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Charles Manson

Charles Milles Manson was an American criminal and cult leader. In mid-1967, he formed what became known as the "Manson Family", a quasi-commune based in California, his followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations in July and August 1969. According to the Los Angeles County district attorney, Manson plotted to start a race war, though he and others disputed this motive. In 1971, he was convicted of first-degree murder and conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of seven people; the prosecution conceded that Manson never ordered the murders, but they contended that his ideology constituted an overt act of conspiracy. Manson was convicted of first-degree murder for the deaths of Gary Hinman and Donald Shea. Manson was an unemployed ex-convict who had spent more than half of his life in correctional institutions at the time when he began gathering his cult following. Before the murders, he was a singer-songwriter on the fringe of the Los Angeles music industry, chiefly through a chance association with Dennis Wilson of the Beach Boys.

In 1968, the Beach Boys recorded Manson's song "Cease to Exist", retitled "Never Learn Not to Love" as the B-side on one of their singles, but without a credit to Manson. The Los Angeles district attorney said that Manson was obsessed with the Beatles their 1968 self-titled album known as the "White Album", he claimed to be guided by his interpretation of the Beatles' lyrics and adopted the term "Helter Skelter" to describe an impending apocalyptic race war. At trial, the prosecution claimed that Manson and his followers believed that the murders would help precipitate that war. Other contemporary interviews and those who testified during the penalty phase of Manson's trial insisted that the Tate–LaBianca murders were copycat crimes designed to exonerate Manson's friend Bobby Beausoleil. From the beginning of Manson's notoriety, a pop culture arose around him and he became an emblem of insanity and the macabre. Recordings were released commercially of songs written and performed by Manson, starting with Lie: The Love and Terror Cult.

Various musicians have covered some of his songs. Manson was sentenced to death, but his sentence was commuted to life with the possibility of parole after the California Supreme Court invalidated the state's death penalty statute in 1972, he served his life sentence at California State Prison and died at age 83 in late 2017. Charles Manson was born on November 12, 1934, to 16-year-old Kathleen Manson-Bower-Cavender, née Maddox, in the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, he was first named "no name Maddox". Within weeks, he was called Charles Milles Maddox. Manson's biological father appears to have been Colonel Walker Henderson Scott Sr. of Catlettsburg, against whom Kathleen Maddox filed a paternity suit that resulted in an agreed judgment in 1937. Manson may never have known his biological father. Scott worked intermittently in local mills, had a local reputation as a con artist, he allowed Maddox to believe he was an army colonel, although "Colonel" was his given name.

When Maddox told Scott she was pregnant, he told her. In August 1934, before Manson's birth, Maddox married William Eugene Manson, whose occupation was listed on Charles's birth certificate as a "laborer" at a dry cleaning business. Maddox went on drinking sprees for days at a time with her brother Luther, leaving Charles with a variety of babysitters, they were divorced on April 30, 1937, when a court accepted Manson's charge of "gross neglect of duty". On August 1, 1939, Maddox and Luther's girlfriend Julia Vickers spent the evening drinking with Frank Martin, a new acquaintance who appeared to be wealthy. Maddox and Vickers decided to rob him, Maddox phoned her brother to help, they were incompetent thieves, were found and arrested within hours. At the trial seven weeks Luther was sentenced to ten years in prison, Kathleen was sentenced to five years. Manson was placed in the home of an uncle in McMechen, West Virginia, his mother was paroled in 1942. Manson characterized the first weeks after she returned from prison as the happiest time in his life.

Manson's family moved to Charleston, West Virginia, where Manson continually played truant and his mother spent her evenings drinking. She was arrested for grand larceny, but not convicted. After moving to Indianapolis, Maddox started attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings where she met an alcoholic named Lewis, whom she married in August 1943. In an interview with Diane Sawyer, Manson said that when he was nine years old, he set his school on fire. Manson began to get into trouble with the courts, for truancy and petty theft; the court tried to place Manson in a foster home, but could not find one. In 1947, at the age of 13, Manson was placed in the Gibault School for Boys in Terre Haute, Indiana, a school for male delinquents run by Catholic priests. Gibault was a strict school, where punishment for the tiniest infraction included beatings by either a wooden paddle or a leather strap. Manson ran away from Gibault, slept in the woods, under bridges, wherever else he could find a place of shelter.

