click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Charles K. Kao

Sir Charles Kuen Kao was a physicist and electrical engineer who pioneered the development and use of fibre optics in telecommunications. In the 1960s, Kao created various methods to combine glass fibres with lasers in order to transmit digital data, which laid the groundwork for the evolution of the Internet. Known as the "Godfather of Broadband", the "Father of Fiber Optics", the "Father of Fiber Optic Communications", Kao was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for "groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication". Born in Shanghai, Kao was a permanent resident of Hong Kong and held citizenships in the United Kingdom and the United States. Charles Kao was born in Shanghai in 1933, his ancestral home is in nearby Jinshan, at that time a separate administrative area, he studied Chinese classics at home under a tutor. He studied English and French at the Shanghai World School in the Shanghai French Concession, founded by a number of progressive Chinese educators including Cai Yuanpei.

Kao's family moved to Taiwan and British Hong Kong in 1948 where he completed his secondary education at St. Joseph's College in 1952, he did his undergraduate studies in electrical engineering at Woolwich Polytechnic, obtaining his Bachelor of Engineering degree. He pursued research and received his PhD in electrical engineering in 1965 from University of London, under Professor Harold Barlow of University College London as an external student while working at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories in Harlow, the research centre of Standard Telephones and Cables, it is there that Kao did his first groundbreaking work as an engineer and researcher working alongside George Hockham under the supervision of Alec Reeves. Kao's father Kao Chun-Hsiang was a lawyer who obtained his Juris Doctor from the University of Michigan Law School in 1925, he was a professor at Soochow University Comparative Law School of China. His grandfather Gao Xie was a scholar, artist, a leading figure of the South Society during the late Qing Dynasty.

Several writers including Gao Xu, Yao Guang, Gao Zeng were Gao's close relatives. His father's cousin was astronomer Kao Ping-tse. Kao's younger brother Timothy Wu Kao is a civil engineer and Professor Emeritus at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D. C, his research is in hydrodynamics. Kao met his future wife Gwen May-Wan Kao in London after graduation, when they worked together as engineers at Standard Telephones and Cables, she is British Chinese. They were married in 1959 in London, had a son and a daughter, both of whom reside and work in Silicon Valley, California. According to Kao's autobiography, Kao was a Catholic who attended Catholic Church while his wife attended Anglican Communion. In the 1960s at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories based in Harlow, Essex and his co-workers did their pioneering work in the realisation of fibre optics as a telecommunications medium, by demonstrating that the high-loss of existing fibre optics arose from impurities in the glass, rather than from an underlying problem with the technology itself.

In 1963, when Kao first joined the optical communications research team he made notes summarising the background situation and available technology at the time, identifying the key individuals involved. Kao worked in the team of Antoni E. Karbowiak, working under Alec Reeves to study optical waveguides for communications. Kao's task was to investigate fibre attenuation, for which he collected samples from different fibre manufacturers and investigated the properties of bulk glasses carefully. Kao's study convinced himself that the impurities in material caused the high light losses of those fibres; that year, Kao was appointed head of the electro-optics research group at STL. He took over the optical communication program of STL in December 1964, because his supervisor, left to take the Chair in Communications in the School of Electrical Engineering at the University of New South Wales, Australia. Although Kao succeeded Karbowiak as manager of optical communications research, he decided to abandon Karbowiak's plan and overall change research direction with his colleague George Hockham.

