George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother Queen Victoria, George was third in the line of succession behind his father, Prince Albert Edward, his own elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. From 1877 to 1891, George served in the Royal Navy, until the unexpected death of his elder brother in early 1892 put him directly in line for the throne. On the death of his grandmother in 1901, George's father ascended the throne as Edward VII, George was created Prince of Wales, he became king-emperor on his father's death in 1910. George V's reign saw the rise of socialism, fascism, Irish republicanism, the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape; the Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. As a result of the First World War, the empires of his first cousins Nicholas II of Russia and Wilhelm II of Germany fell, while the British Empire expanded to its greatest effective extent.
In 1917, George became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which he renamed from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a result of anti-German public sentiment. In 1924 he appointed the first Labour ministry and in 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the dominions of the Empire as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations, he had smoking-related health problems throughout much of his reign and at his death was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII. George was born on 3 June 1865, in London, he was the second son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, Alexandra, Princess of Wales. His father was the eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, his mother was the eldest daughter of King Christian IX and Queen Louise of Denmark, he was baptised at Windsor Castle on 7 July 1865 by the Archbishop of Charles Longley. As a younger son of the Prince of Wales, there was little expectation, he was third in line after his father and elder brother, Prince Albert Victor.
George was only 17 months younger than Albert Victor, the two princes were educated together. John Neale Dalton was appointed as their tutor in 1871. Neither Albert Victor nor George excelled intellectually; as their father thought that the navy was "the best possible training for any boy", in September 1877, when George was 12 years old, both brothers joined the cadet training ship HMS Britannia at Dartmouth, Devon. For three years from 1879, the royal brothers served on HMS Bacchante, accompanied by Dalton, they toured the colonies of the British Empire in the Caribbean, South Africa and Australia, visited Norfolk, Virginia, as well as South America, the Mediterranean and East Asia. In 1881 on a visit to Japan, George had a local artist tattoo a blue and red dragon on his arm, was received in an audience by the Emperor Meiji. Dalton wrote an account of their journey entitled The Cruise of HMS Bacchante. Between Melbourne and Sydney, Dalton recorded a sighting of the Flying Dutchman, a mythical ghost ship.
When they returned to Britain, Queen Victoria complained that her grandsons could not speak French or German, so they spent six months in Lausanne in an unsuccessful attempt to learn another language. After Lausanne, the brothers were separated, he travelled the world. During his naval career he commanded Torpedo Boat 79 in home waters HMS Thrush on the North America station, before his last active service in command of HMS Melampus in 1891–92. From on, his naval rank was honorary; as a young man destined to serve in the navy, Prince George served for many years under the command of his uncle, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, stationed in Malta. There, he fell in love with his cousin, Princess Marie, his grandmother and uncle all approved the match, but the mothers—the Princess of Wales and the Duchess of Edinburgh—opposed it. The Princess of Wales thought the family was too pro-German, the Duchess of Edinburgh disliked England. Marie's mother was the only daughter of Tsar Alexander II of Russia.
She resented the fact that, as the wife of a younger son of the British sovereign, she had to yield precedence to George's mother, the Princess of Wales, whose father had been a minor German prince before being called unexpectedly to the throne of Denmark. Guided by her mother, Marie refused George, she married Ferdinand, the future King of Romania, in 1893. In November 1891, George's elder brother, Albert Victor, became engaged to his second cousin once removed, Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, known as "May" within the family. May's father, Prince Francis, Duke of Teck, belonged to a morganatic, cadet branch of the house of Württemberg, her mother, Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, was a male-line granddaughter of King George III and a first cousin of Queen Victoria. On 14 January 1892, six weeks after the formal engagement, Albert Victor died of pneumonia, leaving George second in line to the throne, to succeed after his father. George had only just recovered from a serious illness himself, after being confined to bed for six weeks with typhoid fever, the disease, thought to have killed his grandfather Prince Albert.
Queen Victoria still regarded Princess May as a suitable match for her grandson, George and May grew close during their shared perio
Frederick Spencer, 4th Earl Spencer
Vice-Admiral Frederick Spencer, 4th Earl Spencer KG, CB, PC, styled The Honourable Frederick Spencer until 1845, was a British naval commander and Whig politician. He served in the Royal Navy and fought in the Napoleonic Wars and the Greek War of Independence rising to the rank of Vice-Admiral, he succeeded his elder brother as Earl Spencer in 1845 and held political office as Lord Chamberlain of the Household between 1846 and 1848 and as Lord Steward of the Household between 1854 and 1857. In 1849 he was made a Knight of the Garter. Through his second son, Lord Spencer was the great-great-grandfather of Diana, Princess of Wales, the three-times-great-grandfather of future British Monarch Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, the four-times-great-grandfather of William's son, Prince George. Spencer was born at the Admiralty Building, the fifth son of George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer, Lady Lavinia Bingham, daughter of Charles Bingham, 1st Earl of Lucan, he was the younger brother of 3rd Earl Spencer.
