Air draft is the distance from the surface of the water to the highest point on a vessel. This is similar to the "deep draft" of a vessel, measured from the surface of the water to the deepest part of the hull below the surface, but air draft is expressed as a height, not a depth; the vessel's "clearance" is the distance in excess of the air draft which allows a vessel to pass safely under a bridge or obstacle such as power lines, etc. A bridge's "clearance below" is most noted on charts as measured from the surface of the water to the under side of the bridge at Mean Highest High Water, the most restrictive clearance; the height of the tide at any time below its highest point at MHHW will increase the clearance under the bridge. In 2014, the United States Coast Guard reported that 1.2% of the collisions it investigated in the recent past were due to vessels attempting to pass underneath structures with insufficient clearance. At several bridges, such as the Gerald Desmond Bridge in Long Beach, California, NOAA has installed an "Air Gap" measuring device that measures the distance from its sensor on the bridge to the water surface and can be accessed by marine pilots and ship's masters to aid them in making real time determination of clearance.
The Bridge of the Americas in Panama limits which ships can traverse the Panama Canal due to its height at 61.3 m above the water. The world's largest cruise ships, Oasis of the Seas, Allure of the Seas and the Harmony of the Seas will fit within the canal's new widened locks, but they are too tall to pass under the Bridge of the Americas at low tide, unless the Bridge of the Americas is raised or replaced in the future. New ships are built not clearing 65 m; the Suez Canal Bridge has a 70-metre clearance over the canal, 8.7 m higher than Panama. The Bayonne Bridge is an arch bridge connecting New Jersey with New York City, the roadbed was raised to 66 m, a height suitable for larger container ships to pass, the modification cost $1.32 billion. Structural clearance Structure gauge Tower Bridge Cargo ship Size categories Chart datum
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day; the Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, as Operation Z during its planning. Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S.-held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya and Hong Kong. Additionally, from the Japanese viewpoint, it was seen as a preemptive strike; the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time; the base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers.
All eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but USS Arizona were raised, six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war; the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed. Important base installations such as the power station, dry dock, shipyard and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building, were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. Japan declared war on the United States on December 8. According to historians David M. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen: The sneak attack aroused and united America as nothing else could have done. To the day of the blowup, a strong majority of Americans still wanted to keep out of war, but the bombs that pulverized Pearl Harbor blasted the isolationists into silence. The only thing left to do, growled isolationist Senator Wheeler, was to'lick hell out of them.'
The following day, December 8, Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy each declared war on the U. S; the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Italy. There were numerous historical precedents for the unannounced military action by Japan, but the lack of any formal warning while peace negotiations were still ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy"; because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of, planned for, since the 1920s; the relationship between the two countries was cordial enough. Tensions did not grow until Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Over the next decade, Japan expanded into China, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China, endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland.
The "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts. Starting in December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, the Nanking Massacre swung Western public opinion against Japan. Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, United Kingdom, France assisted China with its loans for war supply contracts. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina, attempting to stymie the flow of supplies reaching China; the United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, aviation gasoline to Japan, which the latter perceived as an unfriendly act. The United States did not stop oil exports, however because of the prevailing sentiment in Washington: given Japanese dependence on American oil, such an action was to be considered an extreme provocation. In mid-1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii, he ordered a military buildup in the Philippines, taking both actions in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.
Because the Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom's Southeast Asian colonies, including Singapore, would bring the U. S. into the war, a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to prevent American naval interference. An invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners; the U. S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with an elite force of 40,000 men. By 1941, U. S. planners expected to abandon the Philippines at the outbreak of war. Late that year, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet, was given orders to that effect; the U. S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, following the seizure of French Indochina after the Fall of France, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption. Because of this decision, Japan proceeded with plans to take the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. On August 17, Roosevelt warned Japan that America was prepared to take opposing steps if "neighboring countries" were attacked.
The Japanese wer
A Jersey barrier, or Jersey wall, is a modular concrete or plastic barrier employed to separate lanes of traffic. It is designed to minimize vehicle damage in cases of incidental contact while still preventing vehicle crossovers resulting in a head-on collision. Jersey barriers are used to reroute traffic and protect pedestrians and workers during highway construction, as well as temporary and semi-permanent protections against landborne attack such as suicide vehicle bombs. A Jersey barrier is known in the western United States as K-rail, a term borrowed from the California Department of Transportation specification for temporary concrete traffic barriers, or colloquially as a Jersey bump. Plastic water-filled barriers of the same general shape are now called Jersey barriers. Jersey barriers were developed in the 1950s, beginning in the U. S. state of New Jersey as separators between lanes of a highway. Over time, they became more modular. Taller barriers have the added advantage of blocking most oncoming headlights.
