Dedham DED-əm is a town in and the county seat of Norfolk County, United States. The population was 24,729 at the 2010 census, it is located on Boston's southwest border. On the northwest it is bordered by Needham, on the southwest by Westwood and on the southeast by Canton; the town was first settled by Europeans in 1635. Settled in 1635 by people from Roxbury and Watertown, Dedham was incorporated in 1636, it became the county seat of Norfolk County when the county was formed from parts of Suffolk County on March 26, 1793. When the Town was incorporated, the residents wanted to name it "Contentment." The Massachusetts General Court overruled them and named the town after Dedham, Essex in England, where some of the original inhabitants were born. The boundaries of the town at the time stretched to the Rhode Island border. At the first public meeting on August 15, 1636, eighteen men signed the town covenant, they swore that they would "in the fear and reverence of our Almighty God and severally promise amongst ourselves and each to profess and practice one truth according to that most perfect rule, the foundation whereof is lasting love."
They agreed that "we shall by all means labor to keep off from us all such as are contrary minded, receive only such unto us as may be of one heart with us, as that we either know or may well and be informed to walk in a peaceable conversation with all meekness of spirit, for the edification of each other in the knowledge and faith of the Lord Jesus…" The covenant stipulated that if differences were to arise between townsmen, they would seek arbitration for resolution and each would pay his fair share for the common good. In November 1798, David Brown led a group in Dedham protesting the federal government, it carried the words, "No Stamp Act, No Sedition Act, No Alien Bills, No Land Tax, downfall to the Tyrants of America. Brown was arrested in Andover but because he could not afford the $4,000 bail, he was taken to Salem for trial. Brown was tried in June 1799. Although he wanted to plead guilty, Justice Samuel Chase urged him to name those who had helped him or subscribed to his writings in exchange for freedom.
Brown refused, was fined $480, sentenced to eighteen months in prison. It was the most severe sentence up to imposed under the Alien and Sedition Acts. Dedham is home to the Fairbanks House, the oldest surviving timber-frame house in the United States, scientifically dated to 1637. On January 1, 1643, by unanimous vote, Dedham authorized the first taxpayer-funded public school, "the seed of American education." Its first schoolmaster, Rev. Ralph Wheelock, a Clare College graduate, was paid 20 pounds annually to instruct the youth of the community. Descendants of these students would become presidents of Dartmouth College, Yale University and Harvard University; the first man-made canal in North America, Mother Brook, was created in Dedham in 1639. It linked the Charles River to the Neponset River. Although both are slow-moving rivers, they are at different elevations; the difference in elevation made the canal's current swift enough to power several local mills. In 1818, though citizens were still taxed for the support of ministers and other "public teachers of religion," Dedham set a precedent toward the separation of church and state.
Residents of the town selected a minister different than that chosen by the church members. This decision increased support for the disestablishment of the Congregational churches; the local Endicott Estate burned to the ground in 1904 after the local volunteer fire department, responding to three separate fires burning reached the Endicott fire last. By the time they arrived, only ashes remained, it is said that the estate's owner, Henry Bradford Endicott took the burning of the homestead as a divine command to rebuild. The rebuilt Endicott Estate is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the estate and surrounding grounds are open to the public, upholding Henry's stepdaughter Katherine's wish to use the house and property for "educational, civic and recreational purposes." In 1921, the historic Sacco and Vanzetti trial was held in the Norfolk County Courthouse in Dedham. Dedham Pottery is a cherished class of antiques, characterized by a distinctive crackle glaze, blue-and-white color scheme, a frequent motif of rabbits and other animals.
