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Shakedown (continuum mechanics)

In continuum mechanics, elastic shakedown behavior is one in which plastic deformation takes place during running in, while due to residual stresses or strain hardening the steady state is elastic. Plastic shakedown behavior is one in which the steady state is a closed elastic-plastic loop, with no net accumulation of plastic deformation. Ratcheting behavior is one in which the steady state is an open elastic-plastic loop, with the material accumulating a net strain during each cycle. Shakedown concept can be applied to solid metallic materials under cyclic repeated loading or to granular materials under cyclic loading. Not needed for only primary loading that meets static loading requirements. Needed for cyclic thermal loading plus primary loading with a mean. If repeated loading on the granular induces stress beyond the yield surface, three different cases may be observed. In case 1 the residual strain in the materials increases without limit; this so-called “ratcheting” state is close to what can be predicted applying simple Mohr–Coulomb criterion to a cyclic loading.

In the responses like case 2, residual strain in the materials grows to some extent, but at some stage the growth is stopped and further cyclic loading produces closed hysteresis loops of stress–strain. In case 3 the growth of residual strain is diminishes when sufficient loading cycles are applied. Case 2 and case 3 are cases of elastic shakedown respectively. Shakedown of Elastic-Plastic Structures, Jan A. Konig, Elsevier, 1987. Limit Analysis of Structures at Thermal Cycling, D. A. Gokhfeld and O. F. Cherniavsky, 1980. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 2001. Bree J. "Elastic-Plastic Behaviour of Thin-Tubes Subjected to Internal Pressure and Intermittent High-Heat Fluxes with Application to Fast-Nuclear Reactor Fuel Elements". Journal of Strain Analysis. 2: 226–228. Doi:10.1243/03093247V023226. "Basic Conditions for Material and Structural Ratcheting", H. Hübel, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 162, pp 55–65 doi:10.1016/0029-549301136-6 "Simplified Theory of Plastic Zones", H. Hübel, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, Cham, ISBN 978-3319-29873-3 doi:10.1007/978-3-319-29875-7 Ghadimi Behzad, Nikraz Hamid, Rosano Michele.

"Dynamic simulation of a flexible pavement layers considering shakedown effects and soil-asphalt interaction". Transportation Geotechnics. 7: 40–58. Doi:10.1016/j.trgeo.2016.04.003. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list

LGBT rights in Greenland

Lesbian, bisexual, transgender rights in Greenland are similar to those in Denmark. Same-sex sexual activity is legal, with an equal age of consent, there are some anti-discrimination laws protecting LGBT people. Same-sex couples have had access to registered partnerships, which provided them with nearly all of the rights provided to married opposite-sex couples from 1996 to 2016. On 1 April 2016, a law repealing the registered partnership law and allowing for same-sex marriages to be performed came into effect. In 1979, Denmark granted Greenland autonomy under the Home Rule Act and in 2009 extended self-government, although it still influences the island's culture and politics. Greenland is considered to be socially liberal towards LGBT people. Acceptance of homosexuality and same-sex relationships is high, reports of discrimination against LGBT people are rare. Nonetheless, due to Greenland's small and scattered population, a lot of Greenlandic LGBT people have chosen to move to Copenhagen in Denmark.

As is the case with Denmark, same-sex sexual activity is not a crime. It was legalized by Denmark in 1933, the age of consent equalized in 1977, two years prior to the Home Rule Act. Greenland adopted Denmark's registered partnership law on 1 July 1996. There was some opposition to registered partnerships from clergy and conservative lawmakers, who chose to abstain from voting; the bill was passed in the Greenlandic Parliament 15-0 with 12 abstentions, by the Danish Parliament 104-1. The first same-sex couple to register did so in 2002. Registered partnerships are called nalunaarsukkamik inooqatigiinneq in Greenlandic. In March 2015, MP Justus Hansen, from the Democrats, a centre-right political party, introduced a bill to legalise same-sex marriage in Greenland, which included adoption rights and other changes to Greenlandic family law; the bill was approved unanimously by the Parliament of Greenland on 26 May 2015, but required Danish approval before coming into effect. The bill was to come into effect on 1 October 2015, but lapsed due to the Danish general elections in June 2015.

