Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
Dunlop Sport is a British sporting goods company that specialises in tennis and golf equipment. Dunlop have manufactured sporting equipment since 1910. In most of the world, Dunlop Sports is owned by SRI Sports, a subsidiary of Japanese conglomerate Sumitomo. Spartan Sports have the rights to the brand in New Zealand. Dunlop was established as a company manufacturing goods from rubber in 1889; the company entered the sporting goods market in 1910, when it began to manufacture rubber golf balls at its base in Birmingham. The company introduced the Maxfli golf ball in 1922. Dunlop extended into tennis ball manufacture in 1924. In 1925, F A Davis was acquired. Dunlop opened acquisition discussions with Slazenger without success. In 1928 the sports division became a subsidiary of Dunlop Rubber named Dunlop Sports. Headquarters were relocated from Birmingham to Waltham Abbey in Essex; the Dunlop Masters golf tournament was established in 1946. It was sponsored by Dunlop until 1982, is now known as the British Masters.
In 1957 Dunlop acquired the golf club manufacturer John Letters of Scotland. In 1959 the Slazenger Group was acquired; the Dunlop "flying D" logo was introduced in 1960. In the 1970s and 1980s, Dunlop was slow to adapt to the new materials that tennis rackets were being made from, believing that wood would remain the dominant material. In 1983 the John Letters golf club business was sold back to members of the Letters family. In 1984 the sports businesses were merged to form Dunlop Slazenger. In 1986, the parent company, Dunlop Holdings, was acquired by the industrial company BTR for £549 million. BTR cut marketing spending to just 8 per cent of sales and reduced investment in grass roots sponsorship and research and development. Steffi Graf's sponsorship money was cut. In 1996 Dunlop Slazenger was acquired by the private equity firm Cinven for £330 million. To save money, Cinven moved production of Dunlop tennis balls from England to the Philippines. Slazenger Golf and Maxfli were sold off to reduce debt.
Sports Direct International bought Dunlop Slazenger for £40 million in 2004. In December 2016, Sports Direct announced it had agreed to sell the Dunlop brand to Sumitomo Rubber Industries for £112 million. Sumitomo owned the rights to the sports as well as the rubber industries brand in most of the world; the sale is due to be completed by May 2017. More tennis Grand Slams have been won with Dunlop rackets than any other brand. Dunlop Sport is the current supplier for the ATP World Team Championship in Düsseldorf, it is the official supplier for all three clay court ATP World Tour Masters 1000 tournaments, which includes the Monte-Carlo Masters, the Rome Masters and the Madrid Masters. As for ATP World Tour 500 tournaments, it is the official supplier for the Barcelona Open. Additionally, it is the official supplier for ATP World Tour 250 tournaments at the BMW Open in Munich, the Portugal Open and the Open de Nice Côte d'Azur. Dunlop Sport is the official supplier of the WTA Tour Volvo Cars Open in Charleston, South Carolina.
Notable players that have used Dunlop tennis rackets in the past include Steffi Graf, John McEnroe, Amélie Mauresmo, Tomáš Berdych, Mardy Fish, Tommy Haas, Martina Navratilova, Marat Safin, James Blake and Jamie Murray. Present users include: Notable players who use Dunlop squash racquets include: Ali Farag Nick Matthew Grégory Gaultier Diego Elias Eain Yow Ng Nour El Tayeb Victor Crouin Professional Squash Association – Official ball Women's Squash Association – Official ball Dunlop Sport Dunlop Slazenger Official website
Dunlop is a brand of tyres owned by various companies around the world. Founded by pneumatic tyre pioneer John Boyd Dunlop in Birmingham, England in 1889, it is owned and operated by Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in North America, Europe and New Zealand. In India, the brand is owned by Dunlop India Ltd.. In Asia and Latin America by Sumitomo Rubber Industries. In 1985, Dunlop Rubber Company was acquired by BTR plc, Sumitomo acquired the rights to manufacture and market Dunlop branded road tyres. Sumitomo did not acquire any Dunlop company. In 1997 Sumitomo gained agreement to use the Dunlop name in its corporate name, changed the name of its UK subsidiary to Dunlop Tyres Ltd. In 1999, Sumitomo and Goodyear began a joint venture by which Sumitomo continued to manufacture all Japanese-made tyres under the Dunlop name, while Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company bought 75% of the European and North American tyre businesses of Sumitomo; the company has extensive manufacturing operations throughout the world.
