Charles K. Kao
|Charles K. Kao|
Sir Charles Kuen Kao, GBM, KBE, FRS, FREng (born 4 November 1933) is a Chinese-born Shanghainese electrical engineer and physicist who pioneered the development and use of fiber optics in telecommunications. In the 1960s, Kao created various methods to combine glass fibers with lasers in order to transmit digital data, which laid the groundwork for the evolution of the Internet. "Communication as we know it, including the Internet, would not exist without fiber optics," said William Wulf, president of the National Academy of Engineering in 1999.
Known as the "Godfather of Broadband", the "Father of Fiber Optics", and the "Father of Fiber Optic Communications", Kao was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for "groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication". Kao holds citizenships in Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Work and related history
- 3 Honors and awards
- 4 Later Life & Dementia
- 5 Notes
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Monographs
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Charles Kao was born in Shanghai in 1933, and his ancestral home is in nearby Jinshan. He studied Chinese classics at home with his brother, under a tutor. He also studied English and French at an international school in Shanghai which was founded by a number of progressive Chinese educators including Cai Yuanpei.
Kao's family moved to Hong Kong in 1948 where he completed his secondary education (advanced level) at St. Joseph's College in 1952. He did his undergraduate studies in electrical engineering at Woolwich Polytechnic (now the University of Greenwich), obtaining his BSc degree.
He then pursued research and received his PhD degree in electrical engineering in 1965 from University College London (under Professor Harold Barlow) as an external student while working at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories (STL) in Harlow, England, the research centre of Standard Telephones and Cables. It is there that Kao did his first groundbreaking work as an engineer and researcher working alongside George Hockham under the supervision of Alec Reeves.
Kao joined The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) in 1970, to found the Department of Electronics, which later became the Department of Electronic Engineering. During this period, Kao was the Reader and then the Chair Professor of Electronics at CUHK; he built up both undergraduate and graduate study programs of electronics and saw the graduation of his first students. Under his leadership, the School of Education and other new research institutes were established. He then went back to ITT Corporation in 1974 (the parent corporation of STC at that time) in the United States and worked in Roanoke, Virginia, first as Chief Scientist and later as Director of Engineering. In 1982, he became the first ITT Executive Scientist and was stationed mainly at the Advanced Technology Center in Connecticut. While there, he served as an adjunct professor and Fellow of Trumbull College at Yale University. In 1985, Kao spent one year in West Germany, at the SEL Research Centre. In 1986, Kao was the Corporate Director of Research at ITT.
Kao was the Vice-Chancellor (President) of the Chinese University of Hong Kong from 1987 to 1996. After his retirement from CUHK in 1996, Kao spent his 6-month sabbatical leave at the Imperial College London Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; from 1997 to 2002, he also served as Visiting professor in the same department. From 1993 to 1994, he was the President of ASAIHL (The Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning).
Kao then worked as the Chairman and CEO of Transtech Services Ltd., a telecommunication consultancy company in Hong Kong. He was the founder, Chairman and CEO of ITX Services Limited. From 2003 to January 30, 2009, Kao was an Independent Non-executive Director and Member of the Audit Committee of Next Media. Since 1991, Kao has been an Independent Non-Executive Director and a member of the Audit Committee of the Varitronix International Limited in Hong Kong.
In 2000, Kao founded the Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF), which is located in Cyberport, Hong Kong. He was its founding Chairman in 2000, and stepped down from the Board of the ISF in December 2008.
Kao was the keynote speaker at IEEE GLOBECOM 2002 in Taipei, Taiwan. In 2003 Kao was named a Chair Professor by special appointment at the Electronics Institute of the College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National Taiwan University.
In 1996, Kao donated to Yale University, and the Charles Kao Fund Research Grants was established to support Yale's studies, research and creative projects in Asia. The fund currently is managed by Yale University Councils on East Asian and Southeast Asian Studies.
Kao has been suffering from Alzheimer's disease since early 2004 and has speech difficulty, but has no problem recognizing people or addresses. Kao's father also suffered from the same disease. Since 2008, he has resided in Mountain View, California, United States, where he moved from Hong Kong in order to live near his children and grandchild.
On October 6, 2009, Kao was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contributions to the study of the transmission of light in optical fibers and for fiber communication, said: "I am absolutely speechless and never expected such an honour". Kao's wife told the press that the prize after paying tax to the US government, will primarily be used for Charles's medical expenses.
Ancestry and family
Kao's father Kao Chun-Hsiang (高君湘) was a lawyer who obtained his J.D. from the University of Michigan Law School in 1925. He was a professor at Soochow University (then in Shanghai) Comparative Law School of China.
His grandfather was Gao Xie (aka Gao Chuiwan), a famous scholar, poet, literator, artist, and a leading figure of the Southern Society (南社) during the late Qing Dynasty. Some influential writers including Gao Xu, aka Gao Tianmei), Yao Guang (姚光), and Gao Zeng (高增) were also Gao's close relatives.