They not only considered optical physics but the material properties. The results were first presented by Kao to the IEE in January 1966 in London, further published in July with George Hockham; this study first theorized and proposed to use glass fibres to implement optical communication, the ideas described are the basis of today's optical fibre communications. In 1965, Kao with Hockham concluded that the fundamental limitation for glass light attenuation is below 20 dB/km, a key threshold value for optical communications. However, at the time of this determination, optical fibres exhibited light loss as high as 1,000 dB/km and more; this conclusion opened the intense race to find low-loss materials and suitable fibres for reaching such criteria. Kao, together with his new team, pursued this goal by testing various materials, they measured the attenuation of light with different wavelengths in glasses and other materials. During this period, Kao pointed out that the high purity of fused

USS Pope (DD-225)

USS Pope was a Clemson-class destroyer in the United States Navy that served during World War II. She was the first ship named for John Pope. Pope launched 23 March 1920 from William Cramp & Sons. Pope was placed in reduced commission at Philadelphia and assigned to Squadron 3, Division 39 of the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. During 1921 she alternated between her winter base at Charleston, South Carolina and her summer one at Newport, Rhode Island and escorted President Warren G. Harding to Plymouth, Massachusetts 30 July – 1 August, she engaged in maneuvers with the battleship divisions off Guantanamo Bay from 12 January until her return to Philadelphia 27 April. After a refit, Pope departed 12 May for duty in the Pacific, she transited the Suez Canal 15 -- 25 July. Pope joined Squadron 15, Division 43 of the Asiatic Fleet at Chefoo, China 26 August and participated in fleet exercises off Chefoo until her departure 28 October for her winter base at Cavite, Philippines. In the Orient, Pope protected American interests during the civil strife in China.

She first served with the Yangtze River Patrol 9 September – 9 October 1923 and continued to make her presence known through repeated patrols until 1931. Notable exceptions were duty off Japan in connection with the United States Army "Round the World Flight" in 1924, a visit to French Indochina in 1926, a visit to Japan in 1929. From 1931 until 1937, the Pope continued to "show the flag" off the China coast, during the summers and spent the winters in the Philippines engaging in division maneuvers, she was reassigned to Squadron 5, Division 15 on 3 February 1933. Pope made visits to French Indochina in 1935 and in 1938, two visits to Japan in 1934 and 1935 and one to the Dutch East Indies in 1936. Increased tension on China's northern borders due to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria made it necessary for Pope to evacuate Americans from northern Chinese ports such as Lao Yao and Tsingtao to Shanghai beginning 19 September 1937. From 15 July to 20 September 1938, she cruised in Chinese waters off Chinwangtao and returned 5 June 1939 with the South China Patrol force removing American consulates and nationals.

Pope was stationed off Swatow and Pehtaiho during 14 June – 19 August, observing the Japanese Navy en route to Swatow and the subsequent bombing and occupation of the city. She remained in this area until her return to Manila 12 October for the Neutrality Patrol off the Philippines. Pope was transferred to Division 59 of the Asiatic Fleet 6 May 1940, resumed patrolling off China during 11 May – 24 June. Pope returned to Manila in late June on neutrality duty and remained on station there until 11 December 1941, when she got underway for Balikpapan, Dutch East Indies. Pope was engaged in fighting in the Dutch East Indies in the early days of World War II. On 9 January 1942 Pope was one of five destroyers in an escort composed of the cruisers Boise and Marblehead, with the other destroyers Stewart, Bulmer and Barker departing from Darwin to Surabaya escorting the transport Bloemfontein; that transport had been part of the Pensacola Convoy and had left Brisbane 30 December 1941 with Army reinforcements composed of the 26th Field Artillery Brigade and Headquarters Battery, the 1st Battalion, 131st Field Artillery and supplies from that convoy destined for Java.

During the naval battle of Balikpapan she made close-quarter torpedo and gun attacks which helped delay Japanese landings at Balikpapan and in the Battle of Badung Strait she impeded the invasion of the island of Bali. During the Second Battle of the Java Sea, Pope and HMS Encounter were directed to escort the damaged British cruiser HMS Exeter away from the action. HNLMS Witte de With was unable to recall her crew from shore leave in time to join their retreat to Ceylon. In the evening of 28 February 1942, Exeter and the two destroyers left Soerabaja and proceeded north. Japanese surface and air forces launched an attack the next morning, midway between the islands of Java and Borneo; as they sought to escape the three Allied ships fought four Japanese heavy cruisers and four destroyers throughout a fierce three-hour action, they damaged a number of enemy ships. Pope fired 140 salvoes of naval gunfire; the Allied squadron was discovered by Japanese cruiser float planes whose spotting of their cruisers' gunfire nullified the effectiveness of the Allied destroyers' attempt to conceal Exeter with a smoke screen.