Although it is not clear when or where the first concrete median barriers were used, concrete median barriers were used in the mid-1940s on US-99 on the descent from the Tehachapi Mountains in the central valley south of Bakersfield, California. This first generation of concrete barriers was developed to minimize the number of out-of-control trucks penetrating the barrier, eliminate the need for costly and dangerous median barrier maintenance in high-accident locations with narrow medians – concerns that are as valid today as they were 50 years ago; the Jersey barrier called New Jersey wall, was developed in the 1950s, at the Stevens Institute of Technology, New Jersey, United States, under the direction of the New Jersey State Highway Department to divide multiple lanes on a highway. A typical Jersey barrier stands 32 inches tall and is made of steel-reinforced poured concrete or plastic. Many are constructed with the embedded steel reinforcement protruding from each end, allowing them to be incorporated into permanent emplacements when linked to one another by sections of fresh concrete poured on-site.
Their widespread use in road construction has led to wide application as a generic, portable barrier during construction projects and temporary rerouting of traffic into stopgap carpool and rush-hour reversing highway lanes. Most of the original barriers constructed in New Jersey in the 50s and early 60s were not "modular". Many of the first installations were much shorter than the heights discussed here about two feet tall; some dividers on county or local roads may have been lower than that since they replaced a raised concrete rumble strip that would dissuade but not prevent traffic crossing from one lane to another. Route 46 had the rumble strip in many places before the higher barrier was installed; these lower dividers are visible in old photographs. When the Bergen Mall was first opened in Paramus, these rumble strip dividers were extensively used on the roadway that separated the grocery stores from the mall proper; the design of the Jersey barrier was intended to minimize damage in incidental accidents and reduce the likelihood of a car crossing into oncoming lanes in the event of a collision.
In common shallow-angle hits, sheet-metal damage is minimized by allowing the vehicle tires to ride up on the lower sloped face. Head-on vehicle collisions are minimized by lifting the vehicle and pivoting it away from oncoming vehicles and back into traffic heading in its original direction. Modern variations include the F-shape barrier; the F-shape is similar to the Jersey barrier in appearance, but is taller, with somewhat different angles. The UK equivalent is the concrete step barrier. First tested in 1968 by the Department of Highways in Ontario, the Ontario Tall Wall is a variant of the Jersey barrier. Standing at 42 inches, it is 10 inches taller than the standard Jersey barrier. In Ontario, the Ministry of Transportation is replacing guiderails with these barriers on 400-series highways; the New Jersey Turnpike Authority developed and tested a similar, but reinforced, design. This barrier design has been credited with containing and redirecting larger vehicles, including semi-trailer trucks.
The states of New York and New Jersey have adopted the taller barrier for their roads, as compared to the standard 32 inches suggested by the Federal Highway Administration. Designs with two rectangular notches at the bottom allow for forklift-style lifting by front-end loaders. Barriers meant for short-term placement in military and security barrier uses, might include steel rebar loops embedded in the top surface for rapid hook-and-cable system lifting; the 2010 G-20 Toronto summit used modified modular Jersey barriers with wired fencing bolted onto the concrete. The fence used the barrier as sturdy base to prevent protesters from toppling the fence around the security zone at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre; the U. S. military nicknamed the devices as "Qaddafi Blocks" after truck bomb attacks in Beirut in 1983 resulted in more widespread use in military installations. Sometimes they are deployed to form a chicane to slow vehicular traffic arriving at military installations or other secure areas.
In the Philippines, jersey barriers were used for security and crowd control along the route of the papal co
Annual average daily traffic
Annual average daily traffic, abbreviated AADT, is a measure used in transportation planning, transportation engineering and retail location selection. Traditionally, it is the total volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a useful, measurement of how busy the road is. Newer advances from GPS traffic data providers are now providing AADT counts by side of the road, by day of week and by time of day. One of the most important uses of AADT is for determining funding for the maintenance and improvement of highways. In the United States the amount of federal funding a state will receive is related to the total traffic measured across its highway network; each year on June 15, every state in the United States submits a Highway Performance Monitoring System HPMS report. The HPMS report contains various information regarding the road segments in the state based on a sample of the road segments. In the report, the AADT is converted to vehicle miles traveled.