With the closure of the Washington plant in 2006, Goodyear Dunlop ceased mainstream car and lorry tyre production in the UK. In 2016, it was announced that Sumitomo Rubber Industries would commence the second phase of its $131 Million investment for the upgrade and expansion of its Dunlop tire manufacturing plant at Ladysmith, in South Africa; until May 2014, Goodyear Dunlop occupied a compact part of the site with their British main office. In the UK, the company operates as a sales organisation, importing tyres from manufacturing plants around the world, including China and Poland; the Goodyear Dunlop joint venture is managed from sites in Luxembourg and Brussels, which report to Goodyear in Akron, United States. Fort Dunlop was a motorsport manufacturing operation located in a corner of the original Dunlop factory in Erdington, established in 1891 until May 2014; this factory produced specialised vintage and touring car tyres, produced about 300,000 specialised racing tyres per year. On 30 May 2014, the Birmingham factory ceased tyre production, ending Dunlop tyre production in the UK.
Dunlop Dunlop Rubber Tompkins, Eric. The History of the Pneumatic Tyre. Dunlop Archive Project. ISBN 0-903214-14-8
Hot blast refers to the preheating of air blown into a blast furnace or other metallurgical process. As this reduced the fuel consumed, hot blast was one of the most important technologies developed during the Industrial Revolution. Hot blast allowed higher furnace temperatures, which increased the capacity of furnaces; as first developed, it worked by alternately storing heat from the furnace flue gas in a firebrick-lined vessel with multiple chambers blowing combustion air through the hot chamber. This is known as regenerative heating. Hot blast was invented and patented for iron furnaces by James Beaumont Neilson in 1828 at Wilsontown Ironworks in Scotland, but was applied in other contexts, including late bloomeries; the carbon monoxide in the flue gas was burned to provide additional heat. James Beaumont Neilson foreman at Glasgow gas works, invented the system of preheating the blast for a furnace, he found that by increasing the temperature of the incoming air to 300 degrees Fahrenheit, he could reduce the fuel consumption from 8.06 tons to 5.16 tons with further reductions at higher temperatures.
He, with partners including Charles Macintosh, patented this in 1828. The heating vessel was made of wrought iron plates, but these oxidized, he substituted a cast iron vessel. On the basis of a January 1828 patent, Thomas Botfield has a historical claim as the inventor of the hot blast method. Neilson is credited as inventor of hot blast. Neilson and his partners engaged in substantial litigation to enforce the patent against infringers; the spread of this technology across Britain was slow. By 1840, 58 ironmasters had taken out licenses. By the time the patent expired. In 1843, just after it expired, 42 of the 80 furnaces in south Staffordshire were using hot blast, uptake in south Wales was slower. Other advantages of hot blast were. In Scotland, the poor "black band" ironstone could be profitably smelted, it increased the daily output of furnaces. In the case of Calder ironworks from 5.6 tons per day in 1828 to 8.2 in 1833, which made Scotland the lowest cost steel producing region in Britain in the 1830s.
