Sir Charles Lucas was an English soldier, a Royalist commander in the English Civil War. Lucas was a younger son of Sir Thomas Lucas of Colchester in Essex, by his wife Elizabeth Leighton, daughter of John Leighton of London, gentleman, his elder brothers Sir John Lucas and Sir Thomas Lucas fought for the King. His younger sister Margaret Lucas Duchess of Newcastle, described her brother's youthful career in her autobiography; as a young man Lucas served as a soldier in the Netherlands under the command of his brother, in the "Bishops' Wars" he commanded a troop of horses in the army of King Charles I. In 1639 he was knighted. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Lucas took the king's side, was wounded at the Battle of Powick Bridge, the first cavalry engagement. Early in 1643 Lucas raised a regiment of horse, with which he defeated Middleton at Padbury on 1 July. In January 1645 he commanded the forces attacking Nottingham, soon afterwards, on the recommendation of Prince Rupert, he was made lieutenant-general of the Duke of Newcastle's Northern army.
When Newcastle was shut up in York and the cavalry remained in the open country, when Rupert's relieving army crossed the hills into Yorkshire he was joined by Newcastle's squadrons. At the Battle of Marston Moor Lucas swept Fairfax's Yorkshire horse before him, but in the day he was taken prisoner, in a battle won decisively by Parliament. Exchanged for Parliamentary prisoners during the winter, he defended Berkeley Castle, in Gloucestershire, for a short time against Thomas Rainsborough, but was soon back in the field; as lieutenant-general of all the horse, he accompanied Lord Astley in the last campaign of the first war, taken prisoner again at Stow-on-the-Wold, he agreed not to bear arms against Parliament in the future. During the Second Civil War he broke this parole when he took a prominent part in the seizure of Colchester in 1648. Following the three-month Siege of Colchester, the town surrendered to Fairfax on 28 August 1648; when Colchester capitulated the superior officers were obliged to "render themselves to mercy", Lucas was condemned to death by a court martial.
The sentence was the result of the exasperation felt by the puritan officers against the authors of the second civil war, but can neither be regarded as a breach of the capitulation, nor be specially attributed to Fairfax. Parliament by its votes of 20 June 1648 had declared all who took part in the new civil war guilty of high treason, Henry Ireton used this argument to justify the sentence. "I am no traitor," answered Lucas, "but a true subject to my king and the laws of the kingdom... I do plead before you all the laws of this kingdom. I have fought with a commission from those that were my sovereigns, from that commission I must justify my action". Lucas and his fellow-prisoner, Sir George Lisle, were shot to death on 28 August 1648 in the castle yard at Colchester, were buried in the vault of the Lucas family in the north aisle of St. Giles's Church, Colchester. Twelve years on 7 June 1661, the funeral of Lucas and Lisle was solemnly celebrated by the town of Colchester, a stone was placed by John Lucas, 1st Baron Lucas on their tombs, with an inscription stating that they were "by the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax in cold blood barbarously murdered".
By way of reparation, Lucas was awarded a posthumous peerage in 1666. Lucas was reputed to be one of the best cavalry leaders in the king's army. Clarendon, who judges him with undue severity, describes him as "very brave in his person, in a day of battle a gallant man to look upon and follow". According to his sister, Lucas "naturally had a practical genius to the warlike arts, as natural poets have to poetry, but his life was cut off before he could arrive at the true perfection thereof", he left a Treatise of the Arts of War. To his military gifts Lucas added a devotion to the king's cause, which he sometimes expressed in singularly high-flown and poetical language. An inscribed stone obelisk in commemoration of Lucas and Lisle exists at Colchester Castle. Lucas and Lisle are celebrated in two contemporary poems: The Loyal Sacrifice, 8vo, 1648, An Elegy on the Murder committed at Colchester upon Sir C. Lucas and Sir G. Lisle, 4to, 1648. A portrait of Lucas, by Robert Walker, was in the possession of Lord Lyttelton in 1900.
Engraved portraits are in Warburton's Prince Rupert and in the illustrated edition of Clarendon's Rebellion, said to be after a painting by William Dobson. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Anonymous. "Lucas, Sir Charles". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. P. 93. Contains a bibliography of: Lloyd's Memoirs of Excellent Personages; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Charles Harding. "Lucas, Charles". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 34. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 229–231. Contains a bibliography of: Lloyd's Memoirs of Excellent Personages, 1668, contains a Lives of the Lucases Heath's New Book of Loyal English Martyrs contains a Lives of the Lucases Thomas Philip, Earl de Grey, A Memoir of the Life of Sir Charles Lucas, 4to, was printed in 1845; the Life of William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, Firth. 1886, App. pp. 363–369.