His father's cousin was astronomer Ping-Tse Kao (Kao Crater is named after him). Kao has a younger brother named Timothy Wu Kao (高鋙), who is a civil engineer and Professor Emeritus at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. His research is in hydrodynamics.
Kao met his future wife May-Wan Kao (née: Wong; 黃美芸) in London after graduation. His wife was a Fortran programmer who worked in the same factory as Kao. She is British Chinese. They were married in 1959 in London, and have two children, a son and a daughter, both of whom reside and work in Silicon Valley, California.
Fiber optics and communications
In the 1960s at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories (STL) based in Harlow, Essex, Kao and his co-workers did their pioneering work in the realisation of fiber optics as a telecommunications medium, by demonstrating that the high-loss of existing fibre optics arose from impurities in the glass, rather than from an underlying problem with the technology itself.
In 1963 when Charles first joined the optical communications research team he made notes summarising the background situation and available technology at the time, and identifying the key individuals involved. Initially Kao worked in the team of Antoni E. Karbowiak (Toni Karbowiak), who was working under Alec Reeves to study optical waveguides for communications. Kao's task was to investigate fiber attenuation, for which he collected samples from different fiber manufacturers and also investigated the properties of bulk glasses carefully. Kao's study primarily convinced himself that the impurities in material caused the high light losses of those fibers.
In 1963, Kao was appointed head of the electro-optics research group at STL. He took over the optical communication program of STL in December 1964, because his supervisor, Karbowiak, left to take the Chair in Communications in the School of Electrical Engineering at the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australia.
Although Kao succeeded Karbowiak as manager of optical communications research, he immediately decided to abandon Karbowiak's plan (thin-film waveguide) and overall change research direction with his colleague George Hockham. They not only considered optical physics but also the material properties. The results were first presented by Kao to the IEE in January 1966 in London, and further published in July with George Hockham (1964–1965 worked with Kao).a[›] This study first theorized and proposed to use glass fibers to implement optical communication, the ideas (especially structural features and materials) described are largely the basis of today's optical fiber communications.
In 1965,b[›] Kao with Hockham concluded that the fundamental limitation for glass light attenuation is below 20 dB/km (decibels per kilometer, is a measure of the attenuation of a signal over a distance), which is a key threshold value for optical communications. However, at the time of this determination, optical fibers commonly exhibited light loss as high as 1,000 dB/km and even more. This conclusion opened the intense race to find low-loss materials and suitable fibers for reaching such criteria.
Kao, together with his new team (members including T.W. Davies, M.W. Jones, and C.R. Wright), pursued this goal by testing various materials. They precisely measured the attenuation of light with different wavelengths in glasses and other materials. During this period, Kao pointed out that the high purity of fused silica (SiO2) made it an ideal candidate for optical communication. Kao also stated that the impurity of glass material is the main cause for the dramatic decay of light transmission inside glass fiber, rather than fundamental physical effects such as scattering as many physicists thought at that time, and such impurity could be removed. This led to a worldwide study and production of high-purity glass fibers. When Kao first proposed that such glass fiber could be used for long-distance information transfer and could replace copper wires which were used for telecommunication during that era, his ideas were widely disbelieved; later people realized that Kao's ideas revolutionized the whole communication technology and industry.
Kao played a leading role in the early stage of engineering and commercial realization of optical communication. In spring 1966, Kao traveled to the U.S. but failed to interest Bell Labs, which was a competitor of STL in communication technology at that time. He subsequently traveled to Japan and gained support. Kao visited many glass and polymer factories, discussed with various people including engineers, scientists, businessmen about the techniques and improvement of glass fiber manufacture.
In 1969, Kao with M.W. Jones measured the intrinsic loss of bulk-fused silica at 4 dB/km, which is the first evidence of ultra-transparent glass. Bell Labs started considering fiber optics seriously.
Kao developed important techniques and configurations for glass fiber waveguides, and contributed to the development of different fiber types and system devices which met both civil and militaryc[›] application requirements, and peripheral supporting systems for optical fiber communication. In mid-1970s, he did seminal work on glass fiber fatigue strength. When named the first ITT Executive Scientist, Kao launched the "Terabit Technology" program in addressing the high frequency limits of signal processing, so Kao is also known as the "Father of the Terabit Technology Concept". Kao has published more than 100 papers and was granted over 30 patents, including the water-resistant high-strength fibers (with M.S. Maklad).
At an early stage of developing optic fibers, Kao already strongly preferred single mode for long-distance optical communication, instead of using multi-mode systems. His vision later was followed and now is applied almost exclusively.
Kao is also a visionary of modern submarine communications cables and largely promoted this idea. He predicted in 1983 that world's seas would be littered with fiber optics, five years ahead of the time that such a trans-oceanic fiber-optic cable first became serviceable.