Manson fled home to his mother, spent Christmas 1947 in McMechen, at his aunt and uncle's house. His mother returned him to Gibault. Ten months he ran away to Indianapolis. In 1948, in Indianapolis, Manson committed his first known crime by robbing a grocery store. At first the robbery was to find something to eat. However, Manson found a cigar box containing just over a hundred dol

Tanque Argentino Mediano

The Tanque Argentino Mediano is a medium tank in service with the Argentine Army. Lacking the experience and resources to design a tank, the Argentine Ministry of Defense contracted German company Thyssen-Henschel; the vehicle was developed by a German and Argentine team of engineers, was based on the German Marder infantry fighting vehicle. The TAM met the Argentine Army's requirement for a modern and fast tank with a low silhouette and sufficient firepower to defeat contemporary armored threats. Development began in 1974 and resulted in the construction of three prototypes by early 1977 and full-scale production by 1979. Assembly took place at the local 9,600-square-meter TAMSE plant, founded for the purpose by the Argentine government. Economic difficulties halted production in 1983, but manufacturing began anew in 1994 until the army's order of 200 tanks was fulfilled; the TAM series includes seven different variants, such as a 155 mm self-propelled howitzer and a self-propelled mortar vehicle.

In total, over 280 such vehicles were built, including armored personnel carriers and mortar pieces. The TAM and VCTP were manufactured for the Peruvian Army, only to be integrated into the Argentine Army when Peru canceled the contract; the TAM competed for other export orders, but the TAM was not exported. The TAM has never seen combat, although 17 VCTPs were deployed to Croatia for the United Nations UNPROFOR peacekeeping mission. During the 1960s Argentina sought to replace its aging fleet of tanks, which included British Sherman V Firefly tanks and American M3A1 half-tracks dating from shortly after the Second World War. In their attempts to procure equipment from the United States, Argentina could only secure 50 M41 Walker Bulldogs and 250 M113 armored personnel carriers; when the United States turned down requests for further equipment, the Argentine government turned to the other side of the Atlantic, putting their "Plan Europa" into action. It was hoped that European technology could stimulate Argentine industry so the country could produce its own armaments in the future.

Argentina procured 80 AMX-13 light tanks, as well as 180 AMX-VCIs and 24 AMX-155 F3s, from the French government, manufacturing around 40 AMX-13s and 60 AMX-VCIs at home. The French AMX-30 and German Leopard 1 were examined as possible replacements for the Argentine Sherman fleet. In 1973 the Argentine Ministry of Defense drew up a series of requirements for a tank to enter service in the 1980s; the armored vehicle would weigh no more than 30 tonnes, move at a maximum speed of 70 km/h, cover at least 500 km on roads. It would be armed with a modern 105 mm main gun, two machine guns, grenade launchers; the tank designers had to take into account Argentina's existing infrastructure, including railroad capacity and road capacity, as well as the country's varied terrain. In late 1973 the Proyecto de Tanque Argentino Mediano was founded with the goal of designing and developing a tank for the Argentine Army. Lacking the experience and the necessary technology, the Argentine government sought collaboration with a foreign company, resulting in a contract with the German company Thyssen-Henschel.

The contract called for a transfer of technology resulting in a program to develop a tank in line with the government's requirements and under a technical team that included both German and Argentine engineers. The hull of the German Marder armored personnel carrier was used, the chassis was strengthened to support the increased weight of the TAM. Two prototypes were manufactured in late 1976 and early 1977, which were put through extensive testing for two years and over a road range of 10,000 km. Another prototype was manufactured to further the investigation of the new vehicle and complete the three prototypes as agreed in the contract; the new tank's firepower requirements were met by fitting a British Royal Ordnance L7A1 105 mm main gun. This gun was replaced by the modified L7A2 and by Rheinmetall's Rh-105-30 105 mm gun; this gun is manufactured in Argentina as the FM K.4 Modelo 1L. The Rh-105-30's advantages include compact size and increased lethality. Unlike the Rh-105-30, the FM K.4 does not have a muzzle brake.