When the two British ships were destroyed by gunfire shortly before noon 1 March 1942, Pope found temporary refuge in a rain squall. Although the Japanese cruisers were evaded by a course change within the squall, Pope was rediscovered by aircraft from Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūjō after she emerged from the squall. After the destroyer's single 3-inch anti-aircraft gun failed, one of six dive-bombers scored a near miss which wrecked the port engine shaft and started flooding from damaged hull plating. Flooding worsened as Pope maneuvered to evade six more bombers, only one crewman was lost as the crew boarded life rafts when flooding could no longer be controlled. Pope remained afloat long enough to be sunk about 2pm by the sixth salvo of a Japanese cruiser arriving on the scene; this was to be the start of a long 60 hour ordeal for the men in the water, as the survivors from Pope would not be rescued until midnight on 3 March by the Japanese destroyer Inazuma. The survivors from Encounter and Exeter were to be more fortunate, as those that were not rescued right after the battle on 1 March by the destroyer Inazuma, were rescued the following day by the Jap

Beaumont Exporters

The Beaumont Exporters was the predominant name of a minor league baseball team located in Beaumont, Texas that played between 1920 and 1957 in the Texas League and the Big State League. Beaumont evolved into today's Northwest Arkansas Naturals. Baseball Hall of Fame inductees Hank Greenberg, Whitey Herzog, Carl Hubbell, Hal Newhouser played for the Exporters and Rogers Hornsby was the Manager in 1950; the city of Beaumont was first represented between 1903 and 1905 by the Beaumont Oil Gushers renamed the Beaumont Millionaires in the South Texas League. It was represented in the Texas League from 1912–1917 and 1919 as the Beaumont Oilers. After the Exporters folded, the city was represented again in the Texas league from 1983–1986 by the Beaumont Golden Gators and in 1994 by the Beaumont Bullfrogs of the Texas-Louisiana league; the Exporters first formed in 1920 and played at Magnolia Ballpark through 1929 and at Stuart Stadium thereafter. The team was ranked near the bottom of the Texas League standings during the 1920s.

However, when the Exporters became an affiliate of the Detroit Tigers in the 1930s, its fortunes changed. The 1932 club, featuring future Hall of Famer Hank Greenberg, won 100 games and swept the Dallas Steers in the playoffs. Greenberg led the league with 39 home runs and 123 runs scored, while pitcher Schoolboy Rowe, who would star with Greenberg on the 1934–1935 Tiger pennant-winners, posted a league-best 2.34 earned run average. The Exporters won another championship in 1938, behind pitcher Dizzy Trout, the league's MVP. In 1942, the team fell in seven games in the playoffs; the entire Texas League suspended operations during World War II. After the war ended, the New York Yankees replaced Detroit as the Exporters' parent club in 1946. A series of last-place teams was followed in 1950 with a championship club managed by Rogers Hornsby — but it was known as the Beaumont Roughnecks that season; the Exporters name was restored in 1953. As an affiliate of the Chicago Cubs and Milwaukee Braves, it trailed the other seven Texas League teams in attendance.

The Exporters moved to Austin in 1956. A revised club known as the Exporters entered the Class B Big State League in 1956 as a St. Louis Cardinals' affiliate, it struggled on the field, finished last in the BSL in attendance, transferred to Texas City, playing as the Texas City Exporters, during July before returning to Beaumont. The following year, 1957, Beaumont remained in the Big State League as the Beaumont Pirates, a Pittsburgh Pirates' farm club; the league folded as an organized baseball circuit at the end of the 1957. Beaumont remained without a minor league club until 1983 when the Amarillo Gold Sox, the Class AA Texas League affiliate of the San Diego Padres, relocated to become the Beaumont Golden Gators; the Golden Gators played from 1983-1986 before the franchise moved to Wichita and became the Wichita Pilots in 1987. The franchise relocated to Springdale, Arkansas in 2008 to become today's Northwest Arkansas Naturals. * Team operated in Texas City, TX from July 2 to July 7, 1956 Johnson, Lloyd, ed.