Dedham is sometimes called the "mother of towns" because 14 present-day communities were included within its original broad borders. Dedham is located at 42°14′40″N 71°9′55″W. On the northeast corner of High Street and Court Street the U. S. Coast & Geodetic Survey, now the U. S. National Geodetic Survey, has placed a small medallion into a granite block showing an elevation of 112.288 feet. Dedham is made up of a number of neighborhoods: In the geographical center of town is Oakdale, it is defined by East Street to the west, Cedar Street to the south and east, Whiting Ave to the north. The houses in the area around Woodleigh Road, declared to be one of the best streets in Greater Boston, have many homes designed by Henry Bailey Alden, who designed the Endicott Estate. Nearby the subdivision consisting of Morse Avenue, Fulton Street, Edison Avenue, is named Whiting Park. Riverdale is an island surrounded by the Charles Long Ditch. Greenlodge runs along the axis of Greenlodge Street and the area between Greenlodge Street a
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials. Groundwater can be extracted using a water well; the study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology. Related terms include aquitard, a bed of low permeability along an aquifer, aquiclude, a solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer. If the impermeable area overlies the aquifer, pressure could cause it to become a confined aquifer. Aquifers may occur at various depths; those closer to the surface are not only more to be used for water supply and irrigation, but are more to be topped up by the local rainfall. Many desert areas have limestone hills or mountains within them or close to them that can be exploited as groundwater resources. Part of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa, the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges between Syria and Lebanon, the Jebel Akhdar in Oman, parts of the Sierra Nevada and neighboring ranges in the United States' Southwest, have shallow aquifers that are exploited for their water.
Overexploitation can lead to the exceeding of the practical sustained yield. Along the coastlines of certain countries, such as Libya and Israel, increased water usage associated with population growth has caused a lowering of the water table and the subsequent contamination of the groundwater with saltwater from the sea. A beach provides a model to help visualize an aquifer. If a hole is dug into the sand wet or saturated sand will be located at a shallow depth; this hole is a crude well, the wet sand represents an aquifer, the level to which the water rises in this hole represents the water table. In 2013 large freshwater aquifers were discovered under continental shelves off Australia, North America and South Africa, they contain an estimated half a million cubic kilometers of "low salinity" water that could be economically processed into potable water. The reserves formed when ocean levels were lower and rainwater made its way into the ground in land areas that were not submerged until the ice age ended 20,000 years ago.
The volume is estimated to be 100 times the amount of water extracted from other aquifers since 1900. The system shows two aquifers with one aquitard between them, surrounded by the bedrock aquiclude, in contact with a gaining stream; the water table and unsaturated zone are illustrated. An aquitard is a zone within the Earth that restricts the flow of groundwater from one aquifer to another. An aquitard can sometimes, if impermeable, be called an aquiclude or aquifuge. Aquitards are composed of layers of either clay or non-porous rock with low hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater can be found at nearly every point in the Earth's shallow subsurface to some degree, although aquifers do not contain fresh water; the Earth's crust can be divided into two regions: the saturated zone or phreatic zone, where all available spaces are filled with water, the unsaturated zone, where there are still pockets of air that contain some water, but can be filled with more water. Saturated means; the definition of the water table is the surface where the pressure head is equal to atmospheric pressure.
Unsaturated conditions occur above the water table where the pressure head is negative and the water that incompletely fills the pores of the aquifer material is under suction. The water content in the unsaturated zone is held in place by surface adhesive forces and it rises above the water table by capillary action to saturate a small zone above the phreatic surface at less than atmospheric pressure; this is not the same as saturation on a water-content basis. Water content in a capillary fringe decreases with increasing distance from the phreatic surface; the capillary head depends on soil pore size. In sandy soils with larger pores, the head will be less than in clay soils with small pores; the normal capillary rise in a clayey soil can range between 0.3 and 10 m. The capillary rise of water in a small-diameter tube involves the same physical process; the water table is the level to which water will rise in a large-diameter pipe that goes down into the aquifer and is open to the atmosphere.
Aquifers are saturated regions of the subsurface that produce an economically feasible quantity of water to a well or spring. An aquitard is a zone within the Earth that restricts the flow of groundwater from one aquifer to another. A impermeable aquitard is called an aquiclude or aquifuge. Aquitards comprise layers of either clay or non-porous rock with low hydraulic conductivity. In mountainous areas, the main aquifers are unconsolidated alluvium, composed of horizontal layers of materials deposited by water processes, which in cross-section appear to be layers of alternating coarse and fine materials. Coarse materials, because of the high energy needed to move them, tend to be found nearer the source, whereas the fine-grained material will make it farther from the source (to the flatter parts of the basin or overbank areas—somet
Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling are similar but the difference is that rowing requires oars to have a mechanical connection with the boat, while paddles are hand-held and have no mechanical connection; this article focuses on the general types of rowing, such as the recreation and the transport rather than the sport of competitive rowing, a specialized case of racing using regulated equipment and a refined technique. In the Ancient World, all major ancient civilizations used rowing for transportation and war.. It was considered a way to advance their civilization during peace; the beginning of rowing is clouded in history but the use of oars in the way they are used today can be traced back to ancient Egypt. Whether it was invented in Egypt or something learned from Mesopotamia via trade is not known. However, archaeologists have recovered a model of a rowing vessel in a tomb dating back to the 18-19th century BC.