VMT is the AADT multiplied by the length of the road segment. To determine the amount of traffic a state has, the AADT cannot be summed for all road segments since an AADT is a rate; the VMT is summed and is used as an indicator of the amount of traffic a state has. For federal-funding, formulas are applied to include the VMT and other highway statistics. In the United Kingdom AADT is one of a number of measures of traffic used by local highway authorities, Highways England and the Department for Transport to forecast maintenance needs and expenditure. To measure AADT on individual road segments, traffic data is collected by an automated traffic counter, hiring an observer to record traffic or licensing estimated counts from GPS data providers. There are two different techniques of measuring the AADTs for road segments with automated traffic counters. One technique is called continuous count data collection method; this method includes sensors that are permanently embedded into a road and traffic data is measured for the entire 365 days.
The AADT is the sum of the total traffic for the entire year divided by 365 days. There can be problems with calculating the AADT with this method. For example, if the continuous count equipment is not operating for the full 365 days due to maintenance or repair; because of this issue, seasonal or day-of-week biases might skew the calculated AADT. In 1992, AASHTO released the AASHTO Guidelines for Traffic Data Programs, which identified a way to produce an AADT without seasonal or day-of-week biases by creating an "average of averages." For every month and day-of-week, a Monthly Average Day of Week is calculated. Each day-of-week's MADW is calculated across months to calculate an Annual Average Day of Week; the AADWs are averaged to calculate an AADT. The United States Federal Highway Administration has adopted this method as the preferred method in the. While providing the most accurate AADT, installing and maintaining continuous count stations method is costly. Most public agencies are only able to monitor a small percentage of the roadway using this method.
Most AADTs are generated using short-term data collection methods sometimes known as the coverage count data collection method. Traffic is collected with portable sensors that are attached to the road and record traffic data for 2 – 14 days; these are pneumatic road tubes although other more expensive technology such as radar, laser, or sonar exist. After recording the traffic data, the traffic counts on the same road segment are taken again in another three years. FHWA Traffic Monitoring Guide recommends performing a short count on a road segment at a minimum of every three years. There are many methods used to calculate an AADT from a short-term count, but most methods attempt to remove seasonal and day-of-week biases during the collection period by applying factors created from associated continuous counters. Short counts are taken either by local government, or contractors. For the years when a traffic count is not recorded, the AADT is estimated by applying a factor called the Growth Factor.
Growth Factors are statistically determined from historical data of the road segment. If there is no historical data, Growth Factors from similar road segments are used. Annual average weekday traffic only includes Monday to Friday data. Public holidays are excluded from the AAWT calculation. Average summer daily traffic is a similar measure to the annual average daily traffic. Data collecting methods of the two are the same, however the ASDT data is collected during summer only; the measure is useful in areas where there are significant seasonal traffic volumes carried by a given road. Average daily traffic or ADT, sometimes mean daily traffic, is the average number of vehicles two-way passing a specific point in a 24-hour period measured throughout a year. ADT is not as referred to as the engineering standard of AADT, the standard measurement for vehicle traffic load on a section of road, the basis for most decisions regarding transport planning, or to the environmental hazards of pollution related to road transport.
The 1992 Edition of the AASHTO Guidelines is out of date. The current edition is from 2018; the Gary Davis article was published in Transportation Research Record 1593, 1997. The date shown in the article is the date of an on-line posting. Florida New York State - Traffic Data Viewer - interactive map program graphically displays traffic data Oklahoma Virginia FHWA Traffic Monitoring Guide New Zealand State Highway AADTs Louisiana AADTs
The Taunton River, is a river in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States. It arises in the town of Bridgewater. From there it meanders through the towns of Halifax and Raynham, through the city of Taunton for which it is named, the towns of Berkley, Dighton and the Assonet section of Freetown, to Fall River where it joins Mount Hope Bay, an arm of Narragansett Bay; the total length of the river is 37.0 miles from the junction of the Town and Matfield Rivers in Bridgewater to the mouth of the Quequechan River in Fall River. It has a watershed of 562 square miles; the river's watershed includes the largest freshwater wetland in the state. The Taunton River is one of the flattest rivers in New England, dropping only about twenty feet in elevation over its length; the river is tidal as far north as Taunton. The river is home including some animals found nowhere else in the state. Over 154 bird species have been documented along the Taunton River during breeding season; the watershed supports 28 species of reptiles and amphibians, 29 species of fish, including native brook trout and Atlantic sturgeon, which can be found in the lower part of the watershed.
