Charles Taze Russell, or Pastor Russell, was an American Christian restorationist minister from Pittsburgh and founder of what is now known as the Bible Student movement. After his death, Jehovah's Witnesses and numerous independent Bible Student groups developed from this base. In July 1879, Russell began publishing a monthly religious magazine, Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence. In 1881 he co-founded Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society with William Henry Conley as president. Russell wrote many articles, tracts and sermons, totaling 50,000 printed pages. From 1886 to 1904, he published a six-volume Bible study series titled Millennial Dawn renamed Studies in the Scriptures, nearly 20 million copies of which were printed and distributed around the world in several languages during his lifetime; the Watch Tower Society ceased publication of Russell's writings in 1927, though his books are still published by several independent groups. After Russell's death, a crisis arose surrounding Rutherford's leadership of the society, culminating in a movement-wide schism.
As many as three-quarters of the 50,000 Bible Students, associating in 1917 had left by 1931. This shift resulted in the formation of several groups that retained variations on the name Bible Students; those who maintained fellowship with the Watch Tower Society adopted the name Jehovah's witnesses in 1931, while those who severed ties with the Society formed their own groups including the Pastoral Bible Institute in 1918, the Laymen's Home Missionary Movement in 1919, the Dawn Bible Students Association in 1929. Charles Taze Russell was born to Scottish-Irish parents, immigrant Joseph Lytel Russell and Ann Eliza Birney, on February 16, 1852 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. Russell was the second of five children, his mother died. The Russells lived for a time in Philadelphia before moving to Pittsburgh, where they became members of the Presbyterian Church; when Charles was in his early teens, his father made him partner of his Pittsburgh haberdashery store. By age twelve, Russell was writing business contracts for customers and given charge of some of his father's other clothing stores.
At age thirteen, Russell left the Presbyterian Church to join the Congregational Church. In his youth he was known to chalk Bible verses on fence boards and city sidewalks in an attempt to convert unbelievers. At age sixteen, a discussion with a childhood friend on faults perceived in Christianity led Russell to question his faith, he investigated various other religions, but concluded that they did not provide the answers he was seeking. In 1870, at age eighteen, he attended a presentation by Adventist minister Jonas Wendell. Russell said that, although he had not agreed with Wendell's arguments, the presentation had inspired him with a renewed zeal and belief that the Bible is the word of God. On March 13, 1879, Russell married Maria Frances Ackley after a few months' acquaintance; the couple separated in 1897. Russell blamed the marriage breakup on disagreements over Maria Russell's insistence on a greater editorial role in Zion's Watch Tower magazine. A court judgment noted that he had labelled the marriage "a mistake" three years before the dispute over her editorial ambitions had arisen.
Maria Russell filed a suit for legal separation in the Court of Common Pleas at Pittsburgh in June 1903 and three years filed for divorce under the claim of mental cruelty. She was granted a separation, with alimony, in 1908. Maria Russell died at the age of 88 in St. Petersburg, Florida on March 12, 1938 from complications related to Hodgkin's disease. Russell was a charismatic figure, but claimed no special revelation or vision for his teachings and no special authority on his own behalf, he stated that he did not seek to found a new denomination, but intended to gather together those who were seeking the truth of God's Word "during this harvest time". He wrote that the "clear unfolding of truth" within his teachings was due to "the simple fact that God's due time has come, he viewed himself—and all other Christians anointed with the Holy Spirit—as "God's mouthpiece" and an ambassador of Christ. In his career he accepted without protest that many Bible Students viewed him as the "faithful and wise servant" of Matthew 24:45.