From Egypt, rowing vessels galleys, were extensively used in naval warfare and trade in the Mediterranean from classical antiquity onward. Galleys had advantages over sailing ships: they were easier to maneuver, capable of short bursts of speed, able to move independently of the wind. During the classical age of oared galleys, the Greeks dominated the Mediterranean while the Athenians dominated the other Greeks, they used thousands of lower-class citizens to serve as rowers in the fleet. The Classical trireme used 170 rowers. Trireme oarsmen used leather cushions to slide over their seats, which allowed them to use their leg strength as a modern oarsman does with a sliding seat. Galleys had masts and sails, but would lower them at the approach of combat. Greek fleets would leave their sails and masts on shore if possible; the use of oars in rowing instead of paddling came rather late to northern Europe, sometime between 500 BC-1 AD. This change might have been hastened by the Roman conquest of Northern Gaul.
However, between 500-1100 AD, combined sailing and rowing vessels dominated trade and warfare in northern Europe in the time that has come to be known as the Viking Age. Galleys continued to be used in the Mediterranean until the advent of steam propulsion. Rowing was used during war in the ancient world; the victorious in the sea would be those. Because the Greek and the Athenians developed the Trireme, they were able to win against their enemy ships with great speed powered by the 170 oarsmen. In some localities, rear-facing systems prevail. In other localities, forward-facing systems prevail in crowded areas such as in Venice, Italy and in Asian and Indonesian rivers and harbors; this is not an "either-or", because in different situations it's useful to be able to row a boat facing either way. The current emphasis on the health aspects of rowing has resulted in some new mechanical systems being developed, some different from the traditional rowing systems of the past; this is the oldest system used in Europe and North America.
A seated rower pulls on two oars, which lever the boat through the water. The pivot point of the oars is the fulcrum; the motive force is applied through the rower's feet. In traditional rowing craft, the pivot point of the oars is located on the boat's gunwale; the actual fitting that holds the oar may be as simple as one or two pegs or a metal oarlock. In performance rowing craft, the rowlock is extended outboard on a "rigger" to allow the use of a longer oar for increased power. Sculling involves a seated rower who pulls on two oars or sculls, attached to the boat, thereby moving the boat in the direction opposite that which the rower faces. In some multiple-seat boats seated rowers each pull on a single "sweep" oar with both hands. Boats in which the rowers are coordinated by a coxswain are referred to as a "coxed" pair/four/eight. Sometimes sliding seats are used to enable the rower to use the leg muscles increasing the power available. An alternative to the sliding seat, called a sliding rigger, uses a stationary seat and the rower moves the oarlocks with his feet.
On a craft used in Italy, the catamaran moscone, the rower stands and takes advantage of his body weight to increase leverage while sculling. Articulated or bow facing oars have two-piece oars and use a mechanical transmission to reverse the direction of the oar blade, enabling a seated rower to row facing forward with a pulling motion. Push rowing called back-watering if used in a boat not designed for forward motion, uses regular oars with a pushing motion to achieve forward-facing travel, sometimes seated and sometimes standing; this is a convenient method of manoeuvring through a busy harbour. The "Rantilla" system of frontrowing oars uses inboard mounted oarlocks rather than a reversing transmission to achieve forward motion of the boat with a pulling motion on the oars. Another system involves using a single oar extending from the stern of the boat, moved back and forth under water somewhat like a fish tail, such as the Chinese yuloh, by which quite large boats can be moved. Sampans are rowed by foot in Ninh Bình Province of northern Vietnam.
