals series between Ateneo and La Salle, the crowd was estimated to be at least 22,000. Win Win via OT Loss Loss via OT Results to the right and top of the black cells are first round games, those to the left and below are second round games. Win Win via OT Loss Loss via OT Number of asterisks denotes the number of overtime periods. Ateneo and UE continue their streaks of playoff appearances. FEU made its return for the second time since last year as UST returned from the playoffs after missing it last year; the De La Salle Green Archers missed the playoffs for the first time in Final Four history after losing to the NU Bulldogs on their last game of the eliminations that ended their streak of Final Four appearance at 14 and were the first runner-up that not to qualify for the semifinals.

The Eagles opened the season with a win against FEU to begin the defense of their crown. On their second game against UE, they rallied from a 17-point deficit in the first half to win 72-57, they demolished UST with Emman Monfort doing the most damage to the Growling Tigers with his 6 treys and a career-high 20 points. However, they were beaten by their Katipunan rivals the UP Fighting Maroons. After that loss, Ateneo is on a winning mode once again as they beat Adamson, NU, La Salle in overtime to end the first round with a 6-1 win-loss record. During the second round, Ateneo continued their rampage once again highlighted by a win against UP, avenging their only loss for the season and assuring them of the twice to beat advantage in the playoffs; the Eagles completed a sweep of the second round with a victory over the FEU Tamaraws in the elimination round finale, despite FEU leading by as much as 18, as Ateneo chipped the lead and led a late surge to lead at the final buzzer to deny the Tamaraws a #1 seed.

The host were beaten by the Ateneo Blue Eagles on opening day but rebounded with a win against last year's runner-up La Salle. The Tamaraws continued their striking distance and rejoining Ateneo in the team standings as the Tamaraws went to an amazing 8-game winning streak. However, they were dealt with their first setback in their second round game against UE, but rebounded with wins against Adamson, UP, La Salle in overtime, dashing UE's hopes of a twice to beat advantage in the semis, to set up a virtual game for the #1 seed against Ateneo in the elimination round finale; the Tamaraws were beaten by 1 point after leading as much as 18 that deny a #1 seed and facing the UE Red Warriors anew in the semis. The Warriors blew out last year's losing finalist and 2007 finals nemesis La Salle 65-46 but they were demolished by Ateneo on their next game after giving up a 17-point lead in the first half, they rebounded with a win against NU and they lost once again against UST that put them again at.500.

UE went on a 2-game winning streak that went into overtimes against Adamson and UP but they lost 2-straight against FEU in the first round finale and

Spelling of Shakespeare's name

The spelling of William Shakespeare's name has varied over time. It was not spelled any single way during his lifetime, in manuscript or in printed form. After his death the name was spelled variously by editors of his work, the spelling was not fixed until well into the 20th century; the standard spelling of the surname as "Shakespeare" was the most common published form in Shakespeare's lifetime, but it was not one used in his own handwritten signatures. It was, the spelling used as a printed signature to the dedications of the first editions of his poems Venus and Adonis in 1593 and The Rape of Lucrece in 1594, it is the spelling used in the First Folio, the definitive collection of his plays published in 1623, after his death. The spelling of the name was modernised, "Shakespear" gaining popular usage in the 18th century, replaced by "Shakspeare" from the late 18th through the early 19th century. In the Romantic and Victorian eras the spelling "Shakspere", as used in the poet's own signature, became more adopted in the belief that this was the most authentic version.

From the mid-19th to the early 20th century, a wide variety of spellings were used for various reasons. It became a habit of writers who believed that someone else wrote the plays to use different spellings when they were referring to the "real" playwright and to the man from Stratford upon Avon. With rare exceptions, the spelling is now standardised in English-speaking countries as "Shakespeare". There are six surviving signatures written by Shakespeare himself; these are all attached to legal documents. The six signatures appear on four documents: a deposition in the Bellott v. Mountjoy case, dated 11 May 1612 the purchase of a house in Blackfriars, dated 10 March 1613 the mortgage of the same house, dated 11 March 1613 his Last Will & Testament, which contains three signatures, one on each page, dated 25 March 1616The signatures appear as follows: Willm Shakp William Shaksper Wm Shakspe William Shakspere Willm Shakspere By me William ShakspeareMost of these are abbreviated versions of the name, using breviographic conventions of the time.

This was common practice. For example Edmund Spenser sometimes wrote his name out in full, but used the abbreviated forms "Ed: spser" or "Edm: spser"; the three signatures on the will were first reproduced by the 18th-century scholar George Steevens, in the form of facsimile engravings. The two relating to the house sale were identified in 1768, the document itself was acquired by Edmond Malone. Photographs of these five signatures were published by Sidney Lee; the final signature was discovered by 1909 by Charles William Wallace. There is a signature on the fly-leaf of a copy of John Florio's translation of the works of Montaigne, which reads "Willm. Shakspere"; this was accepted by some scholars until the late 20th century. Another authentic signature appears on a copy of William Lambarde's Archaionomia. Though smudged, the spelling appears to be "Shakspere"; the writer David Kathman has tabulated the variations in the spelling of Shakespeare's name as reproduced in Samuel Schoenbaum's William Shakespeare: A Documentary Life.

He states that of "non-literary references" in Shakespeare's lifetime the spelling "Shakespeare" appears 71 times, while "Shakespere" appears second with 27 usages. These are followed by "Shakespear". There are many other variations that appear in small numbers or as one-offs. R. C. Churchill notes that such variations were far from unusual: The name of Sir Walter Raleigh was written by his contemporaries either Raleigh, Ralegh, Rawley, Rawlie, Raulighe, Raughlie, or Rayly; the name of Thomas Dekker was written either Dekker, Deckar, Dicker, Dyckers, or Dickens. Kathman notes that the spelling is more uniform in printed versions than in manuscript versions, that there is a greater variety of spelling in provincial documents than in metropolitan ones. Fifty-eight quarto editions of Shakespeare's plays and five editions of poetry were published before the First Folio. On 20 of the plays, the author is not credited. On 15 title pages, his name is hyphenated, "Shake‑speare", 13 of these spellings being on the title pages of just three plays, Richard II, Richard III, Henry IV, Part 1.

A hyphen is present in the first quarto of Hamlet and the second of King Lear. The name printed at the end of the poem The Phoenix and the Turtle, published in a collection of verse in 1601, is hyphenated, as is the name on the title page and the poem A Lover's Complaint of Shake-speares Sonnets, it is used in the cast list of Ben Jonson's Sejanus His Fall, in six literary allusions published between 1594 and 1623. The un-hyphenated spelling "Shakespeare" appears on 22 of the 58 quartos, it is spelled this way in the first quartos of The Merchant of Venice, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Much Ado About Nothing, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Prince of Tyre and Cressida, Othello. The second, or "good", quarto of Hamlet uses this spelling, it is spelled this way on the misattributed quarto of Sir John Oldcastle and on the verse collection The Passionate Pilgrim. Rarer spellings are "Sha