Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d
National Statuary Hall Collection
The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is composed of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. Limited to two statues per state, the collection was set up in the old Hall of the House of Representatives, renamed National Statuary Hall; the expanding collection has since been spread throughout its Visitor's Center. With the addition of New Mexico's second statue in 2005, the collection is now complete with 100 statues contributed by 50 states, plus one from the District of Columbia, plus one for all the states. Alabama, California, Iowa, Kansas and Ohio have each replaced one of their first two statues after Congress authorized replacements in 2000; the concept of a National Statuary Hall originated in the middle of the nineteenth century, before the completion of the present House wing in 1857. At that time, the House of Representatives moved into its new larger chamber and the old vacant chamber became a thoroughfare between the Rotunda and the House wing.
Suggestions for the use of the chamber were made as early as 1853 by Gouverneur Kemble, a former member of the House, who pressed for its use as a gallery of historical paintings. The space between the columns seemed too limited for this purpose, but it was well suited for the display of busts and statuary. On April 19, 1864, Representative Justin S. Morrill asked: "To what end more useful or grand, at the same time simple and inexpensive, can we devote it than to ordain that it shall be set apart for the reception of such statuary as each State shall elect to be deserving of in this lasting commemoration?" His proposal to create a National Statuary Hall became law on July 2, 1864: the President is hereby authorized to invite each and all the States to provide and furnish statues, in marble or bronze, not exceeding two in number for each State, of deceased persons who have been citizens thereof, illustrious for their historic renown or for distinguished civic or military services such as each State may deem to be worthy of this national commemoration.
All state statues were placed in National Statuary Hall. However, the aesthetic appearance of the Hall began to suffer from overcrowding until, in 1933, the situation became unbearable. At that time the Hall held 65 statues. More important, the structure of the chamber would not support the weight of any more statues. Therefore, in 1933 Congress passed a resolution that: the Architect of the Capitol, upon the approval of the Joint Committee on the Library, with the advice of the Commission of Fine Arts, is hereby authorized and directed to relocate within the Capitol any of the statues received and placed in Statuary Hall, to provide for the reception and location of the statues received hereafter from the States. Under authority of this resolution it was decided that only one statue from each state should be placed in Statuary Hall; the others would be given prominent locations in designated corridors of the Capitol. A second rearrangement of the statues was made in 1976 by authorization of the Joint Committee on the Library.
To improve the crowded appearance of the collection, thirty-eight statues were rearranged in Statuary Hall according to height and material. Statues representing ten of the thirteen original colonies were moved to the Central Hall of the East Front Extension on the first floor of the Capitol; the remainder of the statues were distributed throughout the Capitol in the Hall of Columns and the connecting corridors of the House and Senate wings. Legislation was introduced in 2005 that would authorize the collection to include one statue from each U. S. Territory, another bill introduced in 2010 provides for participation by the District of Columbia. Neither passed; each statue is the gift of a state, not of an group of citizens. Proceedings for the donation of a statue begin in the state legislature with the enactment of a resolution that names the citizen to be commemorated and cites his or her qualifications, specifies a committee or commission to represent the state in selecting the sculptor, provides for a method of obtaining the necessary funds to carry the resolution into effect.
In recent years, the statues have been unveiled during ceremonies in the Rotunda and displayed there for up to six months. They are moved to a permanent location approved by the Joint Committee on the Library. An act of Congress, enacted in 2000, permits states to provide replacements and repossess the earlier one. A special act of Congress, Pub. L. 109–116, signed on December 1, 2005, directed the Joint Committee on the Library to obtain a statue of Rosa Parks and to place the statue in the United States Capitol in National Statuary Hall in a suitable permanent location. On February 27, 2013, Parks became the first African-American woman to have her likeness in the Hall. Though located in Statuary Hall, Parks' statue is not part of the Collection; the collection includes representations of nine women: Frances E. Willard, the first statue of a woman in the collection, was sculpted by a woman, Helen Farnsworth Mears.
Shreveport is a city in the U. S. state of Louisiana. It is the most populous city in the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area. Shreveport ranks third in population in Louisiana after New Orleans and Baton Rouge and 126th in the U. S; the bulk of Shreveport is in Caddo Parish. Shreveport extends along the west bank of the Red River into neighboring Bossier Parish; the population of Shreveport was 199,311 as of the 2010 U. S. Census; the United States Census Bureau's 2017 estimate for the city's population decreased to 192,036. Shreveport was founded in 1836 by the Shreve Town Company, a corporation established to develop a town at the juncture of the newly navigable Red River and the Texas Trail, an overland route into the newly independent Republic of Texas. Prior to Texas becoming independent, this trail entered Mexico; the city grew throughout the 20th century and, after the discovery of oil in Louisiana, became a national center for the oil industry. Standard Oil of Louisiana and United Gas Corporation were headquartered in the city until the 1960s and 1980s.