In Venice and other similar flat-bottomed boats are popular forms of transport propelled by oars which are held in place by an open wooden fórcola. The Voga alla Veneta technique of rowing is different from the style used in international sp
A stream is a body of water with surface water flowing within the bed and banks of a channel. The stream encompasses surface and groundwater fluxes that respond to geological, geomorphological and biotic controls. Depending on its location or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to by a variety of local or regional names. Long large streams are called rivers. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, corridors for fish and wildlife migration; the biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity; the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology and is a core element of environmental geography. Brook A stream smaller than a creek one, fed by a spring or seep, it is small and forded. A brook is characterised by its shallowness.
Creek In North America and New Zealand, a small to medium-sized natural stream. Sometimes navigable by motor craft and may be intermittent. In parts of Maryland, New England, the UK and India, a tidal inlet in a salt marsh or mangrove swamp, or between enclosed and drained former salt marshes or swamps. In these cases, the stream is the tidal stream, the course of the seawater through the creek channel at low and high tide. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway. Runnel the linear channel between the parallel ridges or bars on a shoreline beach or river floodplain, or between a bar and the shore. Called a swale. Tributary A contributory stream, or a stream which does not reach a static body of water such as a lake or ocean, but joins another river. Sometimes called a branch or fork. There are a number of regional names for a stream. Allt is used in Highland Scotland. Beck is used in Lincolnshire to Cumbria in areas which were once occupied by the Danes and Norwegians. Bourne or winterbourne is used in the chalk downland of southern England.
Brook. Burn is used in North East England. Gill or ghyll is seen in Surrey influenced by Old Norse; the variant "ghyll" is used in the Lake District and appears to have been an invention of William Wordsworth. Nant is used in Wales. Rivulet is a term encountered in Victorian era publications. Stream Syke is used in lowland Cumbria for a seasonal stream. Branch is used to name streams in Virginia. Creek is common throughout the United States, as well as Australia. Falls is used to name streams in Maryland, for streams/rivers which have waterfalls on them if such falls have a small vertical drop. Little Gunpowder Falls and The Jones Falls are rivers named in this manner, unique to Maryland. Kill in New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey comes from a Dutch language word meaning "riverbed" or "water channel", can be used for the UK meaning of'creek'. Run in Ohio, Michigan, New Jersey, Virginia, or West Virginia can be the name of a stream. Run in Florida is the name given to streams coming out of small natural springs.
River is used for larger springs like the Silver Rainbow River. Stream and brook are used in Midwestern states, Mid-Atlantic states, New England. Bar A shoal that develops in a stream as sediment is deposited as the current slows or is impeded by wave action at the confluence. Bifurcation A fork into two or more streams. Channel A depression created by constant erosion. Confluence The point at which the two streams merge. If the two tributaries are of equal size, the confluence may be called a fork. Drainage basin The area of land. A large drainage basin such as the Amazon River contains many smaller drainage basins. Floodplain Lands adjacent to the stream that are subject to flooding when a stream overflows its banks. Gaging station A site along the route of a stream or river, used for reference marking or water monitoring. Headwaters The part of a stream or river proximate to its source; the word is most used in the plural where there is no single point source. Knickpoint The point on a stream's profile where a sudden change in stream gradient occurs.
Mouth The point at which the stream discharges via an estuary or delta, into a static body of water such as a lake or ocean. Pool A segment where the water is deeper and slower moving. Rapids A turbulent, fast-flowing stretch of a stream or river. Riffle A segment where the flow is shallower and more turbulent. River A large natural stream, which may be a waterway. Run A somewhat smoothly flowing segment of the stream. Source The spring, or other point of origin of a stream. Spring The point at which a stream emerges from an underground course through unconsolidated sediments or through caves. A stream can with caves, flow aboveground for part of its course, underground for part of its course. Stream bed The bottom of a stream. Stream corridor Stream, its floodplains, the transitional upland fringe Streamflow The water moving through a stream channel. Thalweg The river's longitudinal section, or the line joining the deepest point in the channel at each stage from source to mouth. Waterfall or cascade The fall of water where the stream goes over a sudden drop called a knickpoint.