After his death, the Watch Tower said that he had been made "ruler of all the Lord's goods". About 1870, Russell and his father established a group with a number of acquaintances to undertake an analytical study of the Bible and the origins of Christian doctrine and tradition; the group influenced by the writings of Millerite Adventist ministers George Storrs and George Stetson, who were frequent attendees, concluded that many of the primary doctrines of the established churches, including the Trinity and inherent immortality of the soul, were not substantiated by the scriptures. Around January 1876 Russell received a copy of Nelson Barbour's Herald of the Morning in the mail. Barbour was publisher. Russell telegraphed Barbour to set up a meeting. Barbour and John Henry Paton visited in Allegheny in March 1876 at Russell's expense so that he could hear their arguments, compare the c
Frank Edward Evans was a U. S. Representative from Colorado. Born in Pueblo, Evans attended public schools in Colorado Springs, he entered Pomona College in Claremont, California, in 1941. He interrupted his education in 1943 to serve in the United States Navy as a patrol pilot from 1943 to 1946, he attended the University of Denver for his B. A. and his law degree, LL. B.. He began the practice of law in Pueblo, he served as member of the State house of representatives from 1961 to 1964. Evans was elected as a Democrat to the six succeeding Congresses, he was not a candidate for reelection in 1978 to the Ninety-sixth Congress. Until his death he was a resident of Colorado. United States Congress. "Frank Evans". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Obituary in Denver Post
Elizabeth Orton Jones was an American illustrator and writer of children's books. She won the 1945 Caldecott Medal for U. S. picture book illustration, recognizing Prayer for a Child, after being a runner-up one year earlier. She was born "half past Christmas" in Highland Park, Illinois, to George Roberts Jones, a violinist, Jessie May Orton, a pianist and a writer. Elizabeth was followed by a sister. During her youth, two Bohemian girls served as cook and nurse in her home, providing an alternative set of cultural norms which served as an encouragement for Elizabeth to develop her artistic side. During Elizabeth's youth and her siblings made many creative outlets for their imagination. Setting up "tasks" for herself, she taught lessons to her dolls and read the entire Bible. A more collaborative project between her and her siblings was the creation of the "Beagle Language", named after one of their pets. Jones' great-grandfather, Joseph Russell Jones, a friend of Abraham Lincoln, was minister to Belgium under President Ulysses S. Grant.
Her grandmother was her grandfather owned a bookstore. Jones won the "Silver Cup for English Composition" at the House in the Pines. In 1932, Jones received her Ph. D. from the University of Chicago. Afterward she spent time in France, studying at the École des Beaux Arts in Fontainebleau, receiving a diploma in the same year studying in Paris at the Académie Colarossi and under the artist Camille Liausu. Upon returning, she presented at the Smithsonian Institution a solo display of color etchings of French children which she called the "Four Seasons", she spent time studying at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. After Paris, Jones began writing and illustrating her first book, Ragman of Paris and His Ragamuffins, based on her experiences in France. Other books followed and evidenced her experiences as well: Maninka's Children was influenced by the Bohemian girls she knew growing up, her home in Mason, New Hampshire served as the model for her illustrations of a publishing of Little Red Riding Hood by Little Golden Books from 1948 through 1979.
Her book Big Susan reflected her love of dolls. Her work was much influenced by the editions of Horn Book Magazine that she got, her friend Bertha Mahony Miller, an editor of Horn Book, would call from seventeen miles away with ideas for Elizabeth to write about. One of her illustrated books, Small Rain: Verses from the Bible, was named a Caldecott Honor Book in 1944 and another, Prayer for a Child, won the Caldecott Medal in 1945, recognizing the year's "most distinguished picture book for children" published in the United States. In her Caldecott acceptance speech, she said: In 1945 Elizabeth visited New Hampshire for a business trip; the picturesque landscape caught her imagination, she moved to Mason soon afterward. Jones became a well-respected figure in Mason, as she served to collect and preserve the history of the town in Mason Bicentennial, 1768-1968 a book she edited, she was known there, not by her given name, but by the nickname "Twig", the title character from one of her books. Many Masonians do not know her as anything other than that.
She died on May 10, 2005 at the Monadnock Community Hospital in Peterborough, New Hampshire, of a brief illness. On June 25, 2005, the Mason Public Library renamed its Junior Room the "Twig Room" in her honor. One of "Twig's" greatest, most enduring accomplishments was her adamant support of a local summer children's theater, known as Andy's Summer Playhouse; every year for the last 40 years of her life, she offered artistic advice and guidance to many of the children in the community who participated in the Playhouse. Ragman of Paris and His Ragamuffins, Oxford University Press, 1937. Minnie the Mermaid, Oxford University Press, 1939. Maminka’s Children, Macmillan, 1940, reissued, 1968. Twig, Macmillan, 1942, reissued, 1966. Purple House Press, 2002. Big Susan, Macmillan, 1947, reissued, 1967. Purple House Press, 2002. Little Red Riding Hood, Simon & Schuster, 1948. How Far Is It to Bethlehem?, Horn Book, 1955. Bible, Macmillan, 1937. Adshead, Gladys L. Brownies—Hush!, Oxford University Press, 1938, Walck, 1966.