The parliamentary procedure therefore had to start over and the new Danish Liberal Government put an identical bill on the agenda for its first reading on 5 November 2015. On 19 January 2016, the Folketing approved the proposal 108-0 and the bill was given royal assent by Queen Margrethe II on 3 February 2016; the parts of the law relating to marriage went into effect on 1 April 2016. Same-sex marriage became legal on 1 April 2016. Application in Greenland of the registered partnership law was repealed the day the new marriage law took effect. On 1 June 2009, stepchild adoption for same-sex couples became legal. A law regarding IVF for female couples was approved in 2006; the parts of the same-sex marriage law allowing same-sex couples to adopt children went into effect on 1 July 2016. Since 2010, Greenland has outlawed hate hate crimes on the basis of sexual orientation. Article 100 of the Criminal Code prohibits speech which may deprive, threaten or demean individuals on the basis of their sexual orientation, among other categories.

Greenland possesses no anti-discrimination laws in employment and services, health services or education. Danish anti-discrimination laws do not apply to Greenland. Greenland's only anti-discrimination law is Act no. 3 of November 29, 2013 on equality between men and women which bans gender-based discrimination only. The Human Rights Council of Greenland, funded by the state budget and protects human rights in Greenland, it is commissioned to participate in the strengthening and consolidation of human rights, works with the Danish Institute for Human Rights. Other than taking a case to court or referring to the Greenlandic Ombudsman, no national complaints procedure exists in which one can bring forth legal complaints of discrimination. Reports of discrimination based on sexual orientation are rare. There was an LGBT rights organization called "Qaamaneq"; the organization was reestablished in 2014 as LGBT Qaamaneq. On 15 May 2010, Greenland held its first pride parade in Nuuk, it was attended by about 1,000 people.

LGBT rights in Denmark LGBT rights in the Americas Nuuk Pride

Felicia Mabuza-Suttle

Felicia Mabuza-Suttle is a South African talk show hostess and entrepreneur. In the TV show Great South Africans, she was voted as the 70th greatest South African of all time in an informal public poll. Mabuza-Suttle was born in Sophiatown, a black neighbourhood in Johannesburg, South Africa, during the apartheid era, her grandfather, Ben Mabuza, raised her and was a major inspiration for her success. Meanwhile, her father, who owned one of the first driving schools in the nation, provided a steady income for the family. During her childhood she became interested in dance. In the 1960s and 70s, a large number of black South Africans went overseas to study to evade the apartheid regime. Mabuza-Suttle was amongst them. In the 80s, she became the first member of her family to achieve a college degree when she earned a BA in Journalism, followed by an MA in Mass Communication; as well as studying, Mabuza-Suttle wrote for the World Newspaper, where she met prominent anti-apartheid activists, including Steve Biko, the leader of the Black Consciousness Movement.

This would lead to her becoming politically involved. Mabuza-Suttle returned for a short time to South Africa in 1982 to work for Radio Bophutatswana, where she was criticised for being politically incorrect. In 1990, Mabuza-Suttle returned permanently to South Africa, accepting a position at the South African Airways. In 1992, she began her television career after being offered a job as a talk show host at the South African Broadcasting Corporation. Talk shows were a new concept in South Africa at the time, her show became successful. Known as Top Level, its name was changed to The Felicia Show in 1995, was again renamed Felicia in 2000; the show focused on social topics, but ventured into entertainment. However, amidst criticisms that her show was too similar to The Oprah Winfrey Show, Felicia closed down in 2004. Mabuza-Suttle moved her show to the United States, where it was broadcast as Conversations with Felicia on The Africa Channel, it still focused on South African personalities. Propelled by her success on television, Mabuza-Suttle founded several business ventures, including the Felicia brand of clothing and accessories, Pamodzi Investments, FMS Productions, Back of the Moon, a restaurant.

