Charles Stewart Parnell

Charles Stewart Parnell was an Irish nationalist politician who served as Leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party from 1882 to 1891 and Leader of the Home Rule League from 1880 to 1882. He served as a Member of Parliament from 1875 to 1891, his party held the balance of power in the House of Commons during the Home Rule debates of 1885–1890. Born into a powerful Anglo-Irish Protestant landowning family, he was a land reform agitator, founder in 1879 of the Irish National Land League, he became leader of the Home Rule League, operating independently of the Liberal Party, winning great influence by his balancing of constitutional and economic issues, by his skillful use of parliamentary procedure. He was imprisoned in Kilmainham Gaol, Dublin, in 1882, but he was released when he renounced violent extra-Parliamentary action; the same year, he reformed the Home Rule League as the Irish Parliamentary Party, which he controlled minutely as Britain's first disciplined democratic party. The hung parliament of 1885 saw him hold the balance of power between William Gladstone's Liberal Party and Lord Salisbury's Conservative Party.

His power was one factor in Gladstone's adoption of Home Rule as the central tenet of the Liberal Party. His reputation peaked from 1889 to 1890, when letters published in The Times linking him to the Phoenix Park killings of 1882 were shown to have been forged by Richard Pigott. However, the Irish Parliamentary Party split in 1890 after the revelation of Parnell's long adulterous love affair, causing many British Liberals to refuse to work with him, strong opposition from Catholic bishops, he headed a small minority faction until his death in 1891. Parnell is celebrated as the best organiser of a political party up to that time, one of the most formidable figures in parliamentary history. Many believe that Home Rule could have been achieved without bloodshed, if he had not been brought down by personal circumstances. Charles Stewart Parnell was born in County Wicklow, he was the third son and seventh child of John Henry Parnell, a wealthy Anglo-Irish Anglican landowner, his American wife Delia Tudor Stewart of Bordentown, New Jersey, daughter of the American naval hero, Admiral Charles Stewart.

There were eleven children in all: six girls. Admiral Stewart's mother, Parnell's great-grandmother, belonged to the Tudor family, so Parnell had a distant relationship with the British Royal Family. John Henry Parnell himself was a cousin of one of Ireland's leading aristocrats, Viscount Powerscourt, the grandson of a Chancellor of the Exchequer in Grattan's Parliament, Sir John Parnell, who lost office in 1799, when he opposed the Act of Union; the Parnells of Avondale were descended from a Protestant English merchant family, which came to prominence in Congleton, early in the 17th century where as Baron Congleton two generations held the office of Mayor of Congleton before moving to Ireland. The family produced a number of notable figures, including Thomas Parnell, the Irish poet, Henry Parnell, 1st Baron Congleton, the Irish politician. Parnell's grandfather William Parnell, who inherited the Avondale Estate in 1795, was an Irish liberal Party MP for Wicklow from 1817–1820. Thus, from birth, Charles Stewart Parnell possessed an extraordinary number of links to many elements of society.

Parnell belonged to the Church of Ireland, disestablished in 1868 though in years he began to drop away from formal church attendance. Yet it was as a leader of Irish Nationalism. Parnell's parents separated when he was six, as a boy he was sent to different schools in England, where he spent an unhappy youth, his father died in 1859 and he inherited the Avondale estate, while his older brother John inherited another estate in County Armagh. The young Parnell studied at Magdalene College, Cambridge but, due to the troubled financial circumstances of the estate he inherited, he was absent a great deal and never completed his degree. In 1871, he joined his elder brother John Howard Parnell, who farmed in Alabama, on an extended tour of the United States, their travels took them through the South and the brothers neither spent much time in centres of Irish immigration nor sought out Irish-Americans. In 1874, he became High Sheriff of Wicklow, his home county in which he was an officer in the Wicklow militia.

He was noted as an improving landowner who played an important part in opening the south Wicklow area to industrialisation. His attention was drawn to the theme dominating the Irish political scene of the mid-1870s, Isaac Butt's Home Rule League formed in 1873 to campaign for a moderate degree of self-government, it was in support of this movement that Parnell first tried to stand for election in Wicklow, but as high sheriff was disqualified. He failed again in 1874 as home rule candidate in a County Dublin by-election. Historian Kevin Flynn reports: When Gladstone came to know him in years, he was astonished to find that Parnell was ignorant of the basic facts of Irish history; the romantic vision that characterised Young Ireland and the Fenians escaped him completely


Rocketboy was an American Christian rock band formed in Covington, Georgia, in 1993. Categorized as Christian rock, Rocketboy's musical style was influenced by a hodge-podge of mainstream artists such as Nirvana, Pearl Jam, R. E. M. Jimmy Buffett and Vigilantes of Love; the band performed under the name "The Pain". After signing a record contract with R. E. X. Records in 1995, the name "Rocketboy" was formally adopted. Rocketboy was an offshoot of the Covington band Steel Water, which included a line-up of several local musicians who performed together at churches and private events. After the group dissolved, the three remaining members — Trey Bailey, Slade Curtis and Jason Parker — regrouped to form Cain's Pain. Cain's Pain added the Atlanta-area lead guitarist Kip Bell and performed at local churches and theaters; the band's early schedule included regular shows at The Strand Theater in Georgia. Between 1993 and 1995, the band toured the southeastern United States extensively as a modest but faithful fan base formed.