Early hot blast stoves were troublesome, as thermal expansion and contraction could cause breakage of pipes. This was somewhat remedied by supporting the pipes on rollers, it was necessary to devise new methods of connecting the blast pipes to the tuyeres, as leather could not longer be used. This principle was applied more efficiently in regenerative heat exchangers, such as the Cowper stove, in the open hearth furnace by the Siemens-Martin process. Independently, George Crane and David Thomas, of the Yniscedwyn Works in Wales, conceived of the same idea, Crane filed for a British patent in 1836, they began producing iron by the new process on February 5, 1837. Crane subsequently bought Gessenhainer's patent and patented additions to it, controlling the use of the process in both Britain and the US. While Crane remained in Wales, Thomas moved to the US on behalf of the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company and founded the Lehigh Crane Iron Company to utilize the process. Hot blast allowed the use of anthracite in iron smelting.
It allowed use of lower quality coal because less fuel meant proportionately less sulfur and ash. At the time the process was invented, good coking coal was only available in sufficient quantities in Great Britain and western Germany, so iron furnaces in the US were using charcoal; this meant that any given iron furnace required vast tracts of forested land for charcoal production, went out of blast when the nearby woods had been felled. Attempts to use anthracite as a fuel had ended in failure, as the coal resisted ignition under cold blast conditions. In 1831, Dr. Frederick W. Gessenhainer filed for a US patent on the use of hot blast and anthracite to smelt iron, he produced a small quantity of anthracite iron by this method at Valley Furnace near Pottsville, Pennsylvania in 1836, but due to breakdowns and his illness and death in 1838, he was not able to develop the process into large-scale production. Anthracite was displaced by coke in the US after the Civil War. Coke was more porous and able to support the heavier loads in the vastly larger furnaces of the late 19th century.
For steel the hot blast temperature can be from 900 °C to 1300 °C depending on the stove design and condition. The temperatures they deal with may be 2000 °C to 2300 °C. Oil, natural gas, powdered coal and oxygen can be injected into the furnace at tuyere level to combine with the coke to release additional energy, necessary to increase productivity
W & J Galloway & Sons
W & J Galloway and Sons was a British manufacturer of steam engines and boilers based in Manchester, England. The firm was established in 1835 as a partnership of two brothers and John Galloway; the partnership expanded to encompass their sons and in 1889 it was restructured as a limited liability company. It ceased trading in 1932; the Galloway brothers had been apprenticed to another partnership involving their father, a maker of waterwheels and gearing for mills, before setting up in business on their own account. Their firm grew to be a specialist producer of steam engines and industrial boilers with a worldwide customer base and a reputation for ingenuity, their products were used in such diverse areas as electricity refrigeration. The business grew with the increasing application of steam power in industry, it died with industry's move to the application of electric power. William Galloway was born on 5 March 1768 at Coldstream in the Scottish Borders, became a millwright and moved to Manchester in 1790.
He was one of many Scots who moved to England seeking to gain from the rapid expansion of industry there. He set up business at 37 Lombard Street. In 1806 he formed a business partnership with a friend and fellow ex-resident of Coldstream, James Bowman: Galloway wrote to him offering a joint business venture in return for a £200 injection of capital. Bowman moved from London, where he had gone to seek his fortune, took up residence at Trumpet Street, Manchester, it would appear that the partnership with Bowman coincided with a move to premises at the Caledonia Foundry at 44, Great Bridgewater Street, on the corner of Albion Street in the Gaythorn district. At this time the business traded as millwrights but by 1813 "engineers" had been added to the description, by 1817 there was the addition of "ironfounders"; the term "engineer" in relation to mechanical work was a new one. Around 1820, William Glasgow, a foundryman from the Tweed, working in Bolton for Rothwell and Hick, joined Galloway and Bowman as a junior partner.
His role was to supervise the new ironfounding section of the business. The works were extended by the purchase of additional land; the partnership manufactured water wheels, their associated gearing, other machinery associated with all forms of milling. As early as 1820 the men had completed some projects for customers in the United States, his son, wrote that It was rather remarkable that nearly all the original millwrights in Manchester came from the neighbourhood of the Tweed... All were Scotchmen – quiet and middle aged, with experience, for in those days a man was not put to mind one machine year after year, he had to understand pretty nearly the whole process, from taking particulars and making patterns, to fixing machinery in the mill. At some time before 1828 Galloway and Bowman formed a partnership as machine makers; this was separate and in addition to their partnership with Glasgow, which continued to trade as millwrights and engineers. It has been speculated; the firm of Galloway and Glasgow became the repair facility for the fledgling Liverpool and Manchester Railway which had no workshops of its own.