Ali Javan's introduction of a steady helium–neon laser and Kao's discovery of fiber light-loss properties now are recognized as the two essential milestones for the development of fiber-optic communications.
Environmental studies and energy leadership
Kao is one of the few earliest who started studying the environmental effects of the land reclamation in Hong Kong, and presented one of his first related studies at the conference of ACU (Association of Commonwealth Universities) in Edinburgh in 1972.
Kao was the Chairman and Member of the Energy Advisory Committee (EAC) of Hong Kong for two years, and retired from the position on July 15, 2000. Kao is a Member of the Council of Advisors on Innovation and Technology of Hong Kong, appointed on April 20, 2000.
Honors and awards
Kao has received numerous honors and awards in his life, the most notable being the Nobel Prize in Physics. His awards including the following:
- 1993: The Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE).
- 2010: The Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (KBE).
- 2010: Grand Bauhinia Medal (GBM), Hong Kong SAR.
Society & Academy Recognitions
- Life Fellow, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, USA (1979 election)
- Fellow, The Institution of Engineering and Technology, UK
- Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1997
- Fellow, The Royal Academy of Engineering, UK (1989 election)
- Fellow, The Marconi Society, USA (1985 election)
- Honorary Fellow (1994 election) and former President, The Hong Kong Academy of Engineering Sciences (HKAES), Hong Kong
- Distinguished Fellow, The Hong Kong Computer Society, Hong Kong (1989 election)
- Honorary Fellow, The Hong Kong Institute of Engineers (1994 election)
- Academician, Academia Sinica, Taipei (1992 election)
- Member, Optical Society of America, USA
- Member, European Academy of Sciences and Arts, Austria
- Member, United States National Academy of Engineering (1990 election)d[›]
- Foreign Member, Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, Sweden (1988 election)
- Foreign Member, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (1996 election)
- Fellow, Trumbull College of Yale University
- Honorary Fellow, The Queen Mary, University of London
- Honorary Professor, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (appointed in 1996)
- Honorary Professor, Peking University, Beijing (appointed in 1995)
- Honorary Professor, Tsinghua University, Beijing (appointed in 1995)
- Honorary Professor, Beijing University of International Business and Economics, Beijing (appointed in 1995)
- Honorary Professor, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (appointed in 1995)
- Chair Professor by special appointment, National Taiwan University, Taipei (appointed in 2003)
- Honorary Professor (1997–2002), Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong
- Lifetime Honorary Professorship, City University of Hong Kong (appointed on January 1, 2002)
- Advisor of Macao Science and Technology Council
- Honorary Doctor of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (1985)
- Doctor of Science, The University of Sussex, UK (1990)
- Doctor of Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, R.O.China (1990)
- Degree of Honorary Doctor, Soka University, Japan (1991)
- Doctor of Engineering, The University of Glasgow, UK (1992)
- Honorary DCL, Durham University, UK (1994)
- Doctor of the University, Griffith University, Australia (1995)
- Honorary degree in "Telecommunications engineering", University of Padua, Italy (Oct 18, 1996)
- Doctor of Science, The University of Hull, UK (1998)
- Doctor of Science, Yale University, USA (1999)
- Doctor of Science Honoris Causa, The University of Greenwich, UK (2002)
- Doctor of Science, Princeton University, USA (2004)
- Honorary doctor of laws degree, University of Toronto, Canada (June 16, 2005)
- Honorary Doctor, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.R.China (2007)
- Honorary Doctorate of Science, University College London, UK (2010)
- Honorary Degree, University of Strathclyde, UK (Sep 24, 2010)
- Honorary Doctorate of Science, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (Mar 2011)
- 1976: The Morey Award, American Ceramic Society, USA.
- 1977: The Stuart Ballantine Medal, Franklin Institute, USA.
- 1978: The Rank Prize, Rank Trust Fund, UK.
- 1978: The IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award. Citation: "for making communication at optical frequencies practical by discovering, inventing, and developing the material, techniques and configurations for glass fiber waveguides and, in particular, for recognizing and proving by careful measurements in bulk glasses that silicon glass could provide the requisite low optical loss needed for a practical communication system".
- 1979: The L. M. Ericsson International Prize, Sweden.
- 1980: The Gold Medal, AFCEA, USA.
- 1981: The CESASC Achievement Award, Southern California, USA.
- 1983: USAI Achievement Award, U.S.-Asia Institute, USA.
- 1985: The IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal.
- 1985: The Marconi International Scientist Award, Marconi Foundation, USA.
- 1985: The Columbus Medal of the City of Genoa, Italy.
- 1986: The CIE Achievement Award of the CIE-USA Annual Awards, USA.
- 1987: The C & C Prize, Foundation for Communication and Computer Promotion, Japan.
- 1989: The Faraday Medal, Institution of Electrical Engineers, UK.
