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Charles Messier

Charles Messier was a French astronomer. He published an astronomical catalogue consisting of 110 nebulae and faint star clusters, which came to be known as the Messier objects; the purpose of the catalogue was to help astronomical observers, in particular comet hunters like himself, distinguish between permanent and transient visually diffuse objects in the sky. Messier was born in Badonviller in the Lorraine region of France, the tenth of twelve children of Françoise B. Grandblaise and Nicolas Messier, a Court usher. Six of his brothers and sisters died while young, his father died in 1741. Charles' interest in astronomy was stimulated by the appearance of the great six-tailed comet in 1744 and by an annular solar eclipse visible from his hometown on 25 July 1748. In 1751 Messier entered the employ of Joseph Nicolas Delisle, the astronomer of the French Navy, who instructed him to keep careful records of his observations. Messier's first documented observation was that of the Mercury transit of 6 May 1753, followed by his observations journals at Cluny Hotel and at the French Navy observatories.

In 1764, Messier was made a fellow of the Royal Society. Messier discovered 13 comets: C/1760 B1 c/2760 C/1763 S1 C/1764 A1 C/1766 E1 C/1769 P1 D/1770 L1 C/1771 G1 C/1773 T1 C/1780 U2 C/1788 W1 C/1793 S2 C/1798 G1 C/1785 A1 He co-discovered Comet C/1801 N1, a discovery shared with several other observers including Pons, Méchain, Bouvard. Near the end of his life, Messier self-published a booklet connecting the great comet of 1769 to the birth of Napoleon, in power at the time of publishing. According to Meyer: As hard as it may seem to accept, the memoir is an ingratiation to Napoleon in order to receive attention and monetary support, it is full of opportunism. Messier did not refrain from utilizing astrology to reach his goal. Messier comes to the point on the first page of the memoir, by stating that the beginning of the epoch of Napoleon the Great... coincides with the discovery of one of the greatest comets observed. Messier is buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris, in Section 11; the grave is faintly inscribed, is near the grave of Frédéric Chopin to the west and directly north, behind the small mausoleum of the jeweller Abraham-Louis Breguet.

Messier's occupation as a comet hunter led him to continually come across fixed diffuse objects in the night sky which could be mistaken for comets. He compiled a list of them, in collaboration with his friend and assistant Pierre Méchain, to avoid wasting time sorting them out from the comets they were looking for; the entries are now known to be 39 galaxies, 4 planetary nebulae, 7 other types of nebulae, 55 star clusters. Messier did his observing with a 100 mm refracting telescope from Hôtel de Cluny, in downtown Paris, France; the list he compiled only contains objects found in the area of the sky Messier could observe, from the north celestial pole to a declination of about −35.7°. They are not organized scientifically by location; the first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier's.

By 1780 the catalog had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue was published in 1781, in the 1784 issue of Connaissance des Temps; the final list of Messier objects had grown to 103. On several occasions between 1921 and 1966, astronomers and historians discovered evidence of another seven objects that were observed either by Messier or by Méchain, shortly after the final version was published; these seven objects, M 104 through M 110, are accepted by astronomers as "official" Messier objects. The objects' Messier designations, from M 1 to M 110, are still used by professional and amateur astronomers today and their relative brightness makes them popular objects in the amateur astronomical community; the lunar crater Messier and the asteroid 7359 Messier were named in his honor. Deep-sky object List of Messier objects Messier object Messier marathon Caldwell catalogue O'Meara, Stephen James. Deep Sky Companions: The Messier Objects. Cambridge University Press. "Charles Messier biography".

Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. Retrieved 1 July 2007. Zander, Jon. "Short biography of Charles Messier and history of the Messier Object Catalog". OurDarkSkies.com. Retrieved 1 July 2007. Brake, Mark. "Life of a Comet Hunter: Messier and Astrobiology". Astrobiology Magazine. Retrieved 1 July 2007. "Interactive Messier Catalog". Greenhawk Observatory. "Amateur Photos of Charles Messier Objects". "Messier biography". Messier.seds.org. "Messier marathon". Attempts to find as many Messier objects as possible in one night "Revisions of the New General Catalog and Index Catalog". Archived from the original on 27 February 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2007. NGC/IC Project is a collaborative effort between professional and amateur astronomers to identify all of the original NGC and IC objects, such that the identity of each of the NGC and IC objects is known with as much certainty as we can reasonably bring to it from the existing historical record. "Clickable table of Messier

Terror Inc.

Terror Inc. was an American comic-book horror series from Marvel Comics starring the antihero Terror, an eternal entity that absorbs the talents of others through their dismembered limbs. He was created by writers Dan Chichester and Margaret Clark and artist Klaus Janson as the villain Shreck in St. George #2, from Marvel's Epic Comics imprint. Terror was created for Marvel's Epic Comics line as part of writer Dan Chichester's Shadowline Saga of three interconnected titles. There were no superheroes in this world, but rather powerful, ageless beings known as "Shadows". In St. George #2, Chichester and co-writer Margaret Clark introduced a green-skinned killer who acted as the enforcer for the Ravenscore crime family, one of the books' recurring villains. According to Chichester, Marvel contacted him about bringing Shreck from the Shadowline books into the mainstream Marvel Universe to serve as a platform for reinventing and reintroducing the company's 1970s horror characters, such as Werewolf by Night and Morbius, the Living Vampire, but subsequent publishing plans changed directions.