The Raven Forward Air Controllers known as The Ravens, were fighter pilots used for forward air control in a covert operation in conjunction with the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States in Laos during America's Vietnam War. The Ravens provided direction for most of the air strikes against communist Pathet Lao targets and People's Army of Vietnam's infiltrators in support of the Laotian Hmong guerrilla army. On 23 July 1962, the United States and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam signed the Geneva Accords guaranteeing the neutrality of the Kingdom of Laos. One of the provisions of the Accords called for the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Laotian soil. North Vietnam had troops still remaining in Laos from the end of the French Indochina War; the United States had a small number of advisors. The North Vietnamese deliberately ignored the Accords because they were intent on keeping their supply corridor, the Ho Chi Minh trail, to continue their war against South Vietnam. North Vietnam's representatives stated they had "no military presence in Laos" though they had at least 4,000 troops stationed there from the end of the First Indochina War onwards.
Prince Souvanna Phouma, the Prime Minister of Laos, asked for American help to counteract the North Vietnamese. To avoid the appearance of unilaterally violating the Accords, U. S. President John F. Kennedy directed the United States Air Force to perform covert operations in Laos to help the Lao fight the North Vietnamese communists; as tactical air strikes began to be used in Laos, it became apparent that for the safety of noncombatants, some means of control was necessary. Beginning at least as early as July 1964, the absence of a close air support control system caused a variety of enterprising individuals to improvise procedures for marking bombing targets. At various times, ground dropped smoke grenades were used. While some of these individuals had military training, such as the American Army Attaché, others had little or no specialized training in close air support, they varied in nationality, being Lao, or Hmong, as well as American. Both Continental Air Services and Air America pilots would sometimes serve as ad hoc forward air controllers.
To begin an operation of great secrecy, the U. S. Air Force forwarded four sergeants from Combat Control Teams in 1963; these sergeants turned in their uniforms and military identification and were supplied with false identification so they could work in civilian clothing. This process was designed to preserve the fiction of American non-involvement dubbed plausible deniability. Once "civilianized", the Butterflies flew in the right seat in Air America Helio Couriers and Pilatus Porters, they were accompanied by a Lao or Thai interpreter in the back seat. The Air Commando sergeants directed the air strikes according to U. S. Air Force doctrine, using the radio call sign Butterfly. Two of the Butterfly Air Force combat controllers were master sergeant Charles Larimore Jones, soon joined by technical sergeant James J. Stanford. Another of the Butterflies was Major John J. Garrity, Jr. who in future would spend several years as the éminence grise of the American Embassy to Laos. They, their successors, ran air strikes without notice or objection until General William Momyer discovered that enlisted men were in charge of air strikes.
By that time, the number of Butterflies had escalated to three pairs. Both the impromptu strike controlling and the Butterfly effort ended with General Momyer's tirade in April 1966. Development of rules of engagement by the Embassy threw more reliance on increased control over the in-country close air support. So did the introduction of an integrated close air support system for Southeast Asia in April 1966. Beginning in April 1966, part of its effort to better direct air strikes, the U. S. Air Force installed four tactical air navigation systems in Laos to guide U. S. air strikes. One of these was emplaced on a mountain top at Lima Site 85, aimed across the border at Hanoi. A successor operation, code-named Palace Dog, began replacing this original Butterfly effort in 1966. Central Intelligence Agency agent James William Lair recommended the use of Lao interpreters flying in the rear seat of light aircraft flown by American pilots, thus establishing the Ravens; the Ravens were airborne fighter pilots in unarmed light aircraft who flew observation missions, marked enemy targets with smoke rockets, directed air strikes onto them, observed and reported bomb damage assessment post strike.
They were based in five Lao towns: Vientiane, Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, at Long Tieng. Recruiting for the Ravens began when Air Force personnel checked into their original assignments in Vietnam. Forward air controllers, beginning a tour in Southeast Asia, were told as part of their orientation briefing that halfway through their year's tour of duty in Vietnam, they were eligible to volunteer for special duty via the Steve Canyon Program. To be accepted for Steve Canyon, a pilot had to have a minimum of four months combat duty, including at least 60 days' service as a FAC, at least 100 hours' flight time as a fighter pilot and/or FAC, at least 750 hours' flying time overall, six months' or more time remaining on his tour in SEA; those who did volunteer via this program did so with no knowledge of their destination. After screening by the 56th Special Operations Wing at Nakhon Phanom RTAFB, they received temporary duty orders, were forwarded to the American Embassy, Laos. There they were stripped of all military identification and gear, supplied with U.