- 1989: The James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials, American Physical Society (APS). Citation: "for contribution to the materials research and development that resulted in practical low loss optical fibers, one of the cornerstones of optical communications technology".
- 1992: The Gold Medal of the Society, SPIE.
- 1995: The Gold Medal for Engineering Excellence, The World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO), UK.
- 1996: The Prince Philip Medal of the Royal Academy of Engineering, UK; in recognition of "his pioneering work which led to the invention of optical fibre and for his leadership in its engineering and commercial realisation; and for his distinguished contribution to higher education in Hong Kong".
- 1996: la Citta' di Padova, Italy.
- 1996: The 12th Japan Prize. Citation: "for pioneering research on wide-band, low-loss optical fiber communications".
- 1998: The International Lecture Medal, IEE, UK.
- 1999: The Charles Stark Draper Prize (co-recipient with Robert D. Maurer and John B. MacChesney), USA.
- 2001: Millennium Outstanding Engineer Award, Hong Kong.
- 2006: The HKIE Gold Medal Award, HKIE (The Hong Kong Institute of Engineers), Hong Kong.
- 2009: The Nobel Prize in Physics (1/2 of the prize), Sweden. Citation: "for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication".
- 2009: The IEEE Photonics Society Plaque.
- 2010 (Feb 27): Distinguished Science & Technology Award, 2010 Asian American Engineer of the Year Award, AAEOY 2010, USA.
- 2010 (Mar 27): 2009/2010 World Chinese Grand Prize, Phoenix Television, Hong Kong.
- 2010 (April 8/9): Chinese American Distinction Award, San Francisco, USA.
- 20 Feb 2014: FTTH Operators Award and Individual Award
- Featured in Science Museum London.
- Hong Kong Affairs Adviser (港事顧問) (May 1994 – June 30, 1997)
- The 3463 Kaokuen, discovered in 1981, named after Kao in 1996.
- 1996 (November 7): The North Building of the Chinese University of Hong Kong Science Centre has been named as Charles K. Kao Building.
- 1999: Asian of the Century, Science and Technology.
- 2002: Leader of the Year – Innovation Technology Category, Sing Tao, Hong Kong.
- October 21, 2002: Inducted into the Engineering Hall Of Fame, the 50th Anniversary Issue, Electronic Design.
- January 3, 2008: Inducted into the Celebration 60, British Council's 60th anniversary in Hong Kong.
- November 4, 2009: Honorary Citizenship, and the Dr. Charles Kao Day in Mountain View, California, USA.
- December 30, 2009: The landmark auditorium in the Hong Kong Science Park has been named after Kao – Charles K. Kao Auditorium.
- 2009: Hong Kong's Person of Year.
- The Top 10 Asian Achievements of 2009 – No.7.
- 2010 (February): Honoree, Committee of 100, USA.
- 2010 (March 18): The square of the Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF Academy) has been named after Kao.
- The 2010 OFC/NFOEC Conferencese[›] were dedicated to Kao, March 23–25, San Diego, California, USA.
- May 14–15, 2010: Two sessions were dedicated to Kao, The 19th Annual Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC 2010), Shanghai, P.R.China.
- May 22, 2010: Inducted into the memento archive of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo.|
- Mid-2010: Hong Kong Definitive Stamp Sheetlet (No. 1), Hong Kong SAR.
- March 25, 2011: Blue plaque unveiled in Harlow, Essex, UK.
- September 2014: Sir Charles Kao UTC (now known as BMAT STEM Academy) was opened
- 4 Nov 2014: Gimme Fibre Day on Kao's birthday, FTTH Councils Global Alliance
Later Life & Dementia
In 2002, Charles was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. He is unable to express or take care of himself and has no memory of most things in his life. His speech is impaired too, resulting in lack of fluency. In 2016, Charles lost the ability to maintain his balance or walk without aids. At the end-stage of his dementia, he is currently taken care by his wife Gwen and has the intention not to be kept with life support or have CPR performed on him when the time comes for him to go.
^ a: Kao's major task was to investigate light-loss properties in materials of optic fibers, and determine whether they could be removed or not. Hockham's was investigating light-loss due to discontinuities and curvature of fibre.
^ b: Some sources show around 1964, for example, "By 1964, a critical and theoretical specification was identified by Dr. Charles K. Kao for long-range communication devices, the 10 or 20 dB of light loss per kilometer standard." from Cisco Press.
^ c: In 1980, Kao was awarded the Gold Medal from American Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, "for contribution to the application of optical fiber technology to military communications".
^ d: In the United States National Academy of Engineering Membership Website, Kao's country is indicated as People's Republic of China.
