Charles VI of France

Charles VI, called the Beloved and the Mad, was King of France for 42 years from 1380, until his death. Charles was born in Paris, in the royal residence of the Hôtel Saint-Pol, on 3 December 1368, the son of the king of France Charles V, of the House of Valois, of Joan of Bourbon; as heir to the French throne, his older brothers having died before he was born, Charles had the title Dauphin of France. At his father's death on 16 September 1380, he inherited the throne of France, his coronation took place on 4 November 1380, at Reims Cathedral. Charles VI was only 11 years old. During his minority, France was ruled as regents. Although the royal age of majority was 14, Charles terminated the regency only at the age of 21; the regents were Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, Louis I, Duke of Anjou, John, Duke of Berry – all brothers of Charles V – along with Louis II, Duke of Bourbon, Charles VI's maternal uncle. Philip took the dominant role during the regency. Louis of Anjou was fighting for his claim to the Kingdom of Naples after 1382, dying in 1384.

During the rule of his uncles, the financial resources of the kingdom, painstakingly built up by his father, were squandered for the personal profit of the dukes, whose interests were divergent or opposing. During that time, the power of the royal administration was strengthened and taxes re-established; the latter policy represented a reversal of the deathbed decision of the king's father Charles V to repeal taxes, led to tax revolts, known as the Harelle. Increased tax revenues were needed to support the self-serving policies of the king's uncles, whose interests were in conflict with those of the crown and with each other; the Battle of Roosebeke, for example, brilliantly won by the royal troops, was prosecuted for the benefit of Philip of Burgundy. The treasury surplus accumulated by Charles V was squandered. Charles VI brought the regency to an end in 1388, he restored to power the competent advisors of Charles V, known as the Marmousets, who ushered in a new period of high esteem for the crown.

Charles VI was referred to as Charles the Beloved by his subjects. He married Isabeau of Bavaria on 17 July 1385, when he was 17 and she 14. Isabeau had 12 children. Isabeau's first child, named Charles, was born in 1386, was Dauphin of Viennois, but survived only 3 months, her second child, was born on 14 June 1388, but died in 1390. Her third child, was born in 1389, she was married to Richard II, King of England in 1396, at the age of 6, became Queen of England. Richard died in 1400 and they had no children. Richard's successor, Henry IV, wanted Isabella to marry his son, 14-year-old future king Henry V, but she refused, she was married again in 1406, this time to her cousin, Duke of Orléans, at the age of 17. She died in childbirth at the age of 19. Isabeau's fourth child, was born in 1391, was married to John VI, Duke of Brittany in 1396, at an age of 5. Isabeau's fifth child born in 1392 was named Charles, was Dauphin; the young Charles was betrothed to Margaret of Burgundy in 1396, but died at the age of 9.

Isabeau's sixth child, was born in 1393. She was never married, had no children. Isabeau's seventh child, was born in 1395, she was engaged to Philip, son of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, in 1404 and they were married in 1409, aged 14. She had one child who died in infancy, before she died in 1422, aged 27. Isabeau's eighth child, was born in 1397, was Dauphin, he married Margaret of Burgundy, betrothed to his brother Charles. The marriage produced no children by the time of Louis's death in 1415, aged 18. Isabeau's ninth child, was born in 1398, was Dauphin from 1415, after the death of his brother Louis, he was married to Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut in 1415 aged 17, but they did not have any children before he died in 1417, aged 19. Isabeau's tenth child, was born in 1401, she was married firstly to Henry V, King of England in 1420, they had one child, who became Henry VI of England. Henry V died in 1422. Catherine may have secretly married Owen Tudor in 1429 and had additional children, including Edmund Tudor, the father of Henry VII.

She died in 1437, aged 36. Isabeau's eleventh child named Charles, was born in 1403. In 1413, Queen Isabeau and Yolande of Aragon finalized a marriage contract between Charles and Yolande's daughter Marie of Anjou, Charles' second cousin. Since both Dauphin Louis and Dauphin John died while in the care of John the Fearless, the Duke of Burgundy and regent for Charles, Yolande became Charles' guardian. Charles became the new Dauphin in 1417 upon the death of his brother John. Now with the heir to the throne of France under her protection, Yolande refused Queen Isabeau's orders to return Charles to the French Court replying, "We have not nurtured and cherished this one for you to make him die like his brothers or to go mad like his father, or to become English like you. I keep him for my own. Come and take him away, if you dare." After the death of Charles VI in 1422, the English regents claimed the crown of France fo

Highland Lake (Illinois)

Highland Lake is a lake in northeastern Illinois located 43 miles north of Chicago in Avon Township of unincorporated Lake County. Nearby towns include Grayslake to the east, Round Lake Beach to the north, Round Lake to the west, Hainesville to the south. Highland Lake is 2,500 feet wide at the widest point east to west and 2,000 feet north to south; the total area is 110 acres. With a perimeter of 1.44 mi. While known as Highland Lake, locals refer to it as Lake Wyngarden after a notable resident of the area. Common activities including wading, swimming. Fishing, a variety of non-powered watercraft