S. Aid identification, changed into civilian clothing to be worn for the
The large blue is a species of butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. The species was first defined in 1758 and first recorded in Britain in 1795. In 1979 the species became extinct in Britain but has been reintroduced with new conservation methods. Large blue is classified as "near threatened" on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Today P. arion can be found in Europe, the Caucasus, western Siberia, north-western Kazakhstan and Sichuan. The large blue can be distinguished by its unique speckled black dots on its wings with a blue background; the large blue butterfly is well known among the behavioural ecology field as it exhibits a unique parasitic relationship with a single species of red ant, Myrmica sabuleti. The species feeds on thyme and wild marjoram oregano as food plants early in its life cycle. P. a. arion Mainland Europe, western Siberia, north-western Kazakhstan P. a. delphinatus P. a. zara Jachontov, 1935 Caucasus, Armenia P. a. buholzeri Rezbanyai, 1978 † P. a. eutyphron Fruhstorfer, 1915 southern Britain Large blue caterpillars grow to about half an inch in length, spend up to 9 months before they undergo metamorphosis to a chrysalis to become a butterfly.
Large blue butterflies are the largest in the family Lycaenidae, known as the gossamer-winged butterfly, with a wingspan of up to 2 inches, live only for a few weeks. The wings of the large blue butterfly are speckled with black dots. L. arion L.. Larger, above of a lighter and more shining blue, with a row of black spots across both wings, the spots being sometimes obsolete only on the hindwing of the male. At once recognized by the large number of ocelli on the underside on the hindwing, by the bright blue dusting of the base beneath. Europe and Anterior Asia, from North Europe, the Baltic provinces, England to the Mediterranean, from Spain to Armenia and South Siberia. In ab. unicolor Hormuz. The upperside is blue, all the black spots with the exception of the discocellular one being absent. Ab. arthurus Melvill is without ocelli beneath. In ab. jasilkowskii Hornuz the ocelli are absent beneath in the cell as in euphemus, from which this aberration is at once distinguished by its blue-green basal scaling on the underside.
In ab. coalescens Gillm. The black spots of the upperside are confluent. — Quite a number of local forms have been separated Northern specimens, which are feebly spotted, are named alconides by Aurivillius. — obscura Christ. Is an alpine form in which the whole outer half of the wings above is black or dark brown; this darkened form occurs in the Ural — In the South two aberrant forms have been found, namely ligurica Wagn. at the Eiviera between San Remo and Bordighera, with a conspicuous row of white marginal ocelli on the upperside of the hindwing, aldrovandus S. L. from the Vesuvius, the underside darkened with brown. — cyanecula Stgr. is an Asiatic form, from the Caucasus to Mongolia, with the metallic blue green dusting of the hindwing beneath being abundant and extending to the distal edge. — Egg flat semiglobular, pale bluish white, deposited on Thymus which just begins to flower. Larva adult pale ochreous, with a pale lilac tinge at the sides, it is therefore suggested that the ants feed it up and also protect the pupae.
The chrysalis the colour of amber except for the wing-cases, somewhat elongate, without web. The butterflies occur singly, being locally frequent on open ground, on broad roads through shrubby woods, flying about 1 m above the ground, they rest with closed wings on Thymes and Scabious. On the wing from the end of June into August; the large blue butterfly is found from coast to coast of the Palearctic realm, but is most concentrated in the areas from France to China. The habitat of the large blue butterfly is influenced by location of its food sources; the species requires a combination of abundant amounts of its larval food plant, Thymus drucei and the presence of Myrmica sabuleti ants in order to survive. It has been found that an underlying key factor for the survival of the large blue is site heterogeneity; the butterfly is most abundant in abandoned areas of diverse vegetation and shrubbery. This preference can be explained by examining the result of a uniform landscape. A constant landscape synchronizes many biological activities including flowering of host plants, adult emergence dates, or larval pressures on the ant colonies.