The locally built cannon can be elevated to 18 degrees or depressed to -7 degrees on the TAM. The gun's hydraulic recoil mechanism has an extended length of 580 mm to absorb the 34-tonne recoil force, it is designed to fire the M735A1 armor-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot, which can penetrate a maximum of 370 mm at 1,000 meters. It can fire high-explosive anti-tank rounds, high-explosive squash head and smoke rounds; the tank's secondary armaments include a co-axial 7.62 mm FN MAG 60-40 general purpose machine gun and a second FN MAG 60-20 mounted on the TAM's turret roof as an anti-aircraft machine gun. The fire control system includes a Nd:YAG laser with a range of 9,900 meters and a FLER-HG ballistic computer to compute the gun's fire solutions—helping the gunner aim and hit the target; the tank commander uses a Zeiss PERI-R/TA panoramic periscope, with a 8x zoom. The TAM's engine requirements included low weight and volume, but with a fast rate of acceleration and high reliability.

The program chose MTU's MB-833 Ka 500 diesel engine, producing 540 kW at 2,400 rpm. This gives the TAM a power-to-weight ratio of 24 horsepower per tonne and a maximum speed of 75 km/h on road and 40 km/h

Xuân Trường District

Xuân Trường is a rural district of Nam Định Province in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 179,765; the district covers an area of 113 km². The district capital lies at Xuân Trường town. Xuân Trường town is the capital of the district and controls 19 communes: Xuan Thuong Xuân Ngọc Xuan Kien Xuan Tien Xuan Ninh Xuan Vinh Xuan Trung Xuan Phuong Tho Nghiep Xuan Dai Xuan Bac Xuan Thuy Xuan Phu Xuan Hong Xuan Tan Xuan Phong Xuan Thanh Xuan Hoa Xuan Chau The time of Lê Dynasty, Xuân Trường District belonged to Thien Truong court. In Nguyễn Dynasty times Tran Son Nam belonged to the Xuân Trường court. In 1945 the district was changed to Xuân Trường and belonged to Nam Ha province in 1965. In 1967 the district merged with Giao Thủy into Xuan Thuy District; the district re-established its old name in March, 1997. Xuân Trường is a major rice growing province and Xuan Dai Rice-Rice is still cultivated on 1,000 hectares every year; the district has many traditional villages that produce crafts, including: Xuan Tien - village of mechanics Xuan Hong - village of mulberry planting, silkworm raising and pulling cocoons Xuan Phuong - embroidery village Xuan Ninh - village of wine cooking Xuan Kien - village of rice paperXuân Trường is a land of culture and history, home to notable revolutionaries, including: General Secretary Trường Chinh Deputy President of Congress, Dang Quan Thuy Nguyen Dang Kinh, hero of the Pham Gia Trieu armed forcesCatholicism is spreading throughout Xuân Trường, a process that includes the establishment of numerous churches.

Memorial house of former General Secretary Trường Chinh Keo Hanh Thien Pagoda Xuan Hong cultural village/commune Bui Chu Bishop Phu Chew church Kien Lao temples Tho Temple Spring Group Xuan Greek temple Xuan Trung Pagoda Nghia Xa Pagoda Temple An Cu Keo Hanh Thien Pagoda festival Xuan Dai tam rice Xuan Tien raw fish dishes Kien Lao wine Xuan Bac meat roll

Dunton Green

Dunton Green is a small village and civil parish in the Sevenoaks District of Kent, England. It lies in the valley of the River Darent, 3 miles north of the town of Sevenoaks. Dunton Green is designated as being part of the Kent Downs area of outstanding natural beauty, due to its proximity to the North Downs; the original ecclesiastical church parish of Dunton Green was part of Otford parish. The former parish church was dedicated to St John the Divine. From at least the 17th century, Dunton Green was a centre for making tiles. In 1862, the Dunton Green Brick and Pottery Works was established: a large concern with clayholes or pits, kilns and an engine house. While clay was being dug for, many fossils were discovered. St John the Divine's Church, the Anglican parish church, was designed by M. T. built in 1889 -- 90 using local bricks. It was declared redundant in 1987 after congregations declined, is now in commercial use; the village Anglican church is now St Mary's, Riverhead and its distinctive green copper spire can be seen rising up in the distance from the village.