Meigs, Cornelia Lynde, Scarlet Oak, Macmillan, 1938. Association for Childhood Education, Told under the Magic Umbrella: Modern Fanciful Stories for Young Children, Macmillan, 1939, reissued, 1967. Hunt, Mabel Leigh, Peddler’s Clock, Grosset, 1943. Jones, Jessie Mae, Small Rain: Verses from the Bible, Viking, 1943, reissued, 1974. Field, Prayers for a Child, Macmillan, 1944, reissued, 1973. Adshead, Gladys L. What Miranda Knew, New York, Oxford University Press, 1944. Farjeon, Prayer for Little Things, Houghton, 1945. Jones, Jessie Orton, New York, Viking, 1945. Jones, Jessie Mae, Little Child—The Christmas Miracle Told in Bible Verses, New York, Viking, 1946. Jones, Jessie Mae, This Is the Way: Prayers and Precepts from World Religions, Viking, 1951. St. Francis of Assisi, Song of the Sun, Macmillan, 1952. Thurman, Deep River, Harper, 1955. Bridgman, Lullaby for Eggs, Macmillan, 1955. Trent, Robbie, To Church We Go, Follett, 1956. Ortakales.com University of Oregon Horn Book Magazine Mason Public Library Dedication Page for the Twig Room at the Wayback Machine
The 1887–88 season was the fifth to be played by the team that are now known as Bristol Rovers, their fourth playing under the name Eastville Rovers. It marked a major change in the direction of football in Gloucestershire as a County Football Association was established, enabling a formal cup competition to be played in the area for the first time; until 1887 Eastville Rovers had played only friendly matches, but this season began with a meeting at the Montpelier Hotel in Bristol that would change this. On 7 September 1887 W. W. Perrin and T. Channing, on behalf of Eastville Rovers, along with Charles Lacy Sweet and J. Innes-Pocock from Clifton Association and representatives from Warmley, St George, St Agnes, Southville voted to establish the Gloucestershire County Football Association; this would enable a cup competition to be organised and enable the standardisation of the rules governing matches, which up to this point had not been the case. The delegates unanimously agreed to adopt a modified version of the London Football Association rules, to convene again a week to elect officials for the new County FA.
Rovers were given a bye when the first round draw was made the following month, before being paired with Clifton Association in the semi-final. As the first team drawn, Eastville had the choice of where to play the match, arranged for it to be played at the home ground of St George F. C.. For them, Rovers lost forward Harry Horsey to injury early in the game and had to play the majority of the match with ten men, but in spite of this disadvantage it was the Eastville side who took the lead in the first half through Harry Cade. H. H. Francis scored an equaliser for Clifton shortly afterwards to make the half time score 1–1. In the second half Clifton's man advantage began to show, aided by playing down the slope of the pitch they managed to score a further three goals, thanks to Charles Wreford-Brown, A. B. Colthurst, making the final result 4–1 to Clifton Association; as with previous seasons, many of the team's friendly results are not known, but where final scores have been established Eastville Rovers ended the season with five wins and two defeats.
Air Commodore Peter Malam "Pete" Brothers, was a Royal Air Force fighter pilot and flying ace of the Second World War. Brothers was credited with 16 aerial victories, 10 of which he achieved during the Battle of Britain. Born in Prestwich, the son of John Malam Brothers, Brothers was educated at North Manchester School, his early interest in flying was shown by learning to fly aged 16. He joined the Royal Air Force in January 1936, was granted a short service commission as an acting Pilot Officer on probation on 23 March, Joining No 32 Squadron in October 1936, his commission was confirmed on 27 January 1937, he was promoted to Flying Officer on 27 October 1938. Brothers first saw action during the Battle of Britain as a flight commander in No 32. Squadron RAF, based at RAF Biggin Hill flying Hurricane aircraft; the Battle of Britain was a busy time for Brothers, during this time he shot down his first enemy aircraft – a Bf 109 – by the end of August 1940 he was recognised as a Flying ace, having shot down eight enemy aircraft.
