United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Lance corporal is a military rank, used by many armed forces worldwide, by some police forces and other uniformed organisations. It is below the rank of corporal, is the lowest non-commissioned officer equivalent to the NATO Rank Grade OR3; the presumed origin of the rank of lance corporal derives from an amalgamation of "corporal" from the Italian phrase capo corporale with the now-archaic lancepesade, which in turn derives from the Italian lancia spezzata, which means "broken lance" or "broken spear" a non-commissioned officer of the lowest rank. It can be translated as "one who has broken a lance in combat", is therefore a leader. "Lance" or "lances fournies" was a term used in Medieval Europe to denote a unit of soldiers. In Commonwealth forces, a lance corporal is the second-in-command of a section. Lance corporals are addressed as "corporal", with "lance jack" or "half-screw" being common colloquialisms for the rank. Much like the use of bombardier instead of corporal in artillery units, lance corporals are known as lance bombardiers in the UK, Australia and New Zealand.
The badge of rank is a single chevron worn on an epaulette. Lance corporal is the lowest of the non-commissioned officer ranks in the Australian Army and New Zealand Army, falling between private and corporal, it is the only appointed rank, thus demotion is easier than with other ranks, a commanding officer can demote a lance corporal, whereas other ranks require a court martial for demotion. A lance corporal is the second in command of a section, is in control of the gun group in an infantry section. There is no equivalent rank within Royal Australian Navy. Second corporal was formerly used in Australia in the same way that it was used in the British Army; the Canadian Forces abolished the Canadian Army rank of lance corporal on their creation as a unified force in 1968. The rank of trained private equates to OR3 and wears the single chevron, but has no command authority. In terms of actual authority, the current appointment of master corporal equates most directly to the pre-unification appointment of lance corporal.
In both cases, this rank was granted to the second-in-command of an infantry section. Lance corporal is the lowest ranking non-commissioned officer in the British Army and Royal Marines, between private and corporal; the badge of rank is a single chevron worn on both sleeves, or on an epaulette on the front of the Combat Soldier 95 dress standard. The Royal Artillery uses the term lance bombardier instead; the designation "chosen man", used during the Napoleonic Wars, was a precursor to the rank. The date of introduction of lance corporals to the British Army is unclear; the first reference to a lance corporal in the London Gazette is in 1831. However, the first mention of the rank in The Times is in 1819, so it appears they existed at least from the second decade of the 19th century; the first mention in the London Gazette of a lance corporal in the Royal Marines is in 1838. Until 1 September 1961, lance corporal and lance bombardier were only appointments rather than substantive ranks, given to privates who were acting NCOs, could be taken away by the soldier's commanding officer.
The Royal Engineers and Army Ordnance Corps used the similar rank of second corporal, a substantive rank, until 1920. Until 1920, bombardiers in the Royal Artillery were equivalent to second corporals and until 1918, acting bombardiers were equivalent to lance corporals. In the infantry, a lance corporal serves as second-in-command of a section and commander of its delta fire team, it is a rank held by specialists such as clerks, signallers, machine-gunners, mortarmen. In the Intelligence Corps and Royal Military Police, all other ranks are promoted to lance corporal on the completion of their training. On 1 April 2010, the rank of lance corporal was introduced into the RAF Regiment, although it is not used by other branches of the Royal Air Force. RAF Regiment lance corporals have powers of charge over aircraftmen, leading aircraftmen and senior aircraftmen, but not junior technicians or senior aircraftmen technicians, despite being OR2s, require a corporal or above to charge if required; the British cadet forces reflect the ranks of their parent services, so the Army Cadet Force, Army and RAF sections of the Combined Cadet Force, the various marine cadet organisations have cadet lance corporals as their first NCO rank.
In the CCF, the rank was called junior corporal until 2010. The Air Training Corps does not use the rank of lance corporal; the equivalent of lance corporal in the Finnish Defence Forces Army and Air Forces is korpraali or korpral. Although it translates as "corporal", this is not considered an NCO rank; the promotion is given to rank-and-file conscripts who perform exceptionally well. Conscripts attending the NCO course are promoted to the rank during the first half of the NCO course, prior to promotion to corporal (Finnish
Fall of Saigon
The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng, began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tan Son Nhat International Airport killed the last two American servicemen killed in combat in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge. By the afternoon of the next day, the PAVN had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace; the city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the late North Vietnamese President Hồ Chí Minh. The capture of the city was preceded by Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians, associated with the southern regime.