Dunton Green Free Church opened in 1873 in a building which became the Bethel Free Church, associated with the Assemblies of God Pentecostal denomination. The Free Church moved to a new building on Station Road, opened in September 1937. Still with its original name, it is a member of the Congregational Federation. Dunton Green railway station provides train services every 30 mins to London Bridge, Waterloo East and London Charing Cross taking around 40-50 mins. Otford Station is about a 5 minute drive away and has fast trains running every 30 mins to London Victoria and stopping services running every 30 mins to London Blackfriars. There are bus services to central Sevenoaks and surrounding villages. Go Coach routes 3 and 5 serve the village providing links to Central Sevenoaks with the 3 running to Knockholt and Orpington and the 5 running to Sevenoaks Weald and Tonbridge. Dunton Green is not served by buses on weekends, however Go Coach routes 6 and 8 can be caught nearby at Riverhead Tesco down the road.

Route 6 provides links to Chipstead and Kemsing whilst route 8 provides local links around Sevenoaks. On Sundays, route 401 operated by Arriva can be caught from Riverhead Tesco and provides links to Westerham and Tunbridge Wells. Sevenoaks Information provides a comprehensive What's on events diary for Dunton Green and the surrounding area. Dunton Green Community Forum and events calendar. Add your own event and discuss local news; the Dunton Green Social Club offers great entertainment in the village most weekends. National and regional walking trails pass through the village and there are various local footpaths too; the Darent Valley Path is accessed from Rye Lane and follows the course of the River Darent from Sevenoaks to Dartford. There is a local footpath that follows the north of Chipstead Lake and takes you to Chipstead; the North Downs Way passes the northern end of the village at London Road. Heading west will take you along the North Downs to Betsoms Hill, on to Farnham. Heading east will take you to Otford, up to Wrotham, on to the White Cliffs of Dover.

Along the London Road there are many shops, businesses and restaurants. The main village arcade is situated between Dunton Green Primary Lennard Road. There are three pubs; the nearest local Library is run by Kent County Council. You can order library items online for collection and there are telecottage facilities available. Digital television has been available for aerials pointing east in Dunton Green since 2006 from the Blue Bell Hill Transmitter for Kent & Sussex TV transmissions, now broadcasting in HD. List of places of worship in Sevenoaks Media related to Dunton Green at Wikimedia Commons

Gottfried Schloemer

Gottfried Schlöemer or Godfrey Schlöemer was a coopersmith and inventor who lived on the south side of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, US. His principal claim to fame rests on the "motor wagon" that he built there in 1889, which some have hailed as the first workable gasoline-engine automobile built in the United States, four years ahead of Charles and Frank Duryea, who are most identified with this achievement. At the time of his death certain local reports claimed him as the designer and maker of the first gasoline-powered automobile in the world, although that honor is given to the German Karl Benz in 1885. Schloemer was born near Cologne on the Rhine river August 25, 1842, he immigrated to America from Prussia with his family when he was 3 years old in May 1845. According to the National Archives he arrived in New York port on the ship Harriett on July 1, 1845, they traveled to Milwaukee and arrived there in June 1846 and bought some farm land on Beloit Road. Schloemer was raised on this farm and when he became an adult he moved out of state and took up jobs in the copper mines of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

Schloemer moved back to Milwaukee and lived at 545 Fourth Avenue. He worked for the Toepfer brothers out of a red brick building as a cooper in their machine shop on National Ave in Milwaukee. There with Frank Toepfer he made the first gas-fueled automobile. Schloemer's family line was from Germany according to the 1880 United States Federal Census. Schloemer himself as well as his wife and her parents were born in Prussia, he was married to a neighborhood girl 3 years his senior, Mary Elisabeth Schmid, on May 30, 1867. She went by the name Elizabeth and was born about 1839, according to the United States Federal Census, their children were John, b. Jun 1869 Catharine, b. 1871 Andrew, b. Nov 1872 Anne, b. Jan 1875 Wolfgang, b. 1876 Christina, b. Jan 1879As of 1892 John, the eldest son, is the only one of the children that has moved out of the Schloemer's home. John has a good reputation as a piano-tuner working for a well known music man of Milwaukee named George Gerber whose business is on National Avenue.