^ e: OFC/NFOEC – Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference
- Fiber optics
- Fiber-optic communication
- Multi-mode optical fiber
- Single-mode optical fiber
- Submarine communications cable
- The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009 – Press Release. Nobel Foundation. October 6, 2009. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- Headline Daily (October 7, 2009). 高錕獲 bbbbb獎 國人驕傲 (in Chinese). Headline Daily. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
- "List of Fellows".
- "Fellows of the Royal Society". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-03-16.
- Charles K. Kao was elected in 1990 as a member of National Academy of Engineering in Electronics, Communication & Information Systems Engineering for pioneering and sustained accomplishments towards the theoretical and practical realization of optical fiber communication systems.
- "306 people to receive honours". The Government of Hong Kong SAR. July 1, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2010.[dead link]
- "2010 Queen's Birthday Honours List" (pdf). The London Gazette. June 12, 2010. Supplement No.1 B23. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- "- Royal Society".
- "The Fellowship – List of Fellows". Raeng.org.uk. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- Erickson, Jim; Chung, Yulanda (December 10, 1999). "Charles K. Kao". Asiaweek. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- Mesher, Kelsey (October 15, 2009). "The legacy of Charles Kao". Mountain View Voice. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- dpa (October 6, 2009). "PROFILE: Charles Kao: 'father of fibre optics,' Nobel winner". Earthtimes. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Record control number (RCN):31331 (October 7, 2009). "'Father of Fibre Optics' and digital photography pioneers share Nobel Prize in Physics". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original (cfm) on January 25, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Bob Brown (Network World) (October 7, 2009). "Father of fiber-optics snags share of Nobel Physics Prize". cio.com.au. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "The father of optical fiber – Narinder Singh Kapany/Prof. C. K. Kao" (in Chinese and English). networkchinese.com. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- "Prof. Charles K Kao speaks on the impact of IT in Hong Kong". The Open University of Hong Kong. January 2000. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- Editor: Zhang Pengfei (October 7, 2009). "Nobel Prize winner Charles Kao says never expected such honor" (shtml). CCTV. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009. Nobel Foundation. October 6, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2009.
- 范彦萍 (October 8, 2009). "Interview of Kao's cousin (诺贝尔得主高锟的堂哥回忆:他兒时国学功底很好)" (in Chinese). 青年报. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
- 陶家骏 (June 1, 2008). "著名女教育家陶玄 Famous Female Educator 陶玄" (in Chinese). 绍兴县报 Shaoxing County News. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
- Ifeng.com: 香港特首曾荫权祝贺高锟荣获诺贝尔物理学奖
- "meantimealumni Spring 2005" (PDF). University of Greenwich. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
- UCL. "Prof Charles K. Kao — Electronic & Electrical Engineering @ UCL". Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- Lisa Mumbach (October 20, 2009). "Former IFTF Board Member". Archived from the original on March 24, 2010. Retrieved October 31, 2009.
- CUHK Handbook Archived December 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Research Awards and Honours". Imperial College London Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering. 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- "President of ASAIHL". ASAIHL. Archived from the original on July 4, 2015. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
- 壹传媒(00282)高锟辞任独立非执董及审核委员,黄志雄接任 (in Chinese). jrj.com.cn. July 2, 2009. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
- 中研院士高錕 勇奪物理獎. Apple Daily (in Chinese). Taiwan. October 7, 2009. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
- "Annual Report 2002, Varitronix International Limited" (PDF). Varitronix International Ltd. April 3, 2003. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
- "精電國際有限公司" (pdf) (in Chinese and English). 精電國際有限公司. 2004. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
- "Founding Chairman receives 2009 Nobel Prize for Physics" (php). The ISF Academy. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
- "Charles K. Kao, NTU's former chair professor by special appointment, wins the Nobel Prize in Physics". National Taiwan University. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
- "Kao Gift Will Help Build Ties Between Asia and Yale". Yale Bulletin and Calendar, News Stories. June 24 – July 22, 1996. Archived from the original on June 11, 2009. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH SUPPORT" (php). The Councils on East Asian and Southeast Asian Studies at Yale University. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- Ifeng.com: 港媒年初传高锟患老年痴呆症 妻称老人家记性差
- QQ.com News 记者探访"光纤之父"高锟：顽皮慈爱的笑
- "Physics 2009". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- Ian Sample, science correspondent (October 6, 2009). "Charles Kuen Kao, George Smith and Willard Boyle win Nobel for physics". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- "○九教育大事(二) 高錕獲遲來的諾獎". Sing Tao Daily (in Chinese). HK Yahoo! Archive. January 2, 2010. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010.
- University of Michigan Law School: Alphabetical List with Year of Law School Graduates
- "中国近代法律教育与中国近代法学". Archived from the original on July 8, 2011.