The Minor League Register. Durham, North Carolina: Baseball America, 1994. Johnson and Wolff, Miles, ed; the Encyclopedia of Minor League Baseball, 1997 edition. Durham, North Carolina: Baseball America. WebCite query result

Cornelis Musch

Cornelis Musch was Griffier of the States-General of the Netherlands, the governing body of the Dutch Republic, from 1628 till the start of the First Stadtholderless Period. He was a byword for corruption in his lifetime. Cornelis Musch was the son of Jan Jacobsz. Musch, a rich Rotterdam herring merchant, Maritge Cornelisd. Matelieff, a merchant of fishing tackle, so rich in her own right that she was able to buy the Heerlijkheid of Waalsdorp. Lord of Waalsdorp was therefore the first aristocratic title, he also acquired other lordships: Nieuwveen and Opvelt and Muylstede. He married Elisabeth Cats, a daughter of Grand Pensionary Jacob Cats on June 9, 1636 when he was 44 and she 17, they had several daughters. One was Elisabeth Maria who married the unlucky Henri de Fleury de Coulan, better known as "captain Buat", who would lose his head in a treason affair, which bears his name, her sister Maria Elisabeth married Matthijs Pompe, lord of Slingelandt, a prominent Dordrecht Regent. A third daughter, Anna Catharina, married Carel van den Boetzelaer a prominent Regent.

After studying at the Rotterdam Latin school and Leiden University, he rounded off his studies with a law degree from the University of Orléans in 1617. In the sequel of the coup d'état by stadtholder Maurice, Prince of Orange in 1618, which brought about the fall of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, he enjoyed the patronage of Francis van Aarssens, he became Advocat of the States-General, to fill a vacancy after the purge of the Oldenbarnevelt adherents. After the purge of the Rotterdam vroedschap, he was appointed griffier of that city in 1619. In 1628 he was appointed griffier of the States-General in the same resolution which appointed his predecessor Johan van Goch thesaurier-generaal of the Union. Historians complain about his longhand, far less legible than that of Van Goch; this makes the study of the registers of the States-General unduly onerous for the years in which Musch was chief clerk. Besides this important office on the federal level, he acquired offices on the local level, like hoogheemraad of the polder Delfland and groot baljuw of Het Vrije van Staats Vlaanderen.

As the salaried official of the States-General Musch was soon able to build an informal position of power. The presidency of the States-General rotated weekly, so that presidents hardly had time to get acquainted with affairs before they were replaced, they tended to lean on the Griffier. In this period the Grand Pensionaries of Holland were selected for their incompetence and weakness, to protect the power position of the Stadtholder Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. On the other hand, Musch became a favorite of Frederick Henry, helped him manage the States-General. Musch made himself useful to foreign diplomats. King Louis XIII of France acknowledged this when he created Musch an écuyer in September, 1632, on the recommendation of Cardinal Richelieu, for services rendered to French diplomacy; when the Franco-Dutch alliance was renewed in 1636 all members of the commission of the States-General who negotiated the treaty received liberal gratuities from the French Crown, but Musch received the largest: 20,000 livres.

Besides state secrets anything was for sale, as far as Musch was concerned. He was accused of altering the resolutions of the States-General that he was supposed to enter in the register for a consideration, he played a central role in the patronage system of the Republic. Offices and other favors could be obtained from the stadtholder and the States-General if Musch received the required consideration; such practices would be considered "corrupt" nowadays. In those days, they might be considered reasonable perks of the office, as long as they remained within certain bounds. By common consent, Musch went beyond those bounds, but because he was such an important part of the Orangist regime under Frederick Henry and his son and successor William II, Prince of Orange, Musch managed to get away with it to the end of his life. However, he was known to have played an important role during the coup d'état of William II against the Holland Regents in August, 1650; when William died in October, Musch was exposed to the wrath of the newly resurgent Regents, who decided to make an example of him.