The stream expends kinetic energy in "trying" to eliminate the
Head of the Charles Regatta
The Head Of The Charles Regatta known as HOCR, is a rowing head race held on the penultimate complete weekend of October each year on the Charles River, which separates Boston and Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is the largest 2-day regatta in the world, with 11,000 athletes rowing in over 1,900 boats in 61 events. According to the Greater Boston Convention & Visitors Bureau, the two-day event brings 225,000 people to the Greater Boston area and $72 million to the local economy; the last races of the Regatta are the most prestigious: Championship 4s, Championship 8s. Championship sculling events race on Saturday afternoon; the Championship events include U. S. National Team athletes, as well as national team athletes from other top rowing nations; the competitive field includes individual and team competitors from colleges, high schools, clubs from nearly all American states and various countries. The 2006 field included rowers from China, South Africa, Croatia and the Netherlands; the age of athletes spans from 14 to 85 years old with experience levels from novice to Olympic.
In 2007 10% of the field was international. Regattas such as the Head of the Charles in Boston and the Head of the Schuylkill in Philadelphia are to the rowing world what the New York Marathon and the Boston Marathon are to running; the course is 3 miles long and stretches from the start at Boston University's DeWolfe Boathouse near the Charles River Basin to the finish just after the Eliot Bridge and before Northeastern University's Henderson Boathouse. The course is renowned for being challenging for crews to navigate without penalty; the course contains 6 bridges, which appear in this order from the start: The Weeks and Eliot Bridges fall at sharp turns in the course, collisions occur here more than any other part of the course. Crews start the race at 15-second intervals; the starting order is based on the crew's finishing time in the previous year, with the top finisher from the prior year leaving first, the second finisher leaving second, so on. Crews that did not compete in the prior year are seeded after all prior year entrants in a random order, although race organizers have some discretion in the seeding process.
Having faster crews start ahead of slower crews reduces the amount of passing boats must make during the race, reducing the potential for boating accidents. However, passing always occurs, penalties are imposed on crews that do not follow passing regulations, such as failing to yield to a boat that closes to within one boat length of open water; the Head of the Charles Regatta was first organized in 1965 by Cambridge Boat Club members D'Arcy MacMahon, Howard McIntyre, Jack Vincent. The members of the boat club thought that a fall regatta would be an entertaining way to break up the monotony of the training season for colleges and boat clubs in the area. D'Arcy MacMahon had been the captain of the University of Pennsylvania's lightweight varsity three seasons earlier, they had little hope the regatta would be a success, it was the wrong time of year and it wasn't expected to draw any spectators. Harvard University sculling instructor Ernest Arlett provided the idea for the head race. George Ernest Arlett came to the US.
When Arlett brought Northeastern University's rowing team to Henley Royal Regatta and the team members were invited, the team entered by the front door and Mr. Arlett still had to enter by the rear or servants door. Class snobbery or pedigree was still in force. Despite their reservations, the founders of the regatta were determined to see it become a success. In an interview with New York Times, Jerry Olrich and MacMahon identified that this regatta was "destined to become a classic"The Regatta expanded to a two-day event in 1997. In 1991, Frederick V. Schoch was appointed Executive Director of the Regatta, he continues to oversee the event. Since 1998, the Head of the Charles Regatta's Charity Program has generated over $1,000,000 for its official charities, which include Cambridge Community Foundation and Community Rowing, Inc; the Charity Program allows competitors to gain an automatic entry into the Regatta in exchange for raising $1250 per person, per entry. Under official rules, any single, four, or eight is eligible to enter.