The Mystic Valley Amphipod, native only to eastern New England, has been found in various wetlands throughout the watershed. All along the river, otters can be found on the shoreline, harbor seals have been sighted in the watershed in some of the smaller tributaries; the watershed is home to 7 species of freshwater mussels, the largest herring run in New England. In 2005, a young harp seal was found in the Nemasket River. In early summer 2014, a young male Beluga whale was sighted in the Taunton River, in late August 2014, a basking shark was spotted in the Taunton. Over 360 plant species were sampled from the floodplain wetlands and the immediate river corridors, various vegetative communities can be found along the river; these include Atlantic White Cedar Swamps, Forested Bogs, Coastal Plain Pondshores, among many others. Since the development of industry beginning with the iron works of the mid-17th century, the Taunton River has played an important role in the economy of the Greater Taunton Area.
The shipbuilding industry was active in the Taunton area during the 19th century. The Taunton River is the longest coastal river in New England without dams and supports 45 species of fish and many species of shellfish; the Taunton River is the principal river. The watershed is the habitat including 12 rare types, it is home to otter, grey fox and deer. Battleship Cove, the world's largest museum of warships, is located on the Fall River side of the river at its confluence with Mount Hope Bay, beneath the Braga Bridge. After over five years of study for possible inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic River System, such designation was obtained in April 2009. List of crossings of the Taunton River Winnetuxet River, at Halifax Nemasket River, at Middleborough Mill River, at Taunton Three Mile River at Dighton Assonet River at Freetown Fall River, Massachusetts List of Massachusetts rivers Taunton, Massachusetts Three Mile River Weetamoo U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Taunton River Taunton River Stewardship Program: The Wildlands Trust of Southeastern Massachusetts Taunton River Watershed Alliance University of Rhode Island: Taunton River Watershed critical resource atlas.
Continuous truss bridge
A continuous truss bridge is a truss bridge which extends without hinges or joints across three or more supports. A continuous truss bridge may use less material than a series of simple trusses because a continuous truss distributes live loads across all the spans. Although some continuous truss bridges resemble cantilever bridges and may be constructed using cantilever techniques, there are important differences between the two forms. Cantilever bridges need not connect rigidly mid-span. Although some cantilever bridges appear continuous due to decorative trusswork at the joints, these bridges will remain standing if the connections between the cantilevers are broken, or if the suspended span is removed. Conversely, continuous truss bridges rely on rigid truss connections throughout the structure for stability. Severing a continuous truss mid-span endangers the structure. However, continuous truss bridges do not experience the tipping forces that a cantilever bridge must resist, because the main span of a continuous truss bridge is supported at both ends.
It is possible to convert a series of simple truss spans into a continuous truss. For example, the northern approach to the Golden Gate Bridge was constructed as a series of five simple truss spans. In 2001, a seismic retrofit project connected the five spans into a single continuous truss bridge; some notable continuous truss bridges, with main span lengths: Ikitsuki Bridge, 1,312 ft Astoria-Megler Bridge, 1,232 ft Francis Scott Key Bridge, 1,200 ft Taylor-Southgate Bridge, 850 ft Julien Dubuque Bridge, 845 ft Charles M. Braga Jr. Memorial Bridge, 840 ft Governor Harry W. Nice Memorial Bridge, 800 ft Don N. Holt Bridge, 800 ft Sciotoville Bridge, 775 ft Owensboro Bridge, 750 ft Carroll C. Cropper Bridge, 750 ft Sewickley Bridge, 750 ft Betsy Ross Bridge, 729 ft Cape Girardeau Bridge, 671 ft Champlain Bridge, 450 ft List of longest continuous truss bridge spans Golden Gate Bridge retrofit
Battleship Cove is a nonprofit maritime museum and war memorial in Fall River, Massachusetts. Featuring the world's largest collection of World War II naval vessels, it is home to the decorated battleship USS Massachusetts, it is located at the heart of the waterfront at the confluence of the Taunton River and Mount Hope Bay and lies beneath the Braga Bridge and adjacent to Fall River Heritage State Park. The memorial traces its origins to the wartime crew of Massachusetts, who fought to save it from being broken up and ensure its preservation as a museum ship; the battleship forms a small cove which serves as a protected harbor for pleasure craft during the summer months. The Fall River Yacht Club maintains a dock nearby; the site contains the historic 1920 Lincoln Park Carousel made by the Philadelphia Toboggan Company, PTC #54 located at Lincoln Park in nearby North Dartmouth, restored by local vocational high school students and installed in a new pavilion in the early 1990s. A Band Organ provides the carousel's music.
