click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Charles T. Kowal

Charles Thomas Kowal was an American astronomer known for his observations and discoveries in the Solar System. As a staff astronomer at Caltech's Mount Wilson and Palomar Mountain observatories between 1961 and 1984, he found the first of a new class of Solar System objects, the centaurs, discovered two moons of the planet Jupiter, discovered or co-discovered a number of asteroids and supernovae, he was awarded the James Craig Watson Medal for his contributions to astronomy in 1979. In the 1960s, Kowal observed with the Palomar 48" Schmidt telescope, contributing observations to noted cosmologist Fritz Zwicky's six-volume Catalogue of Galaxies and of Clusters of Galaxies. Kowal began to search for Type Ia supernovae in other galaxies, in an effort led by Zwicky to calibrate the magnitudes of these exploding stars so that they could be used as standard candles, reliable measures of the distance of their host galaxies. In the course of these Palomar supernovae surveys with the 48" Schmidt, Kowal discovered 81 supernovae, including SN 1972e.

In 1973, Caltech astronomers Eleanor Helin and Gene Shoemaker began an observing program to search out and track unknown near-Earth asteroid, the Planet-Crossing Asteroid Survey, a photographic plate survey that began on the Palomar 18" Schmidt telescope. Although employed by the supernova survey to observe on the 48" Schmidt, Kowal provided "crucial observations" of faint asteroids for the PCAS program with the larger telescope, his asteroid discoveries and co-discoveries include. PCAS moved to the 48" Schmidt, ran in total for nearly 25 years, until June 1995. Kowal provided observations of new Solar System discoveries and reports of new supernovae via the IAU circular system throughout the 1970s, searched for new objects, he discovered two moons of Jupiter: Leda in 1974 and Themisto in 1975, the 13th and 14th moons of Jupiter to be found. Themisto was lost and was not rediscovered until 2000. Between December 1976 and February 1985, Kowal searched 6400 square degrees of sky in the ecliptic plane for distant, slow-moving Solar System objects.

Only one object was found beyond Jupiter: 2060 Chiron, discovered in 1977, which had the unusual characteristic of features both like an asteroid and a comet. It became recognised as the first object in the centaur class after a second one was discovered 15 years later. Centaurs are objects with unstable orbits which orbit between Neptune, they are drawn in from the Kuiper belt by alignments with larger planets. Chiron remains one of the largest such worlds known, one of a handful that have a comet-like coma. Kowal discovered or co-discovered the periodic comets 99P/Kowal, 104P/Kowal, 134P/Kowal-Vavrova, 143P/Kowal-Mrkos, 158P/Kowal-LINEAR. In 1980, Kowal's research in astronomical history found a 1613 drawing by Galileo Galilei showing Neptune near Jupiter, predating the discovery of Neptune in 1846. Kowal moved to the new Space Telescope Science Institute in 1985, where he monitored the instruments of the Hubble Space Telescope as one of the operations astronomers, his book Asteroids: Their Nature and Utilization was published in 1988, a second edition in 1996.

From 1996 until his retirement in 2006, he worked at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, providing software for the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft's mission to land on the asteroid Eros and mission operations support for the NASA TIMED mission. Kowal died on November 28, 2011 at the age of 71. Kowal was awarded the National Academy of Science's James Craig Watson Medal for his "noteworthy astronomical discoveries of Chiron and numerous supernovae" in 1979; the crater Kowal on Pluto was named in his honor. List of minor planet discoverers § C. T. Kowal

Frances Sally Day

Frances Sally Day was an English miniature portrait painter and photographer who lived in London. Her paintings were displayed annually for twenty years at the Royal Academy of Arts' annual exhibitions, she was the first woman known to photograph Queen Victoria. She was the eldest daughter of Frances Rachel Day and Hamilton Smith Day, a portrait painter and photographer. Frances Sally Day had well over forty portraits and miniatures accepted for Royal Academy exhibitions between 1838 and 1858. One portrait was of Sheikh Ali Bin Nasser “envoy from his Highness the Imaum of Muscat” who had sent a ship full of gifts to the Queen. Another portrait was praised for its “brilliant handling of flesh tones”. In 1840 Day won the Silver Isis Medal of the Royal Society of Arts for a “portrait bust”; until the mid-1850s she gave her address to the Royal Academy as 41 Camden Street, as did her father who had three portraits shown. Her address from 1856 to 1858 was 14 Piccadilly, an address used for the family photography business of Hamilton Smith Day & Son, but she was living elsewhere in 1861, the year when a partnership with three photographer siblings - Louisa,Thomas and Arthur - was dissolved “so far as regards T. Day”.