After the loss of jobs in the oil industry, the close of Shreveport Operations, other economic problems the city struggled with a declining population, poverty and violent crime. Since Cedric Glover's tenure as mayor of Shreveport, the city has revitalized its neighborhoods and roads to end its population decline, revive the economy through diversification, lower crime. Shreveport is the educational and cultural center of the Ark-La-Tex region, where Arkansas and Texas meet, it is the location of Centenary College of Louisiana, Louisiana State University Shreveport, Louisiana Tech University Shreveport, Southern University at Shreveport, Louisiana Baptist University. Its neighboring city Bossier is the location of Bossier Parish Community College; the city forms part of the I-20 Cyber Corridor linking Shreveport, Bossier and Monroe to Dallas and Tyler and Atlanta, Georgia. Companies with significant operations or headquarters in Shreveport are AT&T, Chase Bank, Capital One, Regions Financial Corporation, SWEPCO, UPS, General Electric, UOP LLC, Calumet Specialty Products Partners, APS Payroll.
Shreveport was established to launch a town at the meeting point of the Brown Bricks and the Texas Trail. The Red River was made navigable by Captain Henry Miller Shreve, who led the United States Army Corps of Engineers effort to clear the Red River. A 180-mile-long natural log jam, the Great Raft, had obstructed passage to shipping. Shreve used the Heliopolis, to remove the log jam; the company and the village of Shreve Town were named in Shreve's honor. Shreve Town was contained within the boundaries of a section of land sold to the company in 1835 by the indigenous Caddo Indians. In 1838 Caddo Parish was created from the large Natchitoches Parish, Shreve Town became its parish seat. On March 20, 1839, the town was incorporated as Shreveport; the town consisted of 64 city blocks, created by eight streets running west from the Red River and eight streets running south from Cross Bayou, one of its tributaries. Shreveport soon became a center of steamboat commerce, carrying cotton and agricultural crops from the plantations of Caddo Parish.
Shreveport had a slave market, though slave trading was not as widespread as in other parts of the state. Steamboats plied the Red River, stevedores loaded and unloaded cargo. By 1860, Shreveport had a population of 1,300 slaves within the city limits. During the American Civil War, Shreveport was the capital of Louisiana from 1863 to 1865, having succeeded Baton Rouge and Opelousas after each fell under Union control; the city was a Confederate stronghold throughout the war and was the site of the headquarters of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederate Army. Fort Albert Sidney Johnston was built on a ridge northwest of the city; because of limited development in that area, the site is undisturbed in the 21st century. Isolated from events in the east, the Civil War continued in the Trans-Mississippi theater for several weeks after Robert E. Lee's surrender in April 1865, the Trans-Mississippi was the last Confederate command to surrender, on May 26, 1865. "The period May 13-21, 1865, was filled with great uncertainly after soldiers learned of the surrenders of Lee and Johnston, the Good Friday assassination of President Abraham Lincoln and the rapid departure of their own generals."
In the confusion there was a breakdown of military rioting by soldiers. They destroyed buildings containing service records, a loss that made it difficult for many to gain Confederate pensions from state governments. Throughout the war, women in Shreveport did much to assist the soldiers fighting far to the east. Historian John D. Winters writes of them in The Civil War in Louisiana: "The women of Shreveport and vicinity labored long hours over their sewing machines to provide their men with adequate underclothing and uniforms. After the excitement of Fort Sumter, there was a great rush to get the volunteer companies ready and off to New Orleans... Forming a Military Aid Society, the ladies of Shreveport requested donations of wool and cotton yarn for knitting socks. Joined by others, the Society collected blankets for the wounded and gave concerts and tableaux to raise funds. Tickets were sold for a diamond ring given by the mercantile house of Hyams and Brothers..."A Confederate minstrel show gave two performances to raise mon
Postage stamps and postal history of the United States
The history of postal service of the United States began with the delivery of stampless letters, whose cost was borne by the receiving person also encompassed pre-paid letters carried by private mail carriers and provisional post offices, culminated in a system of universal prepayment that required all letters to bear nationally issued adhesive postage stamps. In the earliest days, ship captains arriving in port with stampless mail would advertise in the local newspaper names of those having mail and for them to come collect and pay for it, if not paid for by the sender. Postal delivery in the United States was a matter of haphazard local organization until after the Revolutionary War, when a national postal system was established. Stampless letters, paid for by the receiver, private postal systems, were phased out after the introduction of adhesive postage stamps, first issued by the U. S. government post office July 1, 1847, in the denominations of five and ten cents, with the use of stamps made mandatory in 1855.