The evacuation was the largest helicopter evacuation in history. In addition to the flight of refugees, the end of the war and the institution of new rules by the communists contributed to a decline in the city's population. Various names have been applied to these events; the Vietnamese government calls it the "Day of liberating the South for national reunification" or "Liberation Day", but the term "Fall of Saigon" is used in Western accounts. It is called the "Ngày mất nước", "Tháng Tư Đen", "National Day of Shame" or "National Day of Resentment". by many Overseas Vietnamese who were refugees from communism. The rapidity with which the South Vietnamese position collapsed in 1975 was surprising to most American and South Vietnamese observers, to the North Vietnamese and their allies as well. For instance, a memo prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency and U. S. Army Intelligence and published on March 5 indicated that South Vietnam could hold out through the current dry season—i.e. At least until 1976.
These predictions proved to be grievously in error. As that memo was being released, General Dũng was preparing a major offensive in the Central Highlands of Vietnam, which began on 10 March and led to the capture of Buôn Ma Thuột; the ARVN began a disorderly and costly retreat, hoping to redeploy its forces and hold the southern part of South Vietnam an enclave south of the 13th parallel. Supported by artillery and armor, the PAVN continued to march towards Saigon, capturing the major cities of northern South Vietnam at the end of March—Huế on the 25th and Đà Nẵng on the 28th. Along the way, disorderly South Vietnamese retreats and the flight of refugees—there were more than 300,000 in Đà Nẵng—damaged South Vietnamese prospects for a turnaround. After the loss of Đà Nẵng, those prospects had been dismissed as nonexistent by American CIA officers in Vietnam, who believed that nothing short of B-52 strikes against Hanoi could stop the North Vietnamese. By April 8, the North Vietnamese Politburo, which in March had recommended caution to Dũng, cabled him to demand "unremitting vigor in the attack all the way to the heart of Saigon."
On April 14, they renamed the campaign the "Hồ Chí Minh campaign", after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh, in hopes of wrapping it up before his birthday on May 19. Meanwhile, South Vietnam failed to garner any significant increase in military aid from the United States, snuffing out President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu’s hopes for renewed American support. On April 9, PAVN forces reached Xuân Lộc, the last line of defense before Saigon, where the ARVN 18th Division made a last stand and held the city through fierce fighting for 11 days; the PAVN overran Xuân Lộc on April 20 despite heavy losses, on April 21 President Thiệu resigned in a tearful televised announcement in which he denounced the United States for failing to come to the aid of the South. The North Vietnamese front line was now just 26 miles from downtown Saigon; the victory at Xuân Lộc, which had drawn many South Vietnamese troops away from the Mekong Delta area, opened the way for PAVN to encircle Saigon, they soon did so, moving 100,000 troops in position around the city by April 27.
With the ARVN having few defenders, the fate of the city was sealed. The ARVN III Corps commander, General Toàn, had organized five centers of resistance to defend the city; these fronts were so connected as to form an arc enveloping the entire area west and east of the capital. The Cu Chi front, to the northwest, was defended by the 25th Division. South Vietnamese defensive forces around Saigon totaled 60,000 troops. However, as the exodus made it into Saigon, along with them were many ARVN soldiers, which swelled the "men under arms" in the city to over 250,000; these units were battered and leaderless, which threw the city into further anarchy. The rapid PAVN advances of March and early April led to increased concern in Saigon that the city, peaceful throughout the war and wh
Marine Security Guard
A Marine Security Guard known as a Marine Embassy Guard, is a member of the Marine Corps Embassy Security Group, a battalion-sized organization of U. S. Marines whose detachments provide security at American embassies, American consulates and other official United States Government offices such as the United States Mission to NATO in Brussels, Belgium; the Marine Security Guard was designated MOS 8151, this has changed to MOS 8156. The U. S. Marine Corps has a long history of cooperation with the U. S. State Department, going back to the early days of the country. From the raising of the American flag at Derna and the secret mission of Archibald H. Gillespie in California, to the Boxer Rebellion at Peking, Marines have served many times on special missions as couriers, as guards for embassies and legations, to protect American citizens in unsettled areas; the formal and permanent use of Marines as security guards began with the Foreign Service Act of 1946, which authorized the Secretary of Navy to, upon the request of the Secretary of State, assign Marines to serve as custodians under the supervision of the senior diplomatic officer at a diplomatic post.