- "参加南社纪念会姓氏录 List of Nan Society member" (in Chinese). 南社研究網 Research of Nan Society. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- 高平子先生简介 (in Chinese). 青岛天文网--中国科学院紫金山天文台青岛观象台/青岛市天文爱好者协会. February 8, 2006. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- "Lunar Crater Statistics". NASA. Archived from the original on August 13, 2009. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- "高锟个人简历 (The biography of Charles K. Kao)" (in Chinese). chinanews.com.cn. October 6, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
- "光纤与爱情——高锟一生的实验". Ming Pao. Hong Kong. March 4, 2000. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
- "高锟履历". 香港文汇报. October 7, 2009. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
- "高锟非常惊喜：没想过获奖(图)". Wen Hui Po. October 7, 2009. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
- "Draper Prize". draper.comg. Archived from the original on February 14, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2009. "Charles Kao is credited for first publicly proposing the possibility of practical telecommunications using fibers in the 1960s."
- Montgomary, Jeff D. (March 22, 2002). "Chapter 1 – History of Fiber Optics". In DeCusatis, Casimer. Fiber optic data communication: technological trends and advances (1st ed.). Academic Press. 1.3.1. Long Road to Low-Loss Fiber (Page 9-16). ISBN 978-0-12-207891-0.
- "Charles Kao's Notes made in 1963 – Set A". March 23, 2016.
- Jeff Hecht. "A Short History of Fiber Optics". Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- "Communication pioneers win 2009 physics Nobel". IET. October 7, 2009. Archived from the original on October 13, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
- "Fiber Types in Gigabit Optical Communications" (PDF). Cisco Systems, USA. April 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
- Kao, K. C.; Hockham, G. A. (1966). "Dielectric-fibre surface waveguides for optical frequencies". Proc. IEE. 113 (7): 1151–1158. doi:10.1049/piee.1966.0189.
- Maryanne C. J. Large; Leon Poladian; Geoff Barton; Martijn A. van Eijkelenborg. (2008). Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-31273-6. Page 2
- "Chapter 1.1 – The Evolution of Fibre Optics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 31, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
- "2009 Nobel Prize in Physics – Scientific Background: Two revolutionary optical technologies – Optical fiber with high transmission" (PDF). Nobelprize.org. October 6, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 22, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- 1999 Charles Stark Draper Award Presented "Kao, who was working at ITT's Standard Telecommunications Laboratories in the 1960s, theorized about how to use light for communication instead of bulky copper wire and was the first to publicly propose the possibility of a practical application for fiber-optic telecommunication."
- "Charles Kuen Kao" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 14, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
- "A Fiber-Optic Chronology (by Jeff Hecht)". Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
- Technology of Our Times: People and Innovation in Optics and Optoelectronics (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM04), by Frederick Su; SPIE Publications (July 1, 1990); ISBN 0-8194-0472-1, ISBN 978-0-8194-0472-5. Page 82-86, Terabit Technology, by Charles K. Kao.
- "Water resistant high strength fibers (United States Patent 4183621)" (PDF). January 15, 1980 [date filed: December 29, 1977]. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
- "Guiding light". May 1989. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 16, 2009. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- "1, A Global Footprint" (PDF). Building the Global Fiber Optics Superhighway (ISBN 978-0-306-46505-5 (Print) ISBN 978-0-306-46979-4 (Online)) (PDF (Free Abstract)). Springer USA. May 8, 2007. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
- Nim Cheung, ed. (March 2010). "IEEE Communications Magazine SOCIETY NEWS" (pdf). CISOC. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
- "Appointment of Chairman and Members of the Energy Advisory Committee". Hong Kong Government. August 11, 2000. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
- "EPD – Advisory Council on the Environment". Environmental Protection Department, The Government of Hong Kong SAR. April 28, 2006. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
- "The Council of Advisors on Innovation & Technology appointed" (PDF). The Government of Hong Kong SAR. April 20, 2000. Archived from the original (pdf) on July 22, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
- "Medals Donated to CUHK by Professor Kao". The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- JILL LAWLESS (June 13, 2010). "Right royal boost for Zeta". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- "Fellows – Charles K. Kao". IEEE. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- The HKIE Secretariat (October 7, 2009). "The HKIE – News". The HKIE. Archived from the original (asp) on July 21, 2011. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- 高锟：厚道长者 毕生追求 (shtm) (in Chinese). news.sciencenet.cn (科學網·新聞). 2009-10-14. Retrieved July 11, 2010.