The issue and use of adhesive postage stamps continued during the 19th century for first class mail. Each of these stamps bore the face or bust of an American president or another important statesman. However, once the Post Office realized during the 1890s that it could increase revenues by selling stamps as "collectibles," it began issuing commemorative stamps, first in connection with important national expositions for the anniversaries of significant American historical events. Continued technological innovation subsequently prompted the introduction of special stamps, such as those for use with airmail, zeppelin mail, registered mail, certified mail, so on. Postage due stamps were issued for some time and were pasted by the post office to letters having insufficient postage with the postage due to be paid to the postal carrier at the receiving address. Today, stamps issued by the post office are self-adhesive, no longer require that the stamps be "licked" to activate the glue on their back.
In many cases, post office clerks now use Postal Value Indicators, which are computer labels, instead of stamps. Where for a century-and-a-half or so, stamps were invariably denominated with their values the United States post office now sells non-denominated "forever" stamps for use on first-class and international mail; these stamps are still valid if there is a rate increase. However, for other uses, adhesive stamps with denomination indicators sold. Postal services began in the first half of the 17th century serving the first American colonies. In the American colonies, informal independently run postal routes began in Boston as early as 1639, with Boston to New York City service starting in 1672. Sanctioned mail service began in 1692 when King William III granted to an English nobleman a delivery "patent" that included the exclusive right to establish and collect a formal postal tax on official documents of all kinds; the tax was repealed a year and few were actually used in the thirteen colonies, but they saw service in Canada and the British Caribbean islands.
In the years leading up to the American Revolution mail routes among the colonies existed along the few roads between Boston, New York and Philadelphia. In the middle 18th century, individuals like Benjamin Franklin and William Goddard were the colonial postmasters who managed the mails and were the general architects of a postal system that started out as an alternative to the Crown Post, now becoming more distrusted as the American Revolution drew near; the postal system that Franklin and Goddard forged out of the American Revolution became the standard for the new U. S. Post Office and is a system whose basic designs are still used in the United States Postal Service today. In 1775, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first Postmaster General, the U. S. Post Office was born. So important was the Postmaster General that in 1829 this position was included among those in the President's Cabinet; as America began to grow and new towns and villages began to appear, so too did the Post Office along with them.
The dates and postmarks generated from these places has provided the historian with a window into a given time and place in question. Each postmark is uniquely distinctive with its own name of state and town, in addition to its distinctive date. Post Offices that existed along railroad lines and at various military posts have their own special historical aspect. Mail and postmarks generated from prisoner of war camps during the Civil War, or from aboard naval ships, each with a U. S. Post Office aboard and have offered amazing insights into United States history and are avidly sought after by historians and collectors alike. Before the introduction of stamps, it was the recipient of mail—not the sender—who paid the cost of postage, giving the fee directly to the postman on delivery; the task of collecting money for letter after letter slowed the postman on his route. Moreover, the addressee would at times refuse a piece of mail, which had to be taken back to the Post Office. Only did a sender pay delivery costs in advance, an arrangement that required a personal visit to the Post Office.
To be sure, postmasters allowed some citizens to run charge accounts for their del
Cascade is a town in Cascade County, United States. The population was 685 at the 2010 census, it is part of Montana Metropolitan Statistical Area. Cascade is located at 47°16′19″N 111°42′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.53 square miles, all of it land. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Cascade has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 685 people, 287 households, 188 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,292.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 328 housing units at an average density of 618.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.9% White, 2.5% Native American, 0.7% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.5% of the population. There were 287 households of which 27.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.5% were non-families.
28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the town was 47.6 years. 22% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.3% male and 52.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 819 people, 323 households, 221 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,561.9 people per square mile. There were 349 housing units at an average density of 665.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.56% White, 0.37% African American, 1.22% Native American, 0.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.73% of the population. There were 323 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.3% were non-families. 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.14. In the town, the population was spread out with 30.0% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $30,602, the median income for a family was $34,938. Males had a median income of $30,446 versus $18,542 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,219. About 10.0% of families and 12.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over. The founder of the town was Mr. Thomas Graham. J. Robert Atkinson, founder of the Braille Institute of America Mary Fields a.k.a. "Stagecoach Mary", the first black woman to work for the United States Postal Service, was so popular in the town in the early 20th century that schools closed every year on her birthday.