He was baptised in St Martin-in-the-Fields and educated at Eton from 1808 to 1811. Spencer joined the Royal Navy as a midshipman on 18 September 1811, fought in the Napoleonic Wars in the Mediterranean between 1811 and 1815, he served for a time under his brother, Captain the Hon. Robert Cavendish Spencer as a lieutenant aboard his ship HMS Owen Glendower, before receiving his own command, that of the brig HMS Alacrity on the South America Station, he was promoted to the rank of captain on 26 August 1822. During the Greek War of Independence he commanded HMS Talbot at the Battle of Navarino on 20 October 1827 and was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in November of that year; the following year he fought with the Naval Brigade in the Morea expedition. For his actions he was made a Knight of the Order of St Louis of France and awarded the Order of St Anne of Russia and the Order of the Redeemer of Greece. Spencer retired from naval life and was elected Whig Member of Parliament for Worcestershire in 1831.
He held this seat until 1832 and represented Midhurst between 1832 and 1834 and again between 1837 and 1841. He was an equerry in the household of the Duchess of Kent from 1840 to 1845; the latter year he succeeded his elder brother in the earldom and took his seat in the House of Lords. When the Whigs came to power under Lord John Russell in 1846, Lord Spencer was appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household, he was sworn of the Privy Council the same year. He resigned as Lord Chamberlain in 1848 but returned to the government as Lord Steward of the Household in early 1854 under Lord Aberdeen, a post he held until shortly before his death in 1857, the last two years under the premiership of Lord Palmerston, he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1849. He was promoted to Rear-Admiral in 1852 and to Vice-Admiral in 1857. Lord Spencer was twice married, he married firstly his cousin, Georgiana Poyntz, on 23 February 1830. They had three children: Lady Georgiana Frances Spencer, died unmarried. John Poyntz Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer.
Lady Sarah Isabella Spencer, died unmarried. After Georgiana's death in 1851 he married, Adelaide Horatia Seymour, daughter of Sir Horace Seymour and a great-granddaughter of Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Marquess of Hertford, on 9 August 1854, they had two children: Lady Victoria Alexandrina Spencer, married William Mansfield, 1st Viscount Sandhurst, had issue. Charles Robert Spencer, 6th Earl Spencer. Lord Spencer died at the family seat at Althorp, Northamptonshire, in December 1857, aged 59, was succeeded in the earldom by his only son from his first marriage, who became a prominent Liberal politician. Spencer's son from his second marriage, who succeeded in the earldom in 1910, was a successful Liberal politician, he was the great-great-grandfather of Princess of Wales. The Countess Spencer died at Guilsborough, Northamptonshire, in October 1877, aged 52. O'Byrne, William Richard. "Spencer, Frederick". A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray – via Wikisource. J. K. Laughton, "Spencer, Sir Robert Cavendish", rev.
Andrew Lambert, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 28 April 2009 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Frederick Spencer, 4th Earl Spencer
Order of the Rising Sun
The Order of the Rising Sun is a Japanese order, established in 1875 by Emperor Meiji. The Order was the first national decoration awarded by the Japanese government, created on 10 April 1875 by decree of the Council of State; the badge features rays of sunlight from the rising sun. The design of the Rising Sun symbolizes energy as powerful as the rising sun in parallel with the "rising sun" concept of Japan; the order is awarded to those who have made distinguished achievements in international relations, promotion of Japanese culture, advancements in their field, development in welfare or preservation of the environment. Prior to the end of World War II, it was awarded for exemplary military service. Beginning in 2003, the two lowest rankings for the Order of the Rising Sun were abolished, with the highest degree becoming a separate order known as the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, with the single rank of Grand Cordon. While it is the third highest order bestowed by the Japanese government, it is however the highest ordinarily conferred order.