In 1871 she was living with two sisters, a brother and a nephew, all artists according to the census, at 46 Albemarle Street, the address where her father had died the previous year. Day was active in photography by 1853. In that year she wrote to the leading photographer Henry Fox Talbot reminding him she had asked him to be “so kind to inform her whether a license was necessary for taking Talbotype portraits on paper, if so what are the terms for permission”. There are various surviving photographs of royalty taken by Day in the late 1850s. Records exist of a session at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight on 26 July 1859 when Queen Victoria wrote in her diary, “was photographed in the Lower Terrace by Miss Day and together with Mama and the children”; this was the first time. Some of Day's photographs were sent to royal relatives abroad in the form of cartes de visite, while ten went into a royal photograph album; some were turned into etchings. Margaret Homans suggests that some of Day's photographs of Victoria and Albert together show them with quite a casual "democratic" look and yet the image chosen for public circulation suggests more of a "worshipful wife" role for the Queen where "she gazes up at him intensely".

Frances Sally Day died on 12 January 1892 leaving an estate of about £2500

Silver Wolf Award (Norwegian Guide and Scout Association)

The Silver Wolf is the highest award made by the Norwegian Guide and Scout Association "for services of the most exceptional character." The award consists of a Silver Wolf suspended from a green neck ribbon. Recipients may wear the corresponding square knot, with a green strand over a blue strand, on their uniform; the Norwegian Silver Wolf was first awarded by the Norwegian Boy Scout Association in 1915. When the Boy Scout Association and Girl Guide Association merged in 1978, the Silver Wolf Award was discontinued, but in 1998 the merged Norwegian Guide and Scout Association restarted awarding the Silver Wolf. Notable recipients include Ragnvald Iversen, Kaare Amdam, Christian Dons, Hans Møller Gasmann, Robert Baden-Powell, Hubert S. Martin, Birger L. D. Brekke, Odd Hopp, J. S. Wilson, Stein Løvold and Gisle Johnson. Bronze Wolf of World Scout Committee Silver Wolf of The Scout Association Silver Wolf of Scouterna Silver Buffalo Award of the Boy Scouts of America Silver Fish

Lookout Farm (album)

Lookout Farm is an album by American jazz saxophonist Dave Liebman recorded in 1973, his first released on the ECM label. The Allmusic review by Michael G. Nastos awarded the album 5 stars, stating, "For saxophonist/flutist David Liebman, the collective septet Lookout Farm earmarked him as an emergent band leader and conceptualist, not to mention top-of-the-heap unabashed improviser on the soprano... Lookout Farm's sheer democracy in motion, for progressive modern jazz in a fusion era, defined how far artistically a group could go while retaining a distinct identity... This one-of-a-kind band and recording set a high-water mark for far too few bands unto itself, to follow; this is worth searching for and savoring". All compositions by Dave Liebman - Published by Lieb Stone Music"Pablo's Story" - 14:09 "Sam's Float" - 8:50 "M. D. / Lookout Farm" - 23:54. This is our first album; the compositions are dedicated to people or experiences I've had. "Pablo's Story" for P. Picasso. D." for Miles. - Dave Leibman Dave Liebman - soprano saxophone, tenor saxophone, alto flute John Abercrombie - guitar Richard Beirach - piano, electric piano Frank Tusa - bass, electric bass Jeff Williams - drums Armen Halburian - percussion Don Alias - conga, bongos Badal Roy - tabla Steve Sattan - cowbell, tambourine Eleana Sternberg - vocals