In 1830–31 the partnership constructed its first steam locomotive, the Manchester and by the following year had produced the Caledonian. They had wooden wheels on to; the wheels were built by John Ashbury, to become a notable engineer in his own right and the owner of the eponymous railway wagon works at Openshaw. Neither locomotive was a success, although the design problems were resolved. In the case of Caledonian the vertical cylinders were placed between the frames in front of the smokebox and drove vertically mounted connecting rods attached to the leading wheels, which were in front of the smokebox, it had to be rebuilt with inside cylinders and a cranked axle. Vertical cylinders were the norm at this time, the theory being that a horizontal or inclined arrangement would lead to premature wear due to the weight of the piston. Four or five locomotives were built at a price fixed by the railway company of between £900 and £1000 each. John Galloway junior commented late in life that: "... the trade did not seem to be remunerative, we did not foresee the immense possibilities of the railroad.
It was considered that about 20 engines would be all that would be required, competition was keenly felt at the beginning." The success to come with stationary steam engines was in no small part based on the experiences with the short-lived railway locomotive production: the locomotives had boilers rated for 50 pounds per square inch, compared to the normal stationary engine boiler rating at that time of 5 or 10 psi. To put this into context, John Galloway senior is reported to have said that the challenges of building a locomotive were nothing compared to those of getting it out of the works and onto the railway afterwards, he elaborated that When we had constructed the engine... we were met with the serious difficulty of getting it down to the station. We could not put steam on, nor was there a wagon which would take it. By this time the partnership were producing a wide range of engineered items
A Google Doodle is a special, temporary alteration of the logo on Google's homepages intended to commemorate holidays, events and notable historical figures. The first Google Doodle honored the Burning Man festival in 1998, was designed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin to notify users of their absence in case the servers crashed. Subsequent Google Doodles were designed by an outside contractor until 2000, when Page and Brin asked public relations officer Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day. Since a team of employees called "Doodlers" have organized and published the Doodles. Doodles were neither animated nor hyperlinked—they were images with hover text describing the subject or expressing a holiday greeting. Doodles increased in both complexity by the beginning of the 2010s. In January 2010 the first animated Doodle honored Sir Isaac Newton; the first interactive Doodle appeared shortly thereafter celebrating Pac-Man, hyperlinks began to be added to Doodles linking to a search results page for the subject of the Doodle.
By 2014, Google had published over 2,000 regional and international Doodles throughout its homepages featuring guest artists and personalities. As well as celebrating many well-known events and holidays, Google Doodles celebrate artists and scientists on their birthdays, including Andy Warhol, Albert Einstein, Leonardo da Vinci, Rabindranath Tagore, Louis Braille, Ella Fitzgerald, Percival Lowell, Edvard Munch, Nikola Tesla, Béla Bartók, René Magritte, Norman Hetherington, John Lennon, Michael Jackson, Vladimir Dakhno, Robert Moog, Akira Kurosawa, Satyajit Ray, H. G. Wells, Freddie Mercury, Samuel Morse, Hans Christian Ørsted, Mahatma Gandhi, Dennis Gabor, Édith Piaf, Constantin Brâncuși, Antonio Vivaldi, Abdel Halim Hafez, Jules Verne, Leonhard Euler, Lucille Ball, Hedy Lamarr, James Welch, among over 9,000 others; the featuring of Lowell's logo design coincided with the launch of another Google product, Google Maps. Google Doodles are used to depict major events at Google, such as the company's own anniversary.