He was made the subject of an investigation into the coup, of his corrupt practices. This may have convinced him to take his own life on December 15, his motivation would have been that a conviction would have brought confiscation of his fortune, which amounted to an estimated 2,000,000 guilders at his death. Thus, he protected his heirs. After his death Joost van den Vondel wrote the following satirical epitaph: Grafschrift, Op Een Musch Hier leit de Hofmusch nu en rot, Zij broeide slangen in haar pot.

Brad Dubberley

Brad Dubberley is an Australian Paralympic wheelchair rugby Head Coach and former athlete. He won a silver medal as an athlete at the 2000 Sydney Games and as the head coach at the 2008 Beijing Games in the mixed wheelchair rugby event, he is the head coach of the Australian Wheelchair Rugby team known as the Australian Steelers. Dubberley was born in the New South Wales town of Kurri Kurri on 28 June 1981, he became a quadriplegic at the age of 12 when he fell down a 50 m cliff while playing with friends in the bush in Victoria. In 1995, at the age of 14, he took up wheelchair rugby as part of the rehabilitation process, his classification level was 3.5. He first represented Australia in 1996 in a test series with New Zealand. At 1998 World Wheelchair Rugby Championships, he was member of the team. At the 2000 Sydney Games, he was a member of the team. At the 2002 World Wheelchair Rugby Championships, he was a member of the team that won the bronze medal. At the 2004 Athens Games, he was a member of the team.

His last major competition as an athlete was at the 2006 World Wheelchair Rugby Championships, where the team came 6th. During his career as an athlete, he competed in over 70 international competitions. In 1998 he was the Australian Junior Paralympian of the Year. In 2009, he was awarded the Primary Club of Australia's Sir Roden Cutler Award for his services to wheelchair rugby. Dubberley is a frequent visitor to spinal units offering support, his message is Don't stop you from doing anything. Dubberley retired from competition in 2006 and in November of that year was appointed as head coach of the Australian Wheelchair Rugby team, he coached the team to a silver medal at the 2008 Beijing Games and the 2010 World Wheelchair Rugby Championships. He is preparing the team for the 2012 London Games, he coached the Australian national wheelchair rugby team at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, which went through the five-day tournament undefeated and won the gold medal. He was the head coach at the 2016 Rio Paralympics.

At the 2018 World Championships in Sydney, he was Head Coach of the Australian team that won the silver medal after being defeated by Japan 61-62 in the gold medal game. He lives in Point Cook, Victoria. Brad Dubberley at the International Paralympic Committee

Chalcedon Foundation

The Chalcedon Foundation is an American Christian Reconstructionist organization founded by Rousas John Rushdoony in 1965. Named for the Council of Chalcedon, it has included theologians such as Gary North, who founded his own organization, the Institute for Christian Economics; the Chalcedon Foundation provides educational material in the form of books, newsletter reports and various electronic media, toward advancing the theological teachings of Rushdoony's Christian Reconstructionism movement. It is notable for its role in the influence of Christianity on politics in the U. S. and has been described as "a think tank of the Religious Right." Rushdoony's son Mark now heads the foundation. The Chalcedon Foundation has been listed as an anti-gay hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center for, among other reasons, supporting the death penalty for homosexuality; the Chalcedon Foundation, named after a 451 A. D. council that proclaimed the state’s subservience to God, was founded by Rushdoony in summer 1965.