He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for this actions. ROYAL AIR FORCE; the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the undermentioned awards, in recognition of gallantry displayed in flying operations against the enemy:— Awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. Acting Flight Lieutenant Peter Malan BROTHERS. During an offensive patrol in August 1940, this officer's flight encountered about one hundred enemy aircraft, he led the flight in attack against them, but before this could be pressed home, he was himself attacked by a number of Messerschmitt 110's. Turning to meet them, he found himself in a stalled position. In the day he destroyed a Messerschmitt 109. Altogether Flight Lieutenant Brothers has destroyed seven enemy aircraft, he has at all times displayed great initiative. Brothers was promoted substantive Flight Lieutenant on 3 September 1940, due to the level of losses within 32 Sqn, it was stood down, on 9 September he was posted to No. 257 Squadron RAF based at RAF Coltishall on 9 September as a Flight Commander under Squadron Leader Robert Stanford Tuck.
He was promoted Acting Squadron Leader in 1941 and took command of No. 457 Squadron RAAF in June 1941, converted to the Spitfire aircraft. He was promoted temporary Squadron Leader on 1 December 1941. A year when 457 Squadron returned to Australia, Brothers took command of No. 602 Squadron RAF. He became Wing Leader of the Tangmere Wing in October 1942, he was awarded a Bar to his DFC on 15 June 1943: Air Ministry, 15th June, 1943. ROYAL AIR FORCE; the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the following awards in recognition of gallantry displayed, in flying operations against the enemy: — Bar to Distinguished Flying Cross. Acting Wing Commander Peter Malam BROTHERS, D. F. C. Reserve of Air Force Officers; this officer has displayed efficiency. Within recent months he has led a wing in many operations and, by his skilful work and personal example, has contributed in a large measure to the high standard of operational efficiency of the formation, he has displayed great devotion to duty. And the DSO in 1944: Air Ministry, 3rd November, 1944.
The KING has been graciously pleased to approve the following awards in recognition of gallantry displayed in flying operations against the enemy: — Distinguished Service Order. Wing Commander Peter Malam BROTHERS, D. F. C. R. A. F. O. Wing Commander Brothers is a courageous and outstanding leader whose splendid example has inspired all, he has led large formations of aircraft on many missions far into enemy territory. Much of the success obtained can be attributed to Wing Commander Brothers brilliant leadership, he has destroyed 13 enemy aircraft. By 1945, Brothers had flown 875 operational hours and was credited with having shot down 16 enemy aircraft and damaged many more. Despite his record, he was not offered a permanent commission so left the RAF in 1947 and joined the Colonial Service. After two years as a district officer in Kenya, Brothers applied to rejoin the RAF, he was commissioned as a Squadron Leader on 2 June 1949, rather to his surprise was given command of a bomber squadron, No. 57 Squadron RAF, equipped with the Avro Lincoln bomber.
He held command from 1950 to 1952. He was promoted Wing Commander on 2 July 1952, after RAF Staff College, Andover he was appointed Wing Commander at RAF Marham. There he joined the V bombers. Brothers was promoted to Group Captain on 1 January 1959, to Air Commodore on 1 July 1966. After tours including Staff Officer at SHAPE, Director of RAF Operations, Air Officer Commanding Military Air Traffic Operations and Director of Public Relations, he retired in 1973, he was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1964 Queen's Birthday Honours. Brothers was best known for his Battle of Britain exploits and was the Chairman of the Battle of Britain Fighter Association for a number of years, he wore bright red socks. He died, aged 91, on 18 December 2008. Brothers describing his attempts to boost the morale of the men he was leading – The Imperial War Museum Brothers at the final Sunset Ceremony at RAF Bentley Priory 20 July 2007 Brothers meeting Prince Charles and Duchess of Cornwall at RAF Bentley Priory 19 June 2007 Brothers laying the Battle of Britain Fighter Association wreath at the Battle of Britain London Monument 16 September 2006 Brothers at the unv
Optics is the second album of the Illinois-based industrial band, I:Scintilla. It was released with two versions, a single disc version and a limited edition two disc version containing remixes. "Cursive Eve" - 5:33 "Toy Soldier" - 3:53 "The Bells" - 4:32 "Melt" - 5:22 "Translate" - 4:01 "Scin" - 4:33 "Machine Vision" - 4:37 "Havestar" - 4:37 "Ultravioletfly" - 4:07 "Silhouette" - 4:15 "Taken" - 4:38 "Salt of Stones" - 4:52 "The Bells " - 4:59 "Scin " - 5:33 "Havestar " - 4:41 "Cursive Eve " - 5:25 "The Bells " - 6:01 "Taken " - 5:51 "The Bells " - 5:18 "Translate " - 4:47 "Havestar " - 4:29 "Capsella " - 4:36 "Scin " - 5:12 "Taken " - 5:28