The first joint Memorandum of Agreement was signed on 15 December 1948 regarding the provisions of assigning Marines overseas. Trained at the Foreign Service Institute, the first Marines arrived at Tangier and Bangkok in early 1949; the Marine Corps assumed the primary training responsibility in November 1954. The authority granted in the Foreign Service Act of 1946 has since been replaced by 10 U. S. C. § 5983 and the most recent Memorandum of Agreement was signed in August 2008. Although embassy duty is a crucial aspect of the Marines’ mission with a long tradition, the Corps is only budgeted to train and maintain a limited cadre of guards to cover over 100 embassies worldwide. In response to the 2012 Benghazi attack, Congress ordered a near doubling of Marine Security Guards in the midst of a post-war drawdown in overall USMC numbers; the USMC has responded by redeploying one company from 1st Battalion 1st Marines while additional guards are trained. The primary mission of the MSG is to provide security the protection of classified information and equipment vital to the national security of the United States at American diplomatic posts.
This is accomplished under the guidance and operational control of a civilian federal agent of the Diplomatic Security Service, known as the Regional Security Officer, the senior U. S. law enforcement representative and security attaché at U. S. diplomatic posts around the world. In addition, MSGs provide security for visiting American dignitaries and assist the RSO in supervising host country or locally employed security forces that provide additional security for the exterior of embassies; the MSGs fall under operational control of the RSO and are administratively controlled by the Marine Corps Embassy Security Group. The secondary mission of Marine Security Guards is to provide protection for U. S. citizens and U. S. Government property located within designated U. S. Diplomatic and Consular premises during exigent circumstances, which require immediate aid or action. MSGs focus on the interior security of a diplomatic post's buildings. In only the most extreme emergency situations are they authorized to provide special protection to the senior diplomatic officer off the diplomatic compound.
MSGs carry a certain level of diplomatic immunity in the performance of their official duties. The Marine Security Guards number a thousand Marines at 174 posts, organized into nine regional MSG commands and located in over 135 countries in 18 time zones, as well as its headquarters at Marine Corps Base Quantico. Headquarters Company, along with MSG School, is composed of 100 Marines providing administrative, legal and education support; the remaining nine companies are commanded by a lieutenant colonel, entail a number of detachments in several countries. The companies are as follows: Each Detachment is commanded by a Staff Non-Commissioned Officer, being one of the few instances where an enlisted Marine may hold the title of "commander". Between the ranks of Staff Sergeant and Master Gunnery Sergeant, Marine Detachment Commanders serve two tours, which last 18 months each. Unlike their subordinates, Detachment Commanders may be married; the minimum detachment size is a one detachment commander.
This allows for posts to be manned at all times while allowing each of the Marines to conduct other routine training, internal management of the detachment and have some time off. A Marine Security Guard serves three 12-month tours of duty. Marine Security Guard "watch standers" are enlisted Marines from the rank of Private First Class to Staff Sergeant. MCESG Headquarters is led by Colonel Taylor. After every 3 years as a Marine Security Guard with the Marine Corps Embassy Security Group, any Marine is entitled to the Marine Corps Security Guard Ribbon. According to the Marine Corps Uniform Regulations Order however, Marine Security Guards are not authorized to wear subsequent service stars. Marines of any Military Occupational Specialty may volunteer for a three-year tour of duty. Before being assigned to a Foreign Service post, a Marine accepted into the MSG program must complete a training program located at the Marine
Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. Within NATO, each member nation's corresponding military rank of corporal is combined under the NATO-standard rank scale code OR-3 or OR-4. However, there are differences in how each nation employs corporals; some militaries may instead have a Junior Sergeant. In some militaries, the rank of corporal nominally corresponds to commanding a section or squad of soldiers. However, in the United States Army, the rank of corporal is considered a "lateral promotion" from E-4 Specialist and only occurs when the soldier has been selected by a promotion board to become an E-5 Sergeant and is serving in an E-5 billet such as a fireteam leader in a rifle squad; the lateral promotion is used to make the soldier a non-commissioned officer without changing the soldier's pay. As the Table of Organization & Equipment rank of a fire team leader is sergeant and that of squad leader is staff sergeant.