The celebration of historical events is another common topic of Google Doodles including a Lego brick design in celebration of the interlocking Lego block's 50th anniversary. Some Google Doodles are limited to Google's country-specific home pages while others appear globally; the illustrators and artists who design Google Doodles are called "Doodlers." These doodlers have included artists like Ekua Holmes, Jennifer Hom, Sophia Foster-Dimino, Ranganath Krishnamani, Dennis Hwang. In May 2010, on the 30th anniversary of the 1980 arcade game Pac-Man, Google unveiled worldwide their first interactive logo, created in association with Namco. Anyone who visited Google could play Pac-Man on the logo, which featured the letters of the word "Google" on the Pac-Man maze; the logo mimicked the sounds the original arcade game made. The "I'm Feeling Lucky" button was replaced with an "Insert Coin" button. Pressing this once enabled you to play the Pac-Man logo. Pressing it once more added a second player, Ms. Pac-Man, enabling two players to play at once, controlled using the W, A, S, D keys, instead of the arrows as used by Player 1.
Pressing it for a third time performed an "I'm Feeling Lucky" search. It was removed on May 23, 2010 replacing Pac-Man with the normal logo. On that day, Google released a permanent Google Pac-Man site, due to the popular user demand for the playable logo. Pac-Man Doodle drew an estimated 1 billion players worldwide. Since that time, Google has continued to post occasional interactive and video doodles: On October 8, 2010, Google ran its first video doodle, a short animation set to the music of "Imagine" to mark John Lennon's 70th birthday. Freddie Mercury's 65th birthday was celebrated on September 5, 2011, with an animated clip set to "Don't Stop Me Now". On April 15, 2011, Google sported the first live-action video doodle, commemorating Charlie Chaplin's 122nd birthday; this doodle was a black and white YouTube video that, when clicked upon, started playing before redirecting to the usual Google search featuring the doodle's special occasion. All parts in this short film were played by the Google Doodle team, special behind-the-scenes footage was to be found on the Google blog.
Google displayed an interactive electric guitar doodle starting June 9, 2011, to celebrate the 96th birthday of Les Paul. Apart from being able to hover the cursor over the doodle to strum the strings just like one of Les Paul's Gibson guitars, there was a keyboard button, which when enabled allowed interaction with the doodle via the keyboard; the doodle still maintained some resemblance to the Google logo. In the U. S, the doodle allowed the user to record a 30-second clip, after which a URL is created and can be sent to others; the doodle remained on the site an extra day due to popularity in the US. It now has its own page linked to the Google Doodles archives. On June 23, 2012, in commemoration of Alan Turing's 100th birthday, Google's logo became an interactive Turing Machine. On August 8, 2012, Google Displayed an interactive Basketball Game for the 2012 Summer Olympics. On November 23, 2013, Google's logo changed to a playable simplistic Doctor Who game in honor of the show's 50th anniversary.
On May 19, 2014, for the 40th anniversary of the Rubik's Cube, Google made an interactive virtual Rubik's Cube that people could try to solve. On April 14, 2015, for the 155th anniversary of the Pony Express, Google made a playable 2D side-scrolling doodle game in which the player collects mail, avoids obstacles, delivers up to 100 letters from California to Missouri. On December 17, 2015, a Google Doodle was featured honoring the 245th anniversary of Beethoven's baptism, it features an interact
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon and Facebook. Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock, they incorporated Google as a held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19, 2004, Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google.
The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine. It offers services designed for work and productivity, email and time management, cloud storage, instant messaging and video chat, language translation and navigation, video sharing, note-taking, photo organizing and editing; the company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved into hardware. Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier. Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world as of 2017, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful".
The companies unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018. Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites, they called this new technology PageRank. Page and Brin nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site, they changed the name to Google. The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998, it was based in the garage of a friend in California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. Google was funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems.
Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, entrepreneur Ram Shriram. Between these initial investors and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital. In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups; the next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine. To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were text-based. In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.
In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California. The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million. By that time, the name "Google