She has been involved in philanthropic activities, including donating a portion of her eyewear profits to an anti-drug and anti-crime campaign. However, in 2012, she liquidated Back of the Moon for various reasons, including economic and legal difficulties, disagreements with her business partner and landlord. Mabuza-Suttle married Earl Suttle in 1976, she lives in Johannesburg, while Earl Suttle lives in Georgia. They have two children and Zanele. Official website


WHDLoad is a software package for the Amiga platform to make installation of software to a hard disk easier, for such things as demos or games. Allowing for better compatibility for Amiga software, which can sometimes have hardware incompatibilities making them hard to use in emulated environments due to the varying hardware specifications of the Amiga product line across its history. WHDLoad circumvents the operating system in the Amiga for greater compatibility and preserves the original program environment. WHDLoad makes it possible to autostart an installed floppy disk image by clicking an icon. Two special parts are required, each one written for the client program: To install media, it must be read from the original disk and written to an image file on the hard drive by the "Imager"; the installed program can be run from a virtual disk drive with the "Slave" interface. The "Slave" interface allows interaction between the program and WHDLoad, co-ordinates the reading and writing of files.

This makes it possible to run or emulate programs that are traditionally incompatible with common emulators such as WinFellow, or WinUAE. WHDLoad can be easier to use than trying to figure out the exact configuration for the aforementioned emulators as well; the primary reason for this loader is that a large number of computer games for the Amiga don't properly interact with the AmigaOS operating system, but instead run directly on the Amiga hardware, making assumptions about specific control registers, memory locations, etc. The hardware of newer Amiga models had been revised, causing these assumptions to break when trying to run the same games on newer hardware, vice versa with newer games on older hardware. WHDLoad provides a way to install such games on an AmigaOS-compatible hard drive and run on newer hardware. An added benefit is the avoidance of loading times and disk swaps, because everything the game needs is stored on the hard drive; the first public release of WHDLoad was on September 5, 1996 and version 18.3 is the latest available in April 2017.

WHDLoad takes over the entire operating system which may cause problems with some software, but quitting the game or demo restores the system back into its normal working state. WHDLoad games are stored on the AmigaOS file system as disk images, relying on driver files known as "WHDLoad slaves" to work; these slave files are available from the Internet, but the games themselves have to be acquired separately, to prevent software piracy. Additionally, many fans have made their own freeware games, which are freely, available; the WHDLoad "Slave" interface is integrated into the OS in that you can double click a program icon to run the program at any time. When the user executes the program, by clicking a stored image icon, the AmigaOS operating system loads the WHDLoad executable and starts it; the loader checks the software and hardware environment and checks the Slave interface required for that chosen demo or game and allocates required memory for the installed program. If the Preload feature is enabled into the requester page of WHDLoad the program attempts to load disk images and files into RAM.

At this point WHDLoad performs its main task of switching off the AmigaOS operating system, disables multitasking and interrupts, copies memory regions which are used by AmigaOS and required by the installed program to an unused place until the AmigaOS is needed again. WHDLoad degrades the graphics hardware to OCS on original Amiga machines WHDLoad initializes all hardware with defined values and jumps into the Slave interface required for the program in question; the Slave interface loads the main executable of the installed program by calling a WHDLoad function patches the main executable and calls the main executable. At this point the program, installed can perform the task for which it has been written, loading its data as it would from a real floppy disk. Users can break the execution of the loaded program by way of a "Quit" key; when this action is performed the Slave interface returns to WHDLoad by calling a resload_Abort internal function. The OS will be restored with original display.