Una cavalla tutta nuda

Una cavalla tutta nuda is a 1972 commedia sexy all'italiana directed by Franco Rossetti. The story is set in the Middle Ages; the youngsters Folcacchio and Guffardo must bring an embassy to the Bishop of Volterra, during the trip, the two boys meet the beautiful Gemmata. The woman is a poor peasant, married to Nicholas. Folcacchio and Guffardo, to have a night of love with the girl, pretend to be magicians who can turn humans into beasts. In fact Gemmata wants to be transformed into a horse to plow the land of her property without fatigue. So Folcacchio and Guffardo invent a magic ritual. Don Backy: Folcacchio de' Folcacchieri Barbara Bouchet: Gemmata Renzo Montagnani: Gulfardo de' Bardi Vittorio Congia: Matias Pietro Torrisi: Torello, the'Stallion' Leopoldo Trieste: Nicolò Edda Ferronao: Moglie dell'oste Carla Romanelli: Pampinea Una cavalla tutta nuda on IMDb

National Monument to the U.S. Constitution

The National Monument to the U. S. Constitution is a monument commissioned of Australian artist Brett-Livingstone Strong by Warren E. Burger, Chairman of the Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution, to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the signing of the United States Constitution. One of a pair created by Strong to commemorate historic anniversaries, along with The United States Presidency Monument, it was dedicated by President Ronald Reagan at Independence Hall in Philadelphia on September 17, 1987. Both monuments are the property of the Global Inc.. A Florida-based company with principal offices in Richmond, Virginia; the monument has been transported for display at several public events around the country and was scheduled to begin a twenty-city traveling exhibit as part of the Spirit of Freedom Tour beginning in September 2009. Due to poor economic conditions, The Tour never commenced. All rights to the Constitution Monument and the Original Replicas of the Constitution were transferred to The American Constitution Spirit Foundation, a Virginia non-profit, in March 2010.

The Foundation plans to find a permanent home for the monument during 2013. Constructed of polychrome and patinated cire perdu cast silicon bronze and polished marble and granite, the monument stands 8'4" high and weighs just under 7 tons; the cast silicon bronze bald eagle symbolizes American's personal freedoms, courage and dignity. Below the eagle is a circular plinth between the eagle and the pedestal where replicas of the signatures of the United States Constitution are circumscribed; the octagonal pedestal is constructed of white marble and red and blue granite with white marble stars arranged to symbolize the American Flag. In the late 1980s, the Commission on the Bicentennial of the United States Constitution conceived of two monuments to commemorate United States history, one celebrating the 200th anniversary of the signing of the Constitution and another the 200th anniversary of the establishment of the U. S. presidency. Australian artist Brett Livingstone Strong was commissioned by former Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, who served as chairman of that Commission, to produce these monuments.

At that time, the Commission intended that the monument would travel across the country as part of the national celebrations of the Constitution's bicentennial beginning in 1987. The National Monument to the U. S. Constitution was dedicated at its unveiling at Independence Hall in Philadelphia by Ronald Reagan on the bicentennial, September 17, 1987. Both monuments were recognized, along with the five bronze original replica plaques, by the artist, of the U. S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In 1989, both the National Monument to the U. S. Constitution and the United States Presidency Monument were the property of the American Spirit Corporation, affiliated with the non-profit American Spirit Foundation. In 1990, the American Spirit Corporation allowed a lien to be placed on the monument to the U. S. Presidency collateral for unpaid attorneys fees of $110,000.00 owed to a law firm in Los Angeles, CA. Subsequently, the foundation was dissolved and the two monuments were owned by different parties until they were reunited in 2004.

Although the monument did not tour as planned in 1987, it was displayed in a parade celebrating the bicentennial in Philadelphia. It was featured at the "Spirit of Freedom Country Music Festival" in The Plains, Virginia in 1989 and, in 1990, the Rose Bowl Parade; the monument was taken to Richmond, Virginia where in January 1990 it was the centerpiece for the Gubernatorial inaugural celebration of Douglas Wilder. In 2003, it was relocated to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum in Simi Valley, California; the American Constitution Spirit Foundation plans to find a permanent home for the National Monument to the U. S. Constitution in 2013