The highest Japanese order, the Order of the Chrysanthemum, is reserved for heads of state or royalty, while the second highest order, the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, is reserved for politicians. The modern version of this honour has been conferred on non-Japanese recipients beginning in 1981; the awarding of the Order is administered by the Decoration Bureau of the Cabinet Office headed by the Japanese Prime Minister. It can be awarded posthumously; the Order was awarded in nine classes until 2003, when the Grand Cordon with Paulownia Flowers was made a separate order, the lowest two classes were abolished. Since it has been awarded in six classes. Conventionally, a diploma is prepared to accompany the insignia of the order, in some rare instances, the personal signature of the Emperor will have been added; as an illustration of the wording of the text, a translation of a representative 1929 diploma says: By the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial, We confer the Second Class of the Imperial Order of Meiji upon Henry Waters Taft, a citizen of the United States of America and a director of the Japan Society of New York, invest him with the insignia of the same class of the Order of the Double Rays of the Rising Sun, in expression of the good will which we entertain towards him.
In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hand and caused the Grand Seal of State to be affixed at the Imperial Palace, this thirteenth day of the fifth month of the fourth year of Shōwa, corresponding to the 2,589th year from the accession to the throne of Emperor Jimmu." The star for the Grand Cordon and Second Class is a silver star of eight points, each point having three alternating silver rays. It is worn on the right chest for the 2nd Class; the badge for the Grand Cordon to Sixth Classes is an eight-pointed badge bearing a central red enamelled sun disc, with gilt points, with four gilt and four silver points, or with silver points. It is suspended from three enamelled paulownia leaves on a ribbon in white with red border stripes, worn as a sash from the right shoulder for the Grand Cordon, as a necklet for the 2nd and 3rd Classes and on the left chest for the 4th to 6th Classes; the badge for the Seventh and Eighth Classes consisted of a silver medal in the shape of three paulownia leaves, enamelled for the 7th Class and plain for the 8th Class.
Both were suspended on a ribbon, again in white with red border stripes, worn on the left chest. Both classes were abolished in 2003 and replaced by the Order of the Paulownia Flowers, a single-class order that now ranks above the Order of the Rising Sun. Henry Hajimu Fujii, 1971 Bolesław Orliński, 1926 Fudeko Reekie, 2013 John Wilson, 1895 In 2003, the 7th and 8th levels – named for leaves of the Paulownia tree, long used as a mon for the highest levels of Japanese society – were moved to a new and distinct order, the single-class Order of the Paulownia Flowers. Tetsuzō Iwamoto 1942 Leonard Kubiak 1926 In 2003, the 7th and 8th levels – named for leaves of the Paulownia tree, long used as a mon for the highest levels of Japanese society – were moved to a new and distinct order, the single-class Order of the Paulownia Flowers. Order of Civil Merit Order of Chula Chom Klao and Order of the White Elephant Order of St. Michael and St. George Legion of Honour Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" Order of Isabella the Catholic Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria Order of Prince Henry Peterson, James W. Barry C. Weaver and Michael A. Quigley.
Orders and Medals of Japan and Associated States. San Ramon, California: Orders and Medals Society of America. ISBN 1-890974-09-9. Japan, Cabinet Office: Decorations and Medals Decoration Bureau: Order of the Rising Sun Japan Mint: Production Process
Volunteer Officers' Decoration
The Volunteer Officers' Decoration, post-nominal letters VD, was instituted in 1892 as an award for long and meritorious service by officers of the United Kingdom's Volunteer Force. Award of the decoration was discontinued in the United Kingdom when it was superseded by the Territorial Decoration in 1908, but it continued to be awarded in some Crown Dependencies until 1930; the grant of the decoration was extended in 1894 by the institution of a separate new decoration, the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies, that could be awarded to commissioned officers of all Volunteer Forces throughout the British Empire and India. The Volunteer Officers' Decoration, post-nominal letters VD and colloquially known as the Volunteer Decoration, was instituted by Queen Victoria's Royal Warrant on 25 July 1892; the decoration could be awarded to efficient and capable officers of proven capacity for long and meritorious service in the part-time Volunteer Force of the United Kingdom. The qualifying period of service was twenty years.
Half of any previous service in the Regular Army counted towards qualification. The award did not confer any individual precedence, but entitled the recipient to use the post-nominal letters VD. Recipients had to have been recommended for the award by the Commanding Officer of their Corps, duly certified by the District Military Authorities in which the Corps was located as having been efficient and capable officers, in every way deserving of such a decoration. In order to preserve the purity of the decoration, the name of any person on whom it had been conferred, subsequently convicted of any act derogatory to his honour as an officer and gentleman, was erased from the registry of individuals upon whom the decoration had been conferred; the Volunteer Officers' Decoration could be conferred upon any of the Princes of the Royal Family of Great Britain and Ireland. On 24 May 1894 the grant of the decoration was extended by Royal Warrant to commissioned officers of Volunteer Forces throughout the British Empire, defined as being India, the Dominion of Canada, the Crown Colonies and the Crown Dependencies.