In 1994, Joe Coleman replaced the original drummer Jason Parker. Soon thereafter, the band self-released Smile. Singles from Smile appeared on the Cranial Captivity Records release of Cranial Captivity: Fettered in the Mind's Eye and the Floppy Fish Records release of Fish Faves Vol. 1. In December 1994, Coleman left the band and the local drummer Rob Jones became the permanent drummer. In early 1995, the band signed a record contract with the now defunct Nashville label R. E. X. Records; this marked a milestone for the band and their small-town garage rock style and modest exposure gave way to a punchier sound and a growing fan base in cities across the eastern United States. To signify this coming of age, the band dropped "The Pain" and adopted the name "Rocketboy". In November 1995, Rocketboy recorded their first album with R. E. X. Records, No Sign of Intelligent Life, at OMNIsound Studios in Nashville; the album was produced by Armand John Petri who had worked with The Goo Goo Dolls and 10,000 Maniacs.

Though the album was a critical success among fans, the financial troubles of R. E. X. Records hindered marketing support of the release. Despite a lack of label support, the band continued to play shows across the eastern United States, sharing the bill with such groups as Third Day, MxPx and Plankeye. Tim "Yogi" Watts became the drummer when Jones left in March 1996. Rocketboy hired David Mardis to manage the band's affairs and the recording of their follow-up album Now That We Have Your Attention. Mardis had managed and produced albums for Third Day. Now That We Have Your Attention was recorded at Furies Studios in Atlanta and was produced by Mardis; the band's 1997 schedule included a tour with Bride in support of Now That We Have Your Attention, but once again had little label support. The band subsequently requested an unconditional release from their record contract. Touring continued through the end of 1997. On December 31, 1997, Rocketboy played their final show at The Warehouse in Lexington, South Carolina.

In 2007, Rocketboy reunited for a short tour, in 2008 announced that they were reforming to begin writing a new album, more than a decade after their previous release. Smile Loud Prodigal Son Onion Ring Blind Drive Shades of Grey I Should... Disappear Peace or Pieces? Heavy Metal EveNo Sign of Intelligent Life Gary's Garage Fly Disco Ball Call Me Kind Siren Song Wishing Well An Angel's Kiss Seed Richard I Should... Shades of GreyNow That We Have Your Attention High Dive Cool Chaos Siren Song Mother May I Illegitimate Son Disco Ball Between Silver Love Pretend Call Me Kind Breathe Official web site) The New Normal: blog by Trey Bailey Rocketboy albums at Armand John Petri

Potaissa (castra)

Potaissa was a castra in the Roman province of Dacia, located in today's Turda, Romania. The Dacians established a town that Ptolemy in his Geography calls Patreuissa, a corruption of Patavissa or Potaissa, the latter being more common, it was conquered by the Romans, who kept the name Potaissa, between AD 101 and 106, during the rule of Trajan, together with parts of Decebal's Dacia. The name Potaissa is first recorded on a Roman milliarium discovered in 1758 in the nearby Aiton commune. Milliarium of Aiton is an ancient Roman milestone dating from 108 AD, shortly after the Roman conquest of Dacia, showing the construction of the road from Potaissa to Napoca, by demand of the Emperor Trajan, it indicates the distance of 10,000 feet to Potaissa. This is the first epigraphical attestation of the settlements of Napoca in Roman Dacia; the complete inscription is: "Imp/ Caesar Nerva/ Traianus Aug/ Germ Dacicus/ pontif maxim/ pot XII cos V/ imp VI p p fecit/ per coh I Fl Vlp/ Hisp mil c R eq/ a Potaissa Napo/cam / m p X".

It was recorded in vol. III, the 1627, Berlin, 1863; this milliarium is an attestation of the road known to be built by Cohors I Hispanorum miliaria. The castrum established was named Potaissa too and became a municipium a colonia. Potaissa was the basecamp of the Legio V Macedonica from 166 to 274; the Potaissa salt mines were worked in the area since prehistoric times. Porolissum Napoca Apulum List of castra in Dacia Roman Dacia History of Romania Media related to Potaissa castrum at Wikimedia Commons Roman castra from Romania - Google Maps / Earth