Charles Marion Russell, artist Steamboat Williams, Major League Baseball player Town of Cascade community website Cascade Public Schools website
Edgar Samuel Paxson
Edgar Samuel Paxson was an American frontier painter, scout and writer, based in Montana. He is best known for his portraits of Native Americans in the Old West and for his depiction of the Battle of Little Bighorn in his painting "Custer's Last Stand". Paxson was born in 1852 to a Quaker family in East Hamburg New York, he spent most of his childhood in the woodlands of New York and Pennsylvania, learning to hunt and trap game with the help of his uncles. At age ten he worked as a drummer boy for new recruits during the American Civil War, his urge to explore the American frontier was fostered by uncles who had traveled west for the California Gold Rush, returning with stories of Indians, dangerous wildlife, the harsh trek across America, from family friends who lived in the New York frontier when the Seneca Nation ranged the woodlands. Inspired by his meetings with Kit Carson and Captain Jack Crawford in New York, he became restless to explore and by age 20 was travelling across America, ranging from Kansas to Canada.
He made a home in Deer Lodge, Montana with his wife Laura MIllicent and child Loren. Once settled in Deer Lodge, Paxson began to take work painting signage, painting stage sets for the Cottonwood Theater in Deer Lodge, he lived comfortably in Deer Lodge, still obscure as an artist, raising his four children with Laura, until the Spanish–American War in 1898, when at age 46 he led Company "G"of the Butte Volunteers into battle in the jungles of Manila. Camp Paxson, a National Registered Historic Place, is named in his honor. Paxson stated in interviews that his initial spark of inspiration to take to the canvas was inspired by the violence and drama of the Battle of Little Bighorn, by the character of George Armstrong Custer; the battle had taken place as he made his way west to Montana, stayed with him as a reminder of the brutality and tragedy of the Old West. He started researching the battle shortly after arriving in Montana, interviewing Indians who had participated in it and soldiers who had first arrived on the scene.
Having built a good reputation with both American soldiers and many Native American tribes, he was able to interview parties from both sides, including a Sioux chief named Gall, a Cheyenne warrior named Two Moon, Brigadier General Edward Settle Godfrey. From their interviews he made detailed journals about the equipment and physical location of each man on the battlefield. Individual figure studies of each man on the battlefield were made, he created in pen and ink a scaled down version to outline the figures, it took Paxson six years to complete the painting which he allowed an associate to take on tour around America, charging twenty-five cents to view it. Brigadier General Edward Settle Godfrey was brought to tears by the accuracy and ferocity of the painting, as was Elizabeth Custer. In 1963 Harold McCracken, the noted historian and Western art authority, deemed Paxson's painting "the best pictoral representation of the battle" and "from a purely artistic standpoint...one of the best if not the finest pictures which have been created to immortalize that dramatic event."
The painting can now be found in the Buffalo Bill Center of the West, in Cody, Wyoming. In 1912 Paxson was commissioned to paint eight murals in Montana county courthouse; the murals took 16 months to complete, still stand in the entrance hall where they were placed. The subjects include Sacagawea, the journey of Lewis and Clark, he created six scenes depicting significant events in early Montana History for the House of Representatives Lobby in the Montana State Capitol. Edgar and fellow Montanan, Charles Marion Russell met in 1908, Russell visited Paxson's Missoula studio; these two artists had an amicable relationship. In 1915, they marshaled a parade together in downtown Missoula, but the two artists are compared, at Paxson's expense. A careful look reveals that their styles and interests were distinct and both of their visions enrich our understanding of frontier culture. Russell was recognized for his renditions of the cowboys and range land of the central and eastern parts of the state. Paxson, on the other hand, was much more intrigued with the mountainous western Montana landscape and its inhabitants of fur trappers and Native Americans.