A separate new decoration was instituted, the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies. This decoration was similar in design to the Volunteer Officers' Decoration, but bore the Royal Cypher "VRI" instead of "VR". So, some Crown Dependencies awarded the Volunteer Officers' Decoration instead of the Colonial version, until the Efficiency Decoration was instituted in September 1930. In the order of wear prescribed by the British Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood, the Volunteer Officers' Decoration takes precedence after the Army Emergency Reserve Decoration and before the Volunteer Long Service Medal; the decoration is an oval skeletal design and was struck in silver, with parts of the obverse in silver-gilt. It is 35.5 millimetres wide with a ring suspender formed of silver wire. ObverseThe obverse is an oak leaf wreath in silver, tied with gold, with the Royal Cypher below the Royal Crown, both in gold, in the centre. ReverseThe reverse is plain with the hallmarks impressed at the bottom.
The decoration was awarded unnamed, but was unofficially engraved in various styles. RibbonThe ribbon is dark green and 1 1⁄2 inches in width and is suspended from a silver bar-brooch decorated with an oak leaf pattern. Three versions of the decoration were struck; the original version of 1892 had the Royal Cypher "VR" of Queen Victoria below the Royal Crown in the centre. The King Edward VII version, with his Royal Cypher "ER VII", was introduced after his succession to the throne in 1901 and ceased to be awarded to officers of the United Kingdom's Volunteer Force when it was superseded by the Territorial Decoration in 1908, it appears to have continued to be awarded in some Crown Dependencies until 1910. The King George V version, with his Royal Cypher "GVR", was introduced after his succession to the throne in 1910; this version appears to have only been awarded in some Crown Dependencies, instead of the Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies. The Volunteer Force was the precursor of the Territorial Force, established in the United Kingdom in 1908.
At the same time, award of the Volunteer Officers' Decoration was discontinued in the United Kingdom and superseded by the new Territorial Decoration. The Volunteer Officers' Decoration continued to be awarded in some Crown Dependencies until the Efficiency Decoration was instituted in September 1930. Bermuda was the last Dependency to award the decoration in 1930
The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom, supervising the departments which support and provide advice to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom while acting as the main channel of communication between the Sovereign and the House of Lords. The office organises all ceremonial activity such as garden parties, state visits, royal weddings, the State Opening of Parliament, they handle the Royal Mews and Royal Travel, as well as the ceremony around the awarding of honours. For over 230 years, the Lord Chamberlain position had the power to decide which plays would be granted a licence for performance, from 1737 to 1968, which meant that the Lord Chamberlain had the capacity to censor theatre at his pleasure; the Lord Chamberlain is always sworn of the Privy Council, is a peer and before 1782 the post was of Cabinet rank. The position was a political one until 1924; the office dates from the Middle Ages when the King's Chamberlain acted as the King's spokesman in Council and Parliament.
The current Lord Chamberlain is The Earl Peel, in office since 16 October 2006. During the early modern period, the Lord Chamberlain was one of the three principal officers of the Royal Household, the others being the Lord Steward and the Master of the Horse; the Lord Chamberlain was responsible for the "chamber" or the household "above stairs": that is, the series of rooms used by the Sovereign to receive select visitors, terminating in the royal bedchamber. His department not only furnished the servants and other personnel in intimate attendance on the Sovereign but arranged and staffed ceremonies and entertainments for the court, he had authority over the Chapel Royal, through the reabsorption of the Wardrobe into the Chamber, was responsible for the Office of Works, the Jewel House, other functions more removed from the Sovereign's person, many of which were reorganized and removed from the Chamberlain's purview in 1782. As other responsibilities of government were devolved to ministers, the ordering of the Royal Household was left to the personal taste of the Sovereign.
To ensure that the chamber reflected the royal tastes, the Lord Chamberlain received commands directly from the sovereign to be transmitted to the heads of subordinate departments. In 1594, the Lord Chamberlain, Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon, founded the Lord Chamberlain's Men, for which William Shakespeare was a part and for whom he wrote most of his plays during his career. Carey served under Elizabeth I of England at the time and was in charge of all court entertainment, a duty traditionally given to the Master of the Revels, a deputy of the Lord Chamberlain. In 1603, James I of England, elevated the Chamberlain's Men to royal patronage and changed the name to the King's Men. In 1737, Sir Robert Walpole introduced statutory censorship with the Licensing Act of 1737 by appointing the Lord Chamberlain to act as the theatrical censor; the Licensing Act 1737 gave the Lord Chamberlain the statutory authority to veto the performance of any new plays: he could prevent any new play, or any modification to an existing play, from being performed for any reason, theatre owners could be prosecuted for staging a play that had not received prior approval.