In the United States Marine Corps, corporal is the Table of Organization rank for a rifle fire team leader, machine gun team leader, light mortar squad leader, assault weapon squad leader, as well as gunner on most larger crew served weapons, armored vehicles, the two assistant gunners on a howitzer. In most countries that derive their military structure from the British military system, corporal is a more senior rank than that of private. However, in several other countries, such as Canada and Norway, corporal is a junior rank, indicating a more experienced soldier than a private, on a higher pay scale, but having no particular command appointment corresponding to the rank, similar to specialist in the U. S. Army; the word is derived from the medieval Italian phrase capo corporale. It may be derived from an appointment as an officer's bodyguard being an adjective pertaining to the word "body". All three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic use two or three ranks of corporal, or cabo.
Corporals in the Argentine military are considered suboficiales subalternos, superior only to all ranks of Volunteers and Seamen. In the Argentine Army, there are two ranks of corporal and senior: Cabo and cabo primero. While the Argentine Navy has three corporal ranks, from junior to senior: Cabo segundo, Cabo primero and cabo principal, equal to the army rank of sargento; the Air Force has the same number of corporal ranks as the navy, keeps the same titles, with the exception of cabo instead of the navy's cabo segundo. The rank is used by the Argentine National Gendarmerie and the Argentine Federal Police, which use the rank in the same manner as the Army, as well as the Argentine Naval Prefecture. Corporal is the second lowest of the non-commissioned officer ranks in the Australian Army, falling between lance-corporal and sergeant. A corporal is appointed as a section commander, is in charge of 7-14 soldiers of private rank, they are assisted by a second-in-command a lance-corporal or senior private.
A Corporal within Artillery is known as a bombardier. Corporal is a rank of the Royal Australian Air Force, being equal to both the Australian Army and Royal Air Force rank of corporal; the branches of the Belgian Armed Forces use three ranks of corporal: corporal, master corporal and 1st master corporal. Corporal is equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-3, whereas master corporal and 1st master corporal are equivalent to OR-4; the rank below corporal is 1st private and the rank directly above 1st master corporal is sergeant. Units with a cavalry, artily or Logistic Corps tradition replace Corporal by “Brigadier”; the equivalent of these ranks in the Naval Component are quartermaster, chief quartermaster and 1st chief quartermaster. Corporal is the first NCO rank of the Army, Air Force and states military police forces. Soldiers who complete the corporal course may be promoted to the rank of corporal should they excel in the course. A corporal in the Brazilian Army will lead the smallest fractions of units as machine gun squads and infantry squads.
Corporal is an Air Force non-commissioned member rank of the Canadian Forces. Its Naval equivalent is leading seaman, it is senior to the rank of private and its naval equivalent able seaman, junior to master corporal and its equivalent master seaman. It is part of the cadre of junior non-commissioned officers, one of the junior ranks. In French, the rank is caporal; the rank insignia of a corporal is a two-bar chevron, point down, worn in gold thread on both upper sleeves of the service dress jacket. On army ceremonial uniforms, it is rendered in gold braid, on either both sleeves, or just the right, depending on unit custom. Corporal is the first non-commissioned officer r
Edward John Markey is an American politician serving as the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts since 2013. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the U. S. Representative for Massachusetts's 7th congressional district from 1976 to 2013. Between the House and Senate, Markey has served in Congress for more than four decades, he was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1973 to 1976. Markey has focused on energy policy and was Chairman of the House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming from 2007 to 2011. In 2013, after John Kerry was appointed United States Secretary of State, he was elected to serve out the balance of Kerry's sixth Senate term in a 2013 special election. Markey defeated Stephen Lynch in the Democratic primary and Republican Gabriel E. Gomez in the general election; when he left the House, he was its eighth most senior member. In 2014 Markey was elected to a full six-year Senate term, he is the dean of the Massachusetts congressional delegation and the second longest-serving current member of Congress from New England, behind Senator Patrick Leahy of Vermont.