- "Membership – Hong Kong Computer Society Annual Report 2008-2009". Hong Kong Computer Society. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- "List of Distinguished Fellows". The Hong Kong Computer Society. Archived from the original (asp) on May 7, 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "The HKIE – News". The Hong Kong Institute of Engineers (HKIE). October 7, 2009. Archived from the original (asp) on July 21, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "OSA Nobel Laureates". Optical Society of America (OSA). Archived from the original (aspx) on October 29, 2009. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- "Dr. Charles K. Kao". United States National Academy of Engineering. 1990. Archived from the original (nsf) on May 28, 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- "e-Newsletter, Alumni at Queen Mary, University of London". Qmw.ac.uk. Retrieved October 26, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- 高錕校長榮休誌念各界歡送惜別依依, a September 1996 article from the Chinese University of Hong Kong alumni website (in Chinese)
- "Graduate Research Studies Newsletter" (PDF). City University of Hong Kong. February 2002. Archived from the original (pdf) on June 5, 2011. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- XinhuaNet News: Macao chief congratulates Nobel Prize winner Charles Kao
- 國立交通大學 公共事務委員會 名譽博士名單 (php) (in Chinese). National Chiao Tung University (NCTU). Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- 校史 – 國立交通大學時期｜民國六十八年（一九七九）以後 (in Chinese). National Chiao Tung University (NCTU). Archived from the original on March 26, 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- "Honorary Degrees" (PDF). Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- Università degli Studi di Padova – Honoris causa degrees Archived September 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Honorary graduates 2 - University of Hull". Archived from the original on December 19, 2016.
- "Yale Honorary Degree Recipients". Archived from the original on May 21, 2015.
- "Princeton University - Facts & Figures".
- "Engineering a World of Possibilities" (pdf). University of Toronto Applied Science & Engineering. Spring 2006. Retrieved October 26, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- "UCL Fellows and Honorary Fellows announced". June 17, 2010. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- "Honorary degree for broadband pioneer". September 24, 2010. Archived from the original on September 30, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
- "CIE-USA ANNUAL AWARDS" (PDF) (in English and Chinese). CIE-USA. 2007. Archived from the original (pdf) on July 25, 2011. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "Prize Recipient".
- "Gold Medal Award - SPIE".
- News from the Institution of Electrical Engineer (PDF). IEE. June 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 6, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2009.
- The Hong Kong Institute of Engineers: Press Releases – 香港工程師學會榮譽大獎、會長特設成就獎及傑出青年工程師獎2006 (The HKIE Gold Medal Award, the President's Award & Young Engineer of the Year Award 2006)[permanent dead link]
- "Research Highlights". IEEE Photonics Society. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
- "美洲中國工程師學會2010年工程獎章得獎名單出爐（2/27）" (asp) (in Chinese and English). AAEOY. 2010-02-23. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
- 华裔科学家高锟荣获影响世界华人大奖 (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. March 11, 2010. Archived from the original on March 16, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- 华裔科学家高锟荣获影响世界华人大奖 (shtml) (in Chinese). Phoenix Television. 2010-03-11. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- Jane Leung Larson (February 2010). "2009 Nobel Laureate Charles Kao among Committee of 100 Honorees in San Francisco". Committee of 100. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
- "Vodafone and Sir Charles Kao recognised in FTTH Awards 2014" (pdf). FTTH Council Europe. 20 Feb 2014. Retrieved 28 Jan 2015.
- A chat with vice-chancellor Kao, by Midori Hiraga
- The Standard: The day Nobel winner lost mic Archived June 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Charles K. Kao" (shtml). chinanews.com.cn. October 6, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
- "Asian of the Century". Asiaweek. 1999. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- "Electronic Design, 50th Anniversary Issue". Electronic Design. October 21, 2002. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "ED Hall of Fame 2002 INDUCTEES" (pdf). Electronic Design. October 21, 2002. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "Enter the Creative Dragon Feature" (pdf). AlumniNews London Business School. January–March 2009. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "British Council Celebrates 60 Years in Hong Kong" (PDF). Hong Kong: British Council. January 3, 2008. Archived from the original (pdf) on June 6, 2011. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
- "City Press Release: Mountain View Honors Dr. Charles Kao for Being Awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics" (asp). Office of the City Manager, Mountain View, California. October 27, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
- "香港两座建筑物将以高锟及饶宗颐名字命名(图) (Two landmark buildings in Hong Kong are named after Charles K. Kao and Rao Zongyi (with photos))" (shtml) (in Chinese). 凤凰资讯 (Ifeng News). December 30, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
- "Hong Kong to name building after Nobel laureate Charles Kao". chinaview.cn. December 31, 2009. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
- "Nobel laureate Charles Kao is named Hong Kong's Person of Year". Earthtimes. January 4, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
- Evangeline Cafe (December 30, 2009). "The top 10 Asian achievements of 2009". Northwest Asian Weekly. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
- 弘立迎光纤之父 广场冠名「高锟」 (in Chinese). Hong Kong Wen Wei Po. March 18, 2010. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved March 18, 2010.