Though, the Lord Chamberlain had been exercising a commanding authority on London's theatre companies under the Royal Prerogative for many decades already. But by the 1730s the theatre was not controlled by royal patronage anymore. Instead it had become more of a commercial business. Therefore, the fact the Lord Chamberlain still retained censorship authority for the next 200 years gave him uniquely repressive authority during a period where Britain was experiencing "growing political enfranchisement and liberalization". Further confusion rested in the fact that Members of Parliament could not present changes to the censorship laws because although the Lord Chamberlain exercised his authority under statute law, he was still an official whose authority was derived from the Royal Prerogative. By the 1830s, it started to become clear that the theatre licensing system in England needed an upgrade. Playwrights, instead of representatives of minor theatres initiated the final push for reform as they felt that their livelihoods were being negatively affected by the monopoly the larger theatres had on the industry, backed by the laws in the 1737 Act.
A Select Committee was formed in 1832 with the purpose of examining the laws that affected dramatic literature. Their main complaints were the lack of copyright protection for their work and more that only two patent theatres in London could legitimately perform new plays. After more pressure from playwrights and theatre managers, the findings of the committee were presented to Parliament, it was the proposals of this committee that Parliament implemented in the Theatres Act of 1843. The Act still confirmed the absolute powers of censorship enjoyed by the Lord Chamberlain but still restricted his powers so that he could only prohibit the performance of plays where he was of the opinion that "it is fitting for the preservation of good manners, decorum or of the public peace so to do". However, the Act did abolish the monopoly that the patent houses had in London providing a minor win for playwrights and theatre managers wishing to produce new work. In 1909, a Joint Select Committee on Stage Plays was established and recommended that the Lord Chamberlain should conti
Edward Villiers, 5th Earl of Clarendon
Edward Hyde Villiers, 5th Earl of Clarendon, styled Lord Hyde between 1846 and 1870, was a British Liberal Unionist politician from the Villiers family. He served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household between 1900 and 1905. Clarendon was the second but eldest surviving son of the prominent Liberal statesman George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon and his wife Lady Katherine Grimston, daughter of James Grimston, 1st Earl of Verulam, he was educated at Cambridge. Clarendon was elected to Parliament for Brecon in 1869, a seat he retained until the following year, when he succeeded his father in the earldom and took his seat in the House of Lords. In 1895 he was appointed a Lord-in-waiting in the Unionist administration of Lord Salisbury, a position he held until 1900, when he was promoted to Lord Chamberlain of the Household and admitted to the Privy Council, he retained this office when Arthur Balfour became Prime Minister in 1902. The government fell in December 1905 and Clarendon was never to return to office.
Apart from his political career Lord Clarendon was Lord-Lieutenant of Hertfordshire from 1893 to 1914. Clarendon made one known appearance in first-class cricket for Cambridge University in 1865, he was a roundarm fast bowler. Four of his uncles James, Edward and Francis Grimston all played first-class cricket, as did his cousin Walter Grimston. Between 1890 and 1896, Lord Clarendon was a member of the Football Committee at West Hertfordshire Sports Club, chairing some of the meetings. During this period the club won three Herts Senior Cups in four years, not entering it in the other year; this football team was to become known as Watford Football Club. Lord Clarendon married firstly, Lady Caroline Agar, daughter of James Agar, 3rd Earl of Normanton, on 6 September 1876. After his first wife's death in 1894 he married secondly, Emma Hatch, on 5 August 1908. By his first marriage he had two children: George Herbert Hyde Villiers, 6th Earl of Clarendon Lady Edith Villiers Lord Clarendon died in October 1914, aged 68, was succeeded in the earldom by his only son George.
He was sculpted by Mary Pownall c.1900. British honoursGCB: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath – 24 October 1902 – announced in the 1902 Coronation Honours list on 26 June 1902, invested by King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 24 October 1902. GCVO: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order in 1905Foreign honours Kingdom of Prussia: Knight 1st class of the Order of the Red Eagle – 1899 – in connection with the visit of Emperor Wilhelm II to the United Kingdom. 1846: The Honourable Edward H. Villiers 1846–1869: Lord Hyde 1869–1870: Lord Hyde MP 1870–1900: The Right Honourable The Earl of Clarendon 1900–1902: The Right Honourable The Earl of Clarendon PC 1902–1905: The Right Honourable The Earl of Clarendon GCB PC 1905–1914: The Right Honourable The Earl of Clarendon GCB GCVO PC Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Clarendon CricketArchive record
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website