First place medals are awarded to winning competitors in each event category of the race. The first place medals are struck bronze medallions, they show a single sculler from above on the front, are engraved with the year and event on the back. Only the first place medals are distributed at the Regatta on Saturday and Sunday evenings following the races. Medals for second and third place medallions are of the same design, but are 1.75 inches in diameter. The Regatta issues additional medals according to the number of entries in the race as well. For instance, in a race with 50 competitors, 5 medals are issued. Special medals are issued to the most competitive Youth scullers. Head of the Charles Regatta Row2k Head of the Charles coverage Live Video Webcasts of the Head of the Charles Regatta on NESports.tv a division of Bullpen Media HOCR and The Rowing Channel
Wellesley is a town in Norfolk County, United States. Wellesley is part of Greater Boston; the population was 27,982 at the time of the 2010 census. In 2008, Wellesley had family incomes in all of Massachusetts. In 2018, data from the American Community Survey revealed that Wellesley was the 7th wealthiest city in the United States, it is best known as the home of Wellesley College, Babson College, a campus of Massachusetts Bay Community College. Wellesley was settled in the 1630s as part of Massachusetts, it was subsequently a part of Needham, Massachusetts called Massachusetts. On October 23, 1880, West Needham residents voted to secede from Needham, the town of Wellesley was christened by the Massachusetts legislature on April 6, 1881; the town was named after the estate of local benefactor Horatio Hollis Hunnewell. Wellesley's population grew by over 80 percent during the 1920s; the town designated Cottage Street and its nearby alleys as the historic district in its zoning plan. Most houses in this district were built around the 1860s and qualify as protected buildings certified by the town's historic commission.
Wellesley is located in eastern Massachusetts. It is bordered on the east by Newton, on the north by Weston, on the south by Needham and Dover and on the west by Natick. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 10.49 square miles, of which 10.18 square miles is land and 0.32 square miles is water. The town's historic 19th century inn was demolished to make way for condominiums and mixed-use development in 2006; the Wellesley Country Club clubhouse, the building where the town was founded, was demolished in 2008, a new clubhouse was built. The town's pre-World War II high school building was torn down & replaced, with a brand new high school finished in 2012; the entire 1960s-style Linden Street strip-mall has been replaced by "Linden Square" – a shopping district that includes a flagship Roche Bros. supermarket, cafes, clothing stores, along with a mixture of national chains and local shops. The Census Bureau has defined the town as a census-designated place with an area equivalent to the town.
As of the census of 2000, there were 26,613 people, 8,594 households, 6,540 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,614.1 people per square mile. There were 8,861 housing units at an average density of 870.4 per square mile. According to a 2007 Census Bureau estimate, the racial makeup of the town was 84.6% White, 10.0% Asian, 2.2% Black, 0.01% Native American, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 8,594 households out of which 39.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.2% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.9% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.14. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 13.9% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.1 males. The median income for a household was $159,167, the median income for a family was $186,518; the per capita income in the town was $72,046. About 2.4% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.0% of those under age 18 and 2.1% of those age 65 or over. According to Boston Magazine's yearly "Best Places To Live", Wellesley ranks first in the United States in percentage of adults who hold at least one college degree. Over 66% of the households have at least one individual holding an advanced degree beyond a bachelor's degree. In 2009, Wellesley ranked #2 in "America's Most Educated Small Towns" according to Forbes.com. Wellesley was ranked number 31 on the Bloomberg list of America's 100 Richest Places with an average household income of $264,145 in 2016; the town government has been run by town meeting since the town's founding.
Since Proposition 2½ limited property tax increases to 2.5% per year in 1980, the town has had to ask residents for a number of overrides to maintain funding for certain programs. Although the main 2005 override passed, a simultaneous supplemental override to preserve certain specific programs and services failed by 17 votes; the 2006 override passed with a large majority. Wellesley receives funding from the state government. Local roads have been repaved several times in the 2000s. Wellesley opened its new Free Library building in 2003, part of the Minuteman Library Network. Due to the structure of budget override votes and the size of the new main branch of the library, the two branch libraries—one in Wellesley Hills, purpose-built to be a branch library in the 1920s, another in Wellesley Fells—closed in the summer of 2006; the branch libraries reopened in September 2008. On December 18, 2014, Wellesley College and the Town of Wellesley announced that the College's Board of Trustees had chosen the Town's $35M bid for the purchase of 46 acres of land adjacent to its campus.