If important biological functions take place at the same times, the population becomes much more susceptible to random unfortunate events such as environmental disasters. Thus traditional farming acts to desynchronize the biological system, allows for re-colonization of patches that are temporarily untouched; the presence of differing sites and varied ecological structures provides differing microclimates that can make a huge impact on the survival of the large blue butterfly. In the late 1900s, Phengaris populations began decreasing drastically throughout Europe with the large blue butterfly being affected. By the 1950s, only an estimated 100,000 adults remained in Britain, by 1978, 48% of the UK's 91 known large blue populations had been lost. Experts were baffled by the disappearance of large blues as the sites did not appear to have changed. Le
The University of Limerick Vikings are the American football team from the University of Limerick in Limerick, Ireland. The team competes in the Irish American Football League; the Vikings have won three IAFL Shamrock Bowl titles – in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The Vikings' all-time record is 48–28–3. Established in 1999, the team played flag football until late 2001, when they joined the IAFL winter league. In UL's first-ever game, they took the field on the road to the eventual Shamrock Bowl champion Dublin Rebels and were beaten 48–0; the Vikings lost their first four games, but on 2 December 2001, they recorded their first-ever win, 12–8, over the Dublin Dragons in Limerick, with touchdowns from Tommy Conneelly and Paddy "The Saint" Ryan. In 2002, the Vikings won every game they played thanks to a powerful team of American exchange students; as league champions, they progressed directly to the Shamrock Bowl. However, as most of the American students had returned home, UL was well beaten by the Carrickfergus Knights, 66–0.
The Vikings decided that for the long-term benefit of the team, they couldn't rely on exchange students as much as they had been doing. The 2003 and 2004 seasons were devoted to building a base of home-grown Irish players. Despite going winless during both of those seasons, the Vikings recruited the core of the future Shamrock Bowl-winning teams, including Liam Ryan and Kieran Coen. In 2005, the much improved Vikings snapped their three-year, 13-game losing streak with a 26–22 victory over rival Cork Admirals, narrowly missed the playoffs, finishing with a 3–5 record. Buoyed by their promising 2005 campaign, the Vikings made the playoffs their goal in 2006. With the team becoming more and more popular around Limerick, the Vikings had another strong recruiting class and the team was made up of Irish players, although they were helped by the arrival of four American exchange students – Chris Bassitt, Jeremiah Sexton, Alex Smith and Seamus Hogan; the 2006 UL Vikings finished the season with a 5–2–1 record, led by their defence, which gave up only 6 points in five home games.
The Vikings made the postseason for the first time in four years. Aided by the return of former players Kieran Coen and Dan Levy, UL defeated the Carrickfergus Knights on the road to make the Shamrock Bowl for the second time in the team's short history. However, a strong Dublin Rebels team upended the Vikings 44–12 to claim their fourth consecutive Shamrock Bowl victory. Despite the defeat, the team had managed to turn a corner by making the Shamrock Bowl with a young exclusively Irish team; the Vikings had their greatest season in 2007. Winning every game they played in dominant fashion – their smallest margin of victory being 16 points; the Vikings league best defence allowed more than 6 points in a game only once, in a 36–20 road victory over the Cork Admirals, the offence was as dominant, averaging 43 points a game and scoring at least four touchdowns in every game, led by an overpowering O-Line and strong running game. The Vikings entered the playoffs as Shamrock Bowl favourites, but had to get past a 4th-seeded Belfast Bulls team in the semi-finals winning by a dominating 44–2 scoreline.
This led to the first all-Munster Shamrock Bowl against the Cork Admirals, held at the UL Sports Grounds on 29 July. The Vikings won a close fought match by a margin of 22–14 courtesy of three rushing touchdowns from game MVP Seamus Hogan to claim their first-ever Shamrock Bowl title; the Vikings finished the 2008 regular season with a 7–1 record, winning their second consecutive Southern Division title. The sole loss came at home at the hands of fellow Shamrock Bowl finalists Dublin Rebels; the Vikings returned most of the starters from the 2007 season, including MVP Seamus Hogan, added former Chicago Slaughter offensive lineman Jim Davis to their roster. After a slow start offensively in their first two games, the Vikings decided to move Seamus Hogan back to running back and appointed JP Nerbun as their starting QB. Nerbun went on to lead the league in passing efficiency, throwing 15 touchdowns and no interceptions in four games as starter, while Hogan recorded at least one touchdown in every game of the season, except for the defeat against the Dublin Rebels, where he left the game injured after the first series.
The Vikings finished as the number two seeds, after defeating the Belfast Trojans 42–8 in the semi-final, proceeded to their third consecutive Shamrock Bowl. The bowl took place on 10 August at CIT Stadium in Cork against the number one seeded Dublin Rebels. A rushing touchdown from MVP Adrian Garvey, an interception return for a touchdown from Darragh'Plum' O'Callaghan gave the Vikings a 14–3 lead going into half-time, thanks to a blocked field goal by Glen Carr in the fourth quarter, the Vikings won their second Shamrock Bowl in two years, defeating the Rebels 14–12; the 2009 season saw the Vikings return the core of their team from 2008, but lost linemen Jim Davis and Kieran Coen to the Valencia Firebats of the Spanish League. The Vikings once again relied upon power running and a tough, fast defence to make the playoffs for the fourth year in a row, but they once again fell to the Dublin Rebels, this time 12–7 at home; the Vikings finished as the number two seed for the third year in a row, met the physical Carrickfergus Knights at home in the semi-finals, where they welcomed back Davis and Coen, who had helped lead Valencia to victory in the Spanish Bowl.