In 1971, North was hired part-time, two years North was hired full-time while Greg Bahnsen was hired. Rushdoony founded Ross House Books in 1976, the same year in which North and Bahnsen left the Foundation to pursue careers elsewhere. In 1977, the Foundation's first office building was built. A decade the organization's Newsletter became a magazine, the Chalcedon Report. In the 1970s multimillionaire Howard Ahmanson became a Calvinist and joined Rushdoony's Christian Reconstructionist movement. Ahmanson served as a board member of Rushdoony's Chalcedon Foundation for 15 years before resigning in 1996. Ahmanson said he had left the Chalcedon board and "does not embrace all of Rushdoony's teachings." Time magazine covered the Ahmansons in their 2005 profiles of the 25 Most Influential Evangelicals in America, classifying them as "the financiers." Former American oil billionaire Nelson Bunker Hunt made heavy contributions to the Chalcedon Foundation. Key members of the Chalcedon Foundation over the years have included Gary North, Greg Bahnsen, David Chilton, Gary DeMar, Kenneth Gentry, Andrew Sandlin.

North has defined his politics as Neo-Puritanism. On February 8, 2001, Rushdoony died, he was succeeded by his son Mark Rushdoony. In 2004, Ross House Books merged with Chalcedon, in 2005, the Chalcedon Report was renamed Faith for All of Life; the Chalcedon Foundation describes itself as a Christian educational organization oriented toward promoting Christian reconstruction, emphasizing the Cultural or Dominion Mandate. The Foundation's founder, Rousas John Rushdoony, known as “father of Christian Reconstruction” theology, advocated the imposition of Old Testament laws. Newsweek magazine described the Chalcedon Foundation as "a think tank of the Religious Right, including the Moral Majority." Rushdoony himself claimed that his movement had 20 million followers, although not all of them are members of an organization. Chalcedon Foundation roots in the late 1960s evolved from Rushdoony's career as an Orthodox Presbyterian pastor. Rushdoony, a handful of Ph. D.s and ex-seminarians wrote books and articles that were not popular at the time.

Forty years however, secular journalists characterize Rushdoony's movement as "the spark plug behind much of the battle over religion in politics today". Rushdoony's work via the Chalcedon Foundation challenged conservative Christians to "take the whole Bible seriously—including inconvenient verses in the Old Testament that most Christians biblical literalists, politely ignore." The Chalcedon Foundation advocates the Christian Reconstructionism movement which "believes Christians must take control of society for 1,000 years before the Second Coming of Christ can be achieved." Rushdoony believed the Bible should be adopted as law, including Scriptures advocating the death penalty for homosexuality, striking or cursing a parent and lying. Rushdoony developed and articulated Christian Reconstructionism in his book, The Institutes of Biblical Law, promoted by the Chalcedon Foundation; the book is a commentary on the Ten Commandments, provides an outline of a program for establishing a Christian theocracy.

According to American journalist Frederick Clarkson, reconstructionism has played an important role in shaping the contemporary Christian Right citing that Reconstructionists who have moved into positions of significant power and influence are two directors of Chalcedon Foundation, philanthropist Howard Ahmanson and political consultant Wayne C. Johnson, epitomizing the political strategy of the new Christian Right. Dominionism or Dominion Theology is a grouping of theological systems with the common belief that the law of God, as codified in the Bible, should govern society, to the exclusion of secular law, a view known as theonomy. Reconstructionists themselves use the word dominionism to refer to their belief that Christians alone should control civil government, conducting it according to Biblical law; the central biblical text for Dominionists is Genesis 1: 26–28, in which God declares that man shall have dominion over all the earth. This is seen as a mandate for believers to create both a Christian government and a Christian culture.

It has been associated with Rushdoony's Reconstructionism movement, as espoused by the Chalcedon Foundation. Rushdoony himself supported the John Birch Society, while North wrote the epilogue to a conspiracist text by the John Birch Society author, Larry Abraham. North went as far as declaring that the enemies of the United States were “a conspiracy of super-rich and super-powerful insiders.” The Chalcedon Foundation advocates homeschooling, believing "that the right place for a child's education is his home, the rig