Under this agreement, at least 50% of the North 40 property will be preserved in perpetuity as open space. A special town meeting in January 2015 resulted in a near-unanimous vote in favor of the purchase, in March 2015, 80 percent of residents that cast votes at the Town election, voted to approve the purchase. Wellesley is serviced by the Wel
A dragon boat is a human-powered watercraft originating from the Pearl River Delta region of China's southern Guangdong Province. These were made of teak, it is one of a family of traditional paddled long boats found throughout Asia, the Pacific islands, Puerto Rico. The sport of dragon boat racing has its roots in an ancient folk ritual of contending villagers, which dates back 2000 years throughout southern China, further to the original games of Olympia in ancient Greece. Both dragon boat racing and the ancient Olympiad included aspects of religious observances and community celebrations, along with competition. Dragon boat racing is a canoe-sport, began as a modern international sport in Hong Kong in 1976; these boats are made of carbon fiber and other lightweight materials. For competition events, dragon boats are rigged with decorative Chinese dragon heads and tails. At other times, decorative regalia is removed, although the drum remains aboard for drummers to practice. For races, there are 18-20 people in a standard boat, 8-10 in a small boat, not including the steersperson and the drummer.
In December 2007, the central government of the People's Republic of China added Duanwu, along with Qingming and Mid-Autumn festivals, to the schedule of national holidays. Similar to the use of outrigger canoes or Polynesian va'a, dragon boat racing has a rich fabric of ancient ceremonial and religious traditions, thus, the modern competitive aspect is but one small part of this complex dragon boat culture; the use of dragon boats for racing and dragons are believed by scholars and anthropologists to have originated in southern central China more than 2500 years ago, in Dongting Lake and along the banks of the Chang Jiang during the same era when the games of ancient Greece were being established at Olympia. Dragon boat racing has been practiced continuously since this period as the basis for annual water rituals and festival celebrations, for the traditional veneration of the Chinese dragon water deity; the celebration was an important part of the ancient Chinese agricultural society, celebrating the summer rice planting.
Dragon boat racing was situated in the Chinese subcontinent's southern-central "rice bowl". Of the twelve animals which make up the traditional Chinese zodiac, only the Dragon is a mythical creature. All the rest are non-mythical animals, yet all twelve of the zodiac creatures were well known to members of ancient Chinese agrarian communities. Dragons were traditionally believed to be the rulers of water on earth: rivers and seas. There are earth dragons, mountain dragons, sky or celestial dragons in Chinese tradition. Mythical dragons and serpents are found in many cultures around the world. Traditional dragon boat racing, in China, coincides with the 5th day of the 5th Chinese lunar month; the summer solstice occurs around 21 June and is the reason why Chinese refer to their festival as "Duan Wu" or "Duen Ng". Both the sun and the dragon are considered to be male; the sun and the dragon are at their most potent during this time of the year, so cause for observing this through ritual celebrations such as dragon boat racing.
It is the time of year when rice seedlings must be transplanted in their paddy fields to allow for wet rice cultivation. Wu or Ng refers to the sun at its highest position in the sky during the day, the meridian of'high noon'. Duan or Duen refers to upright or directly overhead. Thus, Duan Wu is an ancient reference to the maximum position of the sun in the northern hemisphere, the longest day of the year or the summer solstice. Venerating the dragon deity was meant to avert misfortune and calamity and encourage rainfall, needed for the fertility of the crops and thus, for the prosperity of an agrarian way of life. Celestial dragons were the controllers of rain, monsoons and clouds; the Emperor was "The Dragon" or the "Son of Heaven", Chinese people refer to themselves as "dragons" because of its spirit of strength and vitality. Unlike dragons in European mythology, which are considered to be evil and demonic, Asian dragons are regarded as wholesome and benevolent, thus worthy of veneration, not slaying.
If rainfall is insufficient, however and famine can result. Veneration of dragons in China seems to be associated with annually ensuring life-giving water and bountiful rice harvests in south-central China. Another ritual called Awakening of the Dragon involves a Daoist priest dotting the bulging eyes of the carved dragon head attached to the boat. Doing so symbolizes qi. In modern dragon boat festivals, a representative can be invited to step forward to dot the eyes on a dragon boat head with a brush dipped in red paint. Not understanding the significance of Duanwu, 19th-century European observers of the racing ritual referred to the spectacle as a "dragon boat festival"; this is the term. Dragon boat racing, like Duanwu, is observed and celebrated in many areas of east Asia with a significant population of ethnic Chinese such as Singapore and the Riau Islands, as well as having been adopted by the Ryukyu Islands since ancient times; the date on which races were held is referred to as the "double fifth", since