Leading 20–0 at half time, the game was abandoned shortly after the break when a Knights player was injured, the Vikings advanced to their fourth Shamrock Bowl in a row. The Vikings met the Dublin Rebels
Emma Katy Forbes is an English radio and television presenter. Forbes's parents are Bryan Forbes, she attended the Hurst Lodge School. Forbes presented the cooking slot on Going Live!, a position she won after bombarding the production office with ideas for'makes'. She was selected as co-presenter for the replacement BBC children's show Live & Kicking with Andi Peters from 1993 through to 1996 and presented ITV's teenage problem show Speakeasy. From 1994 to 1997, Forbes hosted a Meridian Television revival of the panel show What's My Line?. She has voiced Mummy Hippo in Peppa Pig, she presented the Heart 106.2 breakfast show, alongside Jonathan Coleman, before she left to present on Capital 95.8. Forbes was the face of a long-running television advert campaign for Head & Shoulders shampoo in the mid-to-late 1990s. In 1996, she was voted number 64 in the FHM 100 Sexiest Women Poll, has been represented by Storm Models. Alongside Mark Radcliffe, Forbes has co-hosted the Steve Wright show on BBC Radio 2.
On BBC Radio 2 Forbes presented a Saturday show from 6 pm to 8 pm alongside comedian Alan Carr called Going Out with Alan Carr, a Sunday morning breakfast show, replacing Pete Mitchell. On 13 December 2009, she announced that she would no longer be presenting her Sunday show on BBC Radio 2, but she continued to co-present Going Out With Alan Carr on Saturday evenings until April 2010. From March 2011, Forbes was a regular discussion contributor on ITV's daytime show The Alan Titchmarsh Show, which ended in November 2014. Forbes lives with her banker husband Graham Clempson and has two children, born 1996 and 1999, she suffered from postnatal depression after both births. Forbes was Richard Attenborough's god-daughter; when she took a professional break to have her two children and her journalist sister Sarah Standing started a shop in Belgravia, London. Forbes is a party organiser. Forbes is a patron of Great Ormond Street Hospital. Emma Forbes on IMDb
The Best of The Beta Band - Music and The Best of The Beta Band - Film are retrospective best of collections by The Beta Band, on CD and DVD released on 3 October 2005. The cover artwork combines elements from the covers of each of the three EPs and three albums released by the band in its seven-year lifespan; the best of the studio recordings, as selected by the band "Dry the Rain" "Inner Meet Me" "She’s the One" "Dr. Baker" "It’s Not Too Beautiful" "Smiling" "To You Alone" "Squares" "Human Being" "Gone" "Broke" "Assessment" "Easy" "Wonderful" "Troubles" "Simple" Live at Shepherds Bush Empire, 30 November 2004 "Squares" "It’s Not Too Beautiful" "Inner Meet Me" "Simple" "She’s the One" "Easy" "Dr. Baker" "Dry the Rain" "Quiet" "Broke" "Assessment" "Dogs Got a Bone" "The House Song" "Chalk and Cheese" Directed by John Maclean "King Rib" Directed by Pete Rankin, Steve Mason "Highland Fidelity" Directed by John Maclean "Old Jock Radio" Directed by Pete Rankin "Inner Meet Me" Directed by John Maclean "Los Amigos Del Beta Bandidos" Directed by The Beta Band "Dance O'er The Border" Directed by John Maclean "Smiling" Directed by Mark Szaszy and Corinne Day "Brokenupadingdong" Directed by Josh Eve "Squares" Directed by John Maclean "Al Sharp" Directed by John Maclean "Assessment" Directed by John Maclean and Robin Jones "Lion Thief" Directed by Andrew Cranston "Wonderful" Directed by Nina Chakrabarti "Trouble" Directed by John Maclean "Out-Side" Directed by Robin Jones and John Maclean "Rhododendron" Created by Robin Jones "Country Bird" Directed by Steve Mason and Pete Rankin "Simple" By Andrew Keller "Weirds Way" Directed by Steve Mason and Pete Rankin "Remote Troubles" Directed by John Maclean and Robin Jones The Depot To Monte Cristo Directed by Sam Tyler 1997–2004 Directed by John Maclean Let It Beta Directed by Pete Rankin Live at Shepherds Bush Empire, 29 November 2004 "Inner Meet Me" "Dry the Rain" "Broke" "Assessment" The Best of The Beta Band at AllMovie