- "OFC/NFOEC 2010 To Be Dedicated To Nobel Laureate Charles Kao" (mvc). Photonics Online. January 15, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- "OFC/NFOEC 2010 Announces Plenary Session Speaker Lineup". Yahoo! Finance. January 21, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2009.[permanent dead link]
- Angela Stark. "OFC/NFOEC 2010 to be Dedicated to Nobel Prize Winner and Industry Pioneer Charles Kao". OFC/NFOEC Press Releases. Archived from the original (aspx) on July 9, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- "The 19th Annual Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC 2010)". WOCC 2010. 2010. Archived from the original on April 17, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- "Archived copy" 康宁公司在华开展光纤发明40周年庆祝活动 (in Chinese). 美通社（亚洲）. May 18, 2010. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- 《世界百位名人谈上海世博》首发 (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. May 23, 2010. Archived from the original on June 21, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- "Hongkong Post Stamps – Hong Kong Stamps". Hongkong Post. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved Apr 8, 2010.
- "Harlow Nobel Prize winner to be commemorated in town centre". HarlowStar. March 25, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Sir Charles Kao UTC". Archived from the original on July 14, 2014.
- "Gimme Fibre Day - 4 November". Fibre to the Home Council Europe.
- "" Nobel winner wants to die in peace at home, wife says, as she urges Hong Kong to change culture on end-of-life care", South China Morning Post Newspaper 2016".
- Vivek Alwayn (April 23, 2004). "Fiber-Optic Technologies – A Brief History of Fiber-Optic Communications". Cisco Press. Retrieved December 4, 2009.
- Mary Bellis. "The Birth of Fiber Optics". inventors.about.com. Retrieved December 15, 2009.
- Optical fiber technology; by Charles K. Kao. IEEE Press, New York, USA; 1981.
- Optical Fiber Technology, II; by Charles K. Kao. IEEE Press, New York, USA; 1981, 343 pages. ISBN 0-471-09169-3 ISBN 978-0-471-09169-1.
- Optical Fiber Systems: Technology, Design, and Applications; by Charles K. Kao. McGraw-Hill, USA; 1982; 204 pages. ISBN 0-07-033277-0 ISBN 978-0-07-033277-5.
- Optical fibre (IEE materials & devices series, Volume 6); by Charles K. Kao. Palgrave Macmillan on behalf of IEEE; 1988; University of Michigan; 158 pages. ISBN 0-86341-125-8 ISBN 978-0-86341-125-0
- A Choice Fulfilled: the Business of High Technology; by Charles K. Kao. The Chinese University Press/ Palgrave Macmillan; 1991, 203 pages. ISBN 962-201-521-2 ISBN 978-962-201-521-0
- Tackling the Millennium Bug Together: Public Conferences; by Charles K. Kao. Central Policy Unit, Hong Kong; 48 pages, 1998.
- Technology Road Maps for Hong Kong: a Preliminary Study; by Charles K. Kao. Office of Industrial and Business Development, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; 126 pages, 1990.
- Nonlinear Photonics: Nonlinearities in Optics, Optoelectronics and Fiber Communications; by Yili Guo, Kin S. Chiang, E. Herbert Li, and Charles K. Kao. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong; 2002, 600 pages.
- Kao, Charles (1982). Optical Fibre Systems: Technology, Design and Application. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc.,US. ISBN 978-0070332775.
- Hecht, Jeff (1999). City of Light, The Story of Fiber Optics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-510818-7.
- Kao, K. C.; Hockham, G. A. (1966). "Dielectric-fibre surface waveguides for optical frequencies". Proc. IEE. 113 (7): 1151–1158. doi:10.1049/piee.1966.0189.
- Kao, K. C.; Davies, T. W. (1968). "Spectrophotometric Studies of Ultra Low Loss Optical Glasses – I: Single Beam Method". Journal of Physics E. 2 (1): 1063–1068. Bibcode:1968JPhE....1.1063K. doi:10.1088/0022-3735/1/11/303.
- K. C. Kao (June 1986), "1012 bit/s Optoelectronics Technology", IEE Proceedings 133, Pt.J, No 3, 230–236. doi:10.1049/ip-j.1986.0037
- K. C. Kao, A Time And A Tide (Autobiography of Charles K. Kao)
- K. C. Kao (July 2005)《潮平岸闊——高錕自述》(translated by 許迪鏘) Joint Publishing (Autobiography of Charles K. Kao)
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Charles K. Kao|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charles K. Kao.|
- Optical Fibre History at STL
- 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics information
- BBC: Lighting the way to a revolution
- IEEE Oral-History: Charles Kao
- Mountain View Voice: The legacy of Charles Kao
- Man who lit up the world – Professor Charles Kao CBE FREng Ingenia, Issue 43, June 2010
|Awards and achievements|
| IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal
| Japan Prize
Takashi Sugimura and
Bruce N. Ames
Makoto Kobayashi, and
| Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics
with Willard Boyle and George E. Smith
Andre Geim and
| Vice-Chancellor of the Chinese University of Hong Kong
|Order of precedence|
Recipient of the Grand Bauhinia Medal
| Hong Kong order of precedence
Recipient of the Grand Bauhinia Medal
Recipient of the Grand Bauhinia Medal