The memory and all allocated resources are left free for any further usage. A standard Amiga 1200 or Amiga 600 without any extra memory, will only work with a limited number of games. Which means games using OCS/ECS and one floppy disk, it is recommended to install either a 4 MB or 8 MB RAM Board in the trapdoor slot to ensure compatibility for 99% of the games. A harddisk is required, the number of games that can be installed depend on the size of the harddisk. WHDLoad home page X-bEnCh - A GUI to launch WHDLoad installed and other games/demos

Maryland Route 174

Maryland Route 174 is a state highway in the U. S. state of Maryland. The highway runs 5.94 miles from Jacobs Road near Fort Meade east to MD 3 Business in Glen Burnie. MD 174 connects Fort George G. Meade in northern Anne Arundel County; the Fort Meade–Severn portion of the highway was constructed as part of MD 170, the primary highway that connected what was Camp Meade to Baltimore, in the late 1910s. The highway was widened in the early 1940s became MD 554 in a number swap with the Severn–Odenton portion of MD 170. MD 174 was constructed in the early 1920s as a short road from MD 3 in Glen Burnie west to the site of the highway's modern Interstate 97 interchange. MD 174 was extended west to Fort Meade in the early 1980s. MD 174 begins on the eastern edge of the Fort Meade military reservation at an intersection with Jacobs Road. Reece Road continues as a federal government–maintained public road west onto the military installation to an intersection with MD 175. MD 174 heads northeast along Reece Road, a two-lane undivided road that passes between residential subdivisions in the western part of Severn.

The highway veers north curves east and crosses over Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, which carries MARC's Penn Line. To the east, MD 174 passes through an S-curve and temporarily expands to a four-lane divided highway through its intersection with MD 170; the highway continues east as Donaldson Avenue. MD 174 enters the southwestern part of Glen Burnie and veers northeast at its junction with Quarterfield Road, at which point the highway assumes that name and expands to a four-lane undivided road; the highway temporarily becomes divided through its partial cloverleaf interchange with I-97. East of I-97, MD 174 meets the eastern end of a piece of its old alignment, Old Quarterfield Road, unsigned MD 779; the highway temporarily gains a median again as it passes through its half-diamond interchange with MD 100. The interchange only allows access from MD 174 to eastbound MD 100 and from westbound MD 100 to MD 174. North of that interchange, the highway intersects Thelma Avenue and reaches its eastern terminus at MD 3 Business.

There is no direct access from northbound MD 3 Business to westbound MD 174. When the Maryland State Roads Commission applied numbers to state highways, they assigned MD 170 to its current corridor from Severn to Brooklyn Park and to what is now MD 174 from Severn to Fort Meade; the portion of the modern highway from Odenton to Severn was MD 554. A section of highway from the current MD 170–MD 174 intersection in Severn west to the Pennsylvania Railroad was built as a 14-foot wide concrete road by 1915. Construction on the highway from Linthicum to Fort Meade became a high priority with the United States' entrance into World War I. MD 170 was relocated at the railroad crossing when the highway's overpass of the Pennsylvania Railroad was completed in 1931; the old road, now Severn Station Road west of the tracks and Old Camp Meade Road to the east, became MD 483. With the outbreak of World War II, MD 170 was designated a road of strategic importance to connect Baltimore with Fort Meade. By 1946, MD 170 and MD 554 had swapped numbers, with the latter now the route from Severn to Fort Meade.

MD 554 was widened and resurfaced again in 1955 and 1956. The original segment of MD 174 was paved as a concrete road by 1921; this segment extended west from MD 3 in Glen Burnie southwest along Quarterfield Road to a spot just west of what became its partial cloverleaf interchange with the Glen Burnie Bypass in 1956. MD 174 was relocated for the construction of the interchange. MD 174 was extended east from MD 3 Business along Aquahart Road and south along Oakwood Road to its interchange with MD 177 in 1969; the state highway was rolled back to its present terminus at MD 3 Business by 1974. Donaldson Avenue, a county highway, was relocated near its western end to form a four-way intersection with MD 170 and MD 554 in 1981. In 1983, MD 174 was extended west over Quarterfield Road, Donaldson Avenue, MD 554 to its present western terminus at the edge of Fort Meade; the state highway had been expanded to a four-lane divided highway around its intersection with MD 170 and its interchange with MD 100, widened to four lanes on much of its Quarterfield Road segment by 1999.

MD 174 was expanded from a two-lane road to a four-lane divided highway through its interchange with I-97 when that interchange was reconstructed in 2004 and 2005. The entire route is in Anne Arundel County. Maryland Roads portal MDRoads: MD 174