Paxson was praised for his attention to historic detail, as opposed to a more romantic view of the untamed west. His murals at the Missoula County Courthouse and the State Capitol depict scenes faithful to the historic record, they include events such as stops on the Lewis and Clark journey, the signing of the treaty at Council Grove, the journey of the Salish out of the Bitterroot Valley. Following Paxson's death, Russell offered a tribute to the artist: "Paxson has gone, but his pictures will not allow us to forget him, his work tells me that he loved the Old West, those that love her I count as friends. Paxson was my friend, today the west that he knew is history that lives in books, his brush told stories. … The iron heel of civilization has stamped out nations of men, but it has never been able to stamp out pictures, Paxson was one of the men gifted to make them. I am a painter, but Paxson has done some things that I cannot do, he was a pioneer and a pioneer painter … Paxson loved Montana.
May the land where he has gone be more beautiful than the mountains that he loved."
The Blackfoot Confederacy, Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi is a historic collective name for the four bands that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: three First Nation band governments in the provinces of Saskatchewan and British Columbia, one federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States. The Siksika, the Kainai or Kainah, the Northern Piegan or Peigan or Piikani reside in Canada. In modern use, the term is sometimes used only for the three First Nations in Canada; the member peoples of the Confederacy were nomadic bison hunters and trout fishermen, who ranged across large areas of the northern Great Plains of western North America the semi-arid shortgrass prairie ecological region. They followed the bison herds as they migrated between what are now the United States and Canada, as far north as the Bow River. In the first half of the 18th century, they acquired horses and firearms from white traders and their Cree and Assiniboine go-betweens; the Blackfoot used these to expand their territory at the expense of neighboring tribes.
By riding horses and using them to transport goods, the Blackfoot and other Plains tribes could extend the range of their buffalo hunts. In the mid to late 19th century, the systematic commercial bison hunting by white hunters nearly ended the bison herds and permanently changed Native American life on the Great Plains, since their primary food source was no longer abundant. Periods of starvation and deprivation followed; the Blackfoot tribe, like other Plains Indians, was forced to adopt ranching and farming, settling in permanent reservations. In the 1870s, their bands signed treaties with both the United States and Canada, ceding most of their lands in exchange for annuities of food and medical aid, as well as help in learning to farm, but the Blackfoot have worked to maintain their traditional language and culture in the face of assimilationist policies of both the U. S. and Canada. The Blackfoot/Plains Confederacy consisted of three peoples based on kinship and dialect, but all speaking the common language of Blackfoot, one of the Algonquian languages family.
The three were the Piikáni, the Káínaa, the Siksikáwa. They allied with the unrelated Tsuu T'ina, who became merged into the Confederacy and, with the Atsina, or A'aninin; each of these decentralized peoples were divided into many bands, which ranged in size from 10 to 30 lodges, or about 80 to 240 persons. The band was the basic unit of organization for defence; the largest ethnic group in the Confederacy is the Piegan spelled Peigan or Pikuni. Their name derives from the Blackfoot term Piikáni, they are divided into the Piikani Nation in present-day Alberta, the South Peigan or Piegan Blackfeet in Montana, United States. A once large and mighty division of the Piegan were the Inuk'sik of southwestern Montana. Today they survive only as a band of the South Peigan; the modern Kainai Nation is named for the Blackfoot-language term Káínaa, meaning "Many Chief people". These were also called the "Blood," from a Plains Cree name for the Kainai: Miko-Ew, meaning "stained with blood"; the common English name for the tribe is the Blood tribe.
The Siksika Nation's name derives from Siksikáwa, meaning "Those of like". The Siksika call themselves Sao-kitapiiksi, meaning "Plains People"; the Sarcee call themselves the Tsu T'ina, meaning "a great number of people." During early years of conflict, the Blackfoot called them Saahsi or Sarsi, "the stubborn ones", in their language. The Sarcee are from an different language family; the Sarcee are an offshoot of the Beaver people, who migrated south onto the plains sometime in the early eighteenth century. They joined the Confederacy and merged with the Pikuni; the Gros Ventre people call themselves the Haaninin spelled A'aninin. The French called misinterpreting a physical sign for waterfall; the Blackfoot referred to them because of years of enmity. Early scholars thought the A'aninin were related to the Arapaho Nation, who inhabited the Missouri Plains and moved west to Colorado and Wyoming, they were allied with the Confederacy from circa 1793 to 1861, but came to disagreement and were enemies of it thereafter.
The Confederacy occupied a large territory where they foraged. But during the late nineteenth century, both governments forced the peoples to end their nomadic traditions and settle on "Indian reserves" or "Indian reservations"; the South Peigan are the only group. The other three Blackfoot-speaking peoples and the Sarcee are located in Alberta. Together, the Blackfoot-speakers call themselves the Niitsítapi. After leaving the