Schloemer's medical history shows he suffered from a hernia for two years starting in the summer of 1890. A doctor friend that had moved back to Milwaukee in 1892 cured him in about 5 weeks. Schloemer, according to a testimony of his, said that in 1880 he conceived the idea of a "motor wagon" with an attached gasoline engine to make it self-propelling, he was in the cooperage business at the Toepfer blacksmith shop on National Avenue in Milwaukee at that time. Schloemer went about having a single-cylinder motor made according to his design by the Sintz Gas Engine Company of Grand Rapids, Michigan. Sintz made the engines used by Charles Brady King and others for their first automobile; the Sintz engine, designed and ordered by Schloemer was 3.5 inches by 3.5 inches. It was installed in the "motor wagon", made in 1889 by Schloemer, he first drove the motorized wagon on the streets of Milwaukee in 1890. Schloemer believed in the commercial value of the idea of his "motor wagon" and went about marketing his car.

He went about getting capitalists to invest in his invention in part of the 1880s without much luck. He obtained two wealthy Milwaukee men to invest in his self-propelled "motor wagon" in 1889, they set plans by 1892 to manufacture the car in a large quantities, however the national financial panic of 1893 put a halt on their plans and the investors backed out. Schloemer had to improvise on his "motor wagon" for an igniting system to fire the fuel, since at that time there was no such thing as a spark plug, he used a home-made make-and-break sparking mechanism consisting of two points of steel striking together causing a "spark" to ignite the gasoline fumes in the cylinder. Schloemer designed in 1892 and patented a carburetor, known as the Gottfried Schloemer carburetor, he used kerosene lamp wicks in the center of it to get the gasoline from the gas tank into the cylinder of the motor to be ignited. Schloemer tells in a testimony that when he drove his "motor wagon" down the streets of downtown Milwaukee for the first time he remembers he went down West Water Street and stopped at Spiegel's Drug Store to purchase some items.

When he came out of the store there was a large crowd around the automobile and found it necessary to ask a policeman to clear a passageway for him to leave. Once he started the motor, the loud noise scared the people that gathered and they scattered. Schloemer's first version of a horseless carriage was a "rocking seat automobile" where a person bounced up and down on the seat to cause a mechanical rocking operation that drove a crank that drove the rear wheels; this operated the "automobile" for a half before it failed. From there he added his specially designed Sintz motor in 1889 and in 1890 was driving the self-propelled automobile on the streets of Milwaukee. Schloemer drove his car in a floral parade in 1895, the first automobile to do this, he was the only automobile in the parade. He led the first automobile parade, held on the streets of Milwaukee. There were seven automobiles in the car parade. There is a debate to this day as to who should get the credit for making the first practical workable gasoline-powered automobile.

Karl Benz is a claimant to the world's first self-propelled velocipede with a three-wheeled motorwagon in Germany in 1885. Some that take the claim of making the first gas-fueled car in America are Henry Nadig and Charles H. Black. Popular credit goes to the Duryea Brothers for the first commercially manufactured gasoline-powered "horseless carriage" in the U. S. with the introduction o

2018 China League Two

The 2018 Chinese Football Association Division Two League season was the 29th season since its establishment in 1989. The league is expanded with 14 teams in North Group and 14 teams in South Group. On 11 July 2018, Anhui Hefei Guiguan and Shenyang Dongjin failed to register for the rest of the season due to salary arrears. Yunnan Lijiang F. C. changed their name to Yunnan Flying Tigers in January 2018. 2–2 on aggregate. Shaanxi Chang'an Athletic won on away goals. Nantong Zhiyun won 1–0 on aggregate. Sichuan Longfor won 6–0 on aggregate. Jiangsu Yancheng Dingli won 1–0 on aggregate. Nantong Zhiyun won 2–0 on aggregate. Sichuan Longfor won 2–0 on aggregate. Shaanxi Chang'an Athletic qualified to 2018 China League One relegation play-offs; the awards of 2018 China League Two were announced on 19 December 2018. Official site News and results at