A shank is a type of knot, used to shorten a rope or take up slack, such as the sheepshank. The sheepshank knot is not stable, it will fall apart under too little load. The knot has several features which allow a rope to be shortened: It provides two loops, one at each end of the knot which can be used to pass another rope through The knot remains somewhat secure under tension. Pull a section of rope back and lay it alongside the rope, so that the rope forms a Z 20 cm long. Flatten the Z so that there are 3 sections of rope lying alongside each other, with two U-bends where the rope reverses direction. At each U-bend, grasp the U-bend in one hand, thus holding two of the rope sections. With the other hand form a small loop in the remaining section and draw it over the U-bend so that the loop forms a half hitch and stays there if the free end of the rope is pulled taut. Many people draw the small loop over facing the wrong way at least half of the time. Instead, make with the U a half-hitch around the other part, by tucking through pull the U straight.

Repeat at the other U-bend. An alternative method for constructing a sheepshank is as follows: Create a simple loop in the rope, so that the leading end is on top of the trailing end of the loop. Repeat this process further down the rope to create 3 total loops that overlap slightly. Reach through the outer two loops and grab either side of the middle loop and pull outward while keeping the rest of the rope taut. Once the middle loop is pulled through the outer loops, pull on the free ends of the rope to secure; the result is a flattened loop, held at each end by a half hitch. If the sides of the flattened loop are pulled away from each other, the flattened loop ends pull out of the half hitches and the knot falls apart, but if the free ends are pulled taut the knot remains secure. Sheepshank knots are used for securing loads to trucks or trailers, in sailing applications; the sheepshank was developed before the use of modern "slippery" synthetic ropes. Constructed from such ropes, under load, it can fail.

It is advised that an alternative knot be used. The man-o'war sheepshank is a sheepshank knot with a Handcuff knot in the middle; this configuration with the half-hitches formed close to the central knot is used in rope rescue and is called a Fireman's chair knot. This version of the sheepshank is tied by using slipknots instead of half-hitches, it is one of the safest sheepshank variations. The kamikaze knot is a slight variant of the sheepshank. To perform a kamikaze knot, a sheepshank is first constructed. Whilst holding sufficient tension on the sheepshank so it will not slip out, the middle rope is sliced; this allows climbers rappelling down cliff faces to keep most of the rope used for the rappel, by tying the knot at the top, shaking the rope when they reach the bottom. The shaking disconnects the knot at the top, allowing the longer section of rope to fall, meaning only a small amount of rope is retained by the anchor at the top of the cliff. Thin or slippery rope is unsuitable for such a knot, as it can slip, the knot should not be performed unless needed.

Although not invented by him this variant of the sheepshank knot appeared in an episode of the TV show Man Vs Wild. Bear Grylls uses a modification of this knot by cutting one of the lengths of rope in the knot, while rappelling down an edge during the Ireland episode of Man vs. Wild in order to retrieve his rope at the bottom by severing the middle leg of the sheepshank knot before his descent, he refers to it as a "Kamikaze" knot. A simpler variant of the sheepshank wherein a half-hitch is only tied around only one end produces a bell-ringer's knot, it will spill under tension, is used to keep a long rope from the belfry deck when not in use. The catshank is a variant of the sheepshank, clinched by two overhand knots with the bights passed through the twists; the dogshank, or sheepshank pouch knot, is a variant of the sheepshank where the eyes formed at each end have the ends of the rope passed through them to prevents the knot from spilling. At least one end of the rope must be available to untie this knot.

It is useful for the hammock-like space it creates. The dogshank can be thought of as two opposite bowlines where the two ends provide the respective standing lines each with its pinching turn, the two elbows of the Z-folded middle part provide the bights that pass through the turns and come back from around the standing lines; the dogshank can be thought of as two opposite sheet bends where the two ends provide the self-crossing line in each sheet bend, while the two elbows of the Z-folded middle part provide the non-crossing other line. Further reading: Project Gutenberg; the Project Gutenberg eBook, Knots and Rope Work, by A. Hyatt Verrill. Retrieved November 6, 2005; the Dogshank is shown in Figure 82. Chiang Kai Shek College. Basic Knots. Retrieved November 6, 2005. Section 8 contains a description of the Dogshank. Coil knot List of knots Lead shank Sheepshank & Variants Project Gutenberg. The Project Gutenberg eBook, Knots and Rope Work, by A. Hyatt Verrill. Retrieved November 6, 2005.

Though the name's a little different, the Sheepshank described above is shown in Figure 79. Scouting Resources. Sheepshank. Retrieved December 11, 2006. Shows diagrams with accompanying text