The series Terror, Inc. was set for 15 issues but only ran for 13 issues, cover-dated July 1992 to July 1993. Terror next appeared in 2006's "League of Losers" storyline in Marvel Team-Up. Terror, Inc. editor Marc McLaurin maintained that Terror are two different characters. Writer Dan Chichester said, "Shreck was Terror and Terror was Shreck... but for the fact that Terror got to develop more of a back story as time went on"The comic books themselves gave no confirmation either way. The canonical Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Horror 2005 confirmed that the two were in fact the same being. At some point in the distant past, a tribe of early humans hunted and fought a demon, preying upon them; the demon resembled a green bear, with a series of long, thin spikes protruding from its face and along its spine. The man who killed the bear was cursed by victory to assume the demon's form - his skin took on its green, decaying form, the spikes from its face appeared on his, he gained the beast's ability to merge the limbs of others with his own body, but was shunned by the tribe he had helped to protect.

Over the years, he adopted names that reflected people's reaction to him, by the Dark Ages he had adapted the Germanic "Schreck" as his name. At that point looking human, Shreck was the squire to a powerful Shadow, calling himself Draghignazzo. Gravely injured in battle, Draghignazzo had Shreck bury him to create the illusion that he was dead, so he could heal in peace - a process that would take centuries. In the meantime, Shreck became a full knight, fighting side-by-side with a woman he loved and who, loved him back, she soon died and Shreck had her left hand encased in metal and hermetically sealed so that he might remember her touch forever, the one part of his amalgamated body that would never decay. Shreck's activities from that time until the mid-1980s are unknown, but when he was next seen, he had been serving for several years as the enforcer for the Ravenscore crime family. During an argument, Eric Ravenscore blasted off one of Ripley Weaver's metal hands, which Shreck collected for use.

In Turkey, Shreck was found by two drug dealers, in a confrontation with the heroic Michael Devlin, knight in the order of St. George. Taking one of the dealers' eyes for his own, Shreck recognized Devlin, sought to prevent him from leaving Turkey, he crashed an airplane on the runway at the Turkish airport. The two fought and, with help from his traveling companions, Devlin won. Shreck's legs were chained to one car of the train, uncoupled. Determined to follow Devlin, he grabbed the rail of the next car forward, but the mass and momentum of the separating cars tore his legs off. Shreck survived, of course, but now held a personal grudge against Devlin, rather than the cold, impersonal "just business" attitude he displayed toward most of his victims. Shreck informed the Ravenscores that he would be leaving their employ temporarily, until he had taken his revenge on Devlin. By this time, Draghignazzo was posing as the superhero Dr. Zero. Shreck was denied. Tracking Devlin to Nicaragua, Shreck managed to get the best of him after a protracted brawl proceeded to crucify the man to a tree - he did not have permission to kill Devlin, but he could let him die.

Devlin freed himself and ambushed Shreck, continuing their fight. The pair tumbled over a waterfall, but the battle was only decided when Devlin dumped Shreck in a lake, teeming with piranhas, he offered Shreck his hand, but when it became obvious the killer was taking that he let go, Shreck sank to the bottom. Hours after the fish had departed, scavengers found Shreck's skeleton and prepared to remove the gold fillings in his teeth. Despite the massive damage he'd incurred, Shreck was still alive, rebuilt his body from the men who had found him, it was some time after this that Shreck journeyed through unknown means to Earth-616 and set himself up as the mercenary assassin Terror. He had an unspecified history with a "long-standing series of markers" between them. Terror turned over Mikal Drakonmegas to his demonic father, Beelzeboul, in return for Beelzeboul's contract with Roger Barbatos which had protected Barbatos from Terror's previous attempts to assassinate him. Terror turned against save Drakonmegas.

He destroyed the contract. Terror first appeared as part of the "modern" Marvel Universe w

List of World Heritage Sites in Iran

The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. Iran accepted the convention on 26 February 1975, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list; as of 2019, twenty-four sites in Iran are included. The first three sites in Iran, Meidan Emam, Isfahan and Tchogha Zanbil, were inscribed on the list at the 3rd Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Paris, France in 1979, they remained the Islamic Republic's only listed properties until 2003, when Takht-e Soleyman was added to the list. The latest addition was the Hyrcanian forests, inscribed in 2019. In addition to its inscribed sites, Iran lists more than 50 properties on its tentative list. Site. If available, the size of the buffer zone has been noted as well. A lack of value implies. Nominations for the World Heritage list are only accepted if the site was listed on the tentative list.

As of February 2018, Iran lists fifty-six properties on its tentative list