Markey was born on July 11, 1946, in Malden, the son of Christina M. and John E. Markey, a milkman. Markey's mother was the valedictorian of her high school class but was unable to attend college because her mother died and she was needed to care for the family; the family was Irish Catholic, Markey was educated at Immaculate Conception School and Malden Catholic High School. He graduated from Boston College in 1968 with a Bachelor of Arts, from Boston College Law School in 1972 with a Juris Doctor. After graduating, Markey worked as a lawyer in private practice. Markey served in the United States Army Reserve from 1968 to 1973, attaining the rank of Specialist Fourth Class, he joined while a junior in college, has stated that he enlisted before receiving a Vietnam War draft notice. He further stated that though he opposed the war, if he had been drafted without having secured a position in the Reserve, he would have answered the induction notice and gone to Vietnam. Markey's South Boston reserve unit included Thomas P. O'Neill III, Steve Grossman, Markey's brothers Richard and John.
He was discharged in 1973, a year before his enlistment agreement was due to expire, not unusual as the military discharged many members early during post-Vietnam force drawdowns. Markey was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives, where he represented the 16th Middlesex district from 1973 to 1976. On May 21, 1976, incumbent Congressman Torbert Macdonald died in office. Markey, who had just been elected to a third term in the state house, entered a seven-candidate Democratic primary for what was the 7th District. In the primary—the real contest in this Democratic district—Markey won the nomination with a plurality of 22% of the vote. In the November 1976 election he defeated Republican Richard Daly 77%-18%; that election doubled as both a special election for the balance of Macdonald's 11th term and a regular election for a full two-year term, so Markey took office that night. This gave him greater seniority than other Representatives elected in 1976. Markey has been challenged in a Democratic primary three times: in 1980 when he won 85%, in 1984 when he won 54%, in 2002 when he won 85% of the vote.
Markey was reelected 19 more times from this district, which included most of the northern suburbs of Boston. His lowest vote total was 62% in 1992, in a three-way election. Markey faced no Republican opposition in eight of his bids for reelection, in 1978, 1980, 1986, 1988, 1990, 2000, 2002, 2006, his district was renumbered the 5th after the 2010 census. Markey was a member of the Congressional Progressive Caucus, the National Journal gave him a "Composite Liberal" score of 89.2. In December 2007 Markey became the first US politician to use Second Life, through which he addressed the delegates of the UNFCCC in Bali as part of OneClimate's Virtual Bali event, it was estimated. Pressure from Markey prompted BP to provide a live underwater video feed showing oil leaking out of a pipe in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. Markey has been a longtime critic of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and has been critical of the NRC's decision-making on the proposed Westinghouse AP1000 reactor design and the NRC response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.
In 2011 Markey criticized Republicans and the Tea Party movement, saying "Rick Perry and these other guys are allergic to science...too many of the tea party people, who don’t believe in science, are now controlling the Republican Party." In reply to Alaska's Governor Sarah Palin's position on how the American Clean Energy and Security Act could have a negative impact for Alaskans, Markey wrote an article criticizing Palin's inaction on global warming and her environmental positions. Markey sarcastically suggested in August 2010 that global warming deniers form their own country on an iceberg: "An iceberg four times the size of Manhattan has broken off Greenland, creating plenty of room for global warming deniers to start their own country." Markey said that, at the time, 2010 was the hottest recorded year, "scientists agree Arctic ice is a canary in a coal mine that provides clear warnings on climate". Markey has derided Republicans' stance on global warming, stating during a hearing: "I won’t physically rise, because I’m worried that Republicans will overturn the law of gravity, sending us floating about the room."In January 2011 House Republicans eliminated the Select Committee
Military Assistance Command, Vietnam
U. S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam was a joint-service command of the United States Department of Defense. MACV was created on 8 February 1962, in response to the increase in United States military assistance to South Vietnam. MACV was first implemented to assist the Military Assistance Advisory Group Vietnam, controlling every advisory and assistance effort in Vietnam, but was reorganized on 15 May 1964 and absorbed MAAG Vietnam to its command when combat unit deployment became too large for advisory group control. MACV was disestablished on 29 March 1973 and replaced by the Defense Attaché Office Saigon which performed many of the same roles of MACV within the restrictions imposed by the Paris Peace Accords until the Fall of Saigon; the first commanding general of MACV, General Paul D. Harkins, was the commander of MAAG Vietnam, after reorganization was succeeded by General William C. Westmoreland in June 1964, followed by General Creighton W. Abrams and General Frederick C. Weyand. Major component commands of MACV were: United States Army Vietnam I Field Force, Vietnam II Field Force, Vietnam XXIV Corps III Marine Amphibious Force Naval Forces Vietnam Seventh Air Force 5th Special Forces Group Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support Studies and Observations Group Field Advisory Element, MACV In contrast to the carrier and naval gunfire support forces and, at least during early 1965, the coastal patrol force, which Commander Seventh Fleet directed, the Navy's forces within South Vietnam were operationally controlled by COMUSMACV.