The type of organ is unknown. Formally registered as the U. S. S. Massachusetts Memorial Committee, Inc. Battleship Cove was incorporated as a nonprofit educational organization and granted §501 status by the Internal Revenue Service in 1964. Led by veterans who had served aboard Massachusetts during World War II, the group was responsible for the U. S. Navy's donation of the decommissioned vessel and its subsequent public display. In its first year open to the public, more than 250,000 visitors explored the ship. Soon after, the battleship was recognized as the official memorial to Massachusetts citizens who gave their lives in World War II and her interior spaces were reconfigured to accommodate exhibits. In 1972, USS Lionfish, a World War II-era attack submarine, joined the battleship for public display; that year, the Nautical Nights overnight camping program commenced as a model program, enrolling more than 500,000 youths to date. The following year, USS Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. a Gearing-class destroyer, was added to the fleet and designated as the Commonwealth’s official memorial to the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
In keeping with this, USS Massachusetts was subsequently designated the Commonwealth's official memorial to veterans of the Gulf War. Soon after the arrival of USS Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. the Mayor of Fall River christened the site “Battleship Cove”. In 1975 Tin Can Sailors, Inc. a national organization of 24,000 destroyer veterans, was founded at Battleship Cove. The year 1984 included the addition of a North American T-28 Trojan; this aircraft served as a US trainer, served in the VNAF Republic of Vietnam Air Force, reflecting immigrants in the Commonwealth who had served in the Vietnamese armed forces. A new gift shop helped fuel the organization’s growth. In 1985, the Commonwealth awarded a $2.5 million grant for the preservation of Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. and in that same year the National Park Service designated Massachusetts, PT-796 as National Historic Landmarks. Subsequently, both Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. and PT-617 received NHL status, giving Battleship Cove the highest concentration of such south of Boston.
Comprising eight vessels, the Battleship Cove fleet is the largest and most diverse collection of historic naval ships in the world. In the 1990s the organization continued to improve with over sixty new exhibitions related to the historic ships and veterans; the success of the overnight program, high visitation from school groups, general admissions supported an expanded staff and improved ship maintenance efforts. On June 14, 1997, the Cove acquired a Cold War relic: the Soviet-built missile corvette Hiddensee. Three years the Commonwealth awarded Massachusetts and Lionfish a $10 million grant for significant, dry-dock restoration work. Since 1964, Battleship Cove has hosted more than 5 million youth and tourists; as goals for continued success as an educational, historical museum, the Cove is dedicated to expanding and sustaining its outreach with programs like the Battleship Cove Community Boating Program, the Raytheon Inspiring Technological Exploration Program, the Veterans’ Voices Oral History Program.
Main article: USS Massachusetts The largest vessel in the Battleship Cove fleet, the battleship USS Massachusetts is the centerpiece of the collection. Known as "Big Mamie" to her crewmembers during World War II, a battleship of the second South Dakota class, was the seventh ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the sixth state, her keel was laid down 20 July 1939 at the Fore River Shipyard of Massachusetts. She was launched on 23 September 1941 sponsored by Mrs. Charles Francis Adams III, commissioned on 12 May 1942 at Boston, with Captain Francis E. M. Whiting in command. Massachusetts received eleven battle stars for World War II service and earned a reputation as a "Work Horse of the Fleet". During World War II, no United States Navy personnel were killed in action while aboard Massachusetts, it is said that "Big Mamie" fired both the first US Navy 16-inch shells of World War II. USS Massachusetts is one of only eight United States battleships remaining of the many that were produced in the first half of the 20th century.
Main article: USS Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. USS Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. is a Gearing-class destroyer of the United States Navy. The ship was named after Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. a naval aviator, son of the former Ambassador to Britain Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and older brother of future President John F