General William C. Westmoreland exercised this command through the Chief, Naval Advisory Group. However, the increasing demands of the war required a distinct operational rather than an advisory headquarters for naval units; as a result, on 1 April 1966, Naval Forces, was established to control the Navy's units in the II, III, IV Corps Tactical Zones. This included the major combat formations: Coastal Surveillance Force, River Patrol Force, Riverine Assault Force; the latter unit formed the naval component of the joint Army-Navy Mobile Riverine Force. Commander Naval Forces, Vietnam controlled the Naval Support Activity, which supplied naval forces in the II, III, IV Corps areas. Naval Support Activity Danang, provided logistic support to all American forces in the I Corps area of responsibility, where the predominant Marine presence demanded a naval supply establishment. NSA Danang was under the operational control of Commander III Marine Amphibious Force; the "Commander, U. S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam" was known by the abbreviation COMUSMACV.
COMUSMACV was in one sense the top person in charge of the U. S. military on the Indochinese peninsula. S. ambassadors to Vietnam and Cambodia had "top person in charge" status with regard to various aspects of the war's strategy. With the signing of the Paris Peace Accords all American and third country forces were to be withdrawn within 60 days of the cease-fire. MACV was therefore inactivated on 29 March 1973; the Defense Attaché Office Saigon was organized according to requirements established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, CINCPAC, MACV, was activated on 28 January 1973. DAO Saigon was a unique organization, it performed the traditional functions of a defense attaché, managed American military affairs in Vietnam after the cease-fire including the programs for the support of South Vietnam's armed forces, administered procurement contracts in support of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force, furnished housekeeping support to Americans remaining in Vietnam after the ceasefire. Aside from the support of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force, it reported on operational matters, such as violations of the cease-fire, produced intelligence information on which subsequent decisions concerning the Military Assistance Program and American interests in Southeast Asia could be based.
The DAO occupied the offices turned over to it by the MACV adjacent to Tan Son Nhut Airport and most of its employees and officials conducted their work from those offices. Small field offices were located in Da Nang, Qui Nhon, Nha Trang, Bien Hoa, Long Binh, Nha Be, Đồng Tâm, Binh Thuy, Can Tho. To perform the traditional representational and information-collecting functions of military attaches, five professional attaches – two Army, two Air Force, one Navy – were assigned to the DAO with offices in the United States Embassy, Saigon; the senior member of this group was the assistant defense attaché, an Army colonel who reported to the Defense Intelligence Agency in Washington through attache channels. The attaches made frequent visits to the field where they observed Republic of Vietnam Air Force units and activities and reported those observations to the defense attaché and to Washington; the largest element in the Operations and Plans Division was the Intelligence Branch. The Chief of the Intelligence Branch was responsible for American military intelligence activities in the Republic of Vietnam.
He reported directly to the Ambassador and the Defense Attache, coordinated with Republic of Vietnam Air Force intelligence agencies and other U. S. intelligence activities in South Vietnam, and, in intelligence channels, reported on most matters to USSAG, CINCPAC, the Defense Intelligence Agency. The Communications and Electronics Division had functions which, like those of the Operations and Plans Division, included support of U. S. military activities as well as continued military assistance to Republic of Vietnam Air Force. The Comm