Monte Carlo Casino
The Monte Carlo Casino named Casino de Monte-Carlo, is a gambling and entertainment complex located in Monaco. It includes a casino, the Grand Théâtre de Monte Carlo, the office of Les Ballets de Monte Carlo; the Casino de Monte-Carlo is owned and operated by the Société des bains de mer de Monaco, a public company in which the Monaco government and the ruling royal family have a majority interest. The company owns the principal hotels, sports clubs, foodservice establishments, nightclubs throughout Monaco; the idea of opening a gambling casino in Monaco belongs to Princess Caroline, a shrewd, business-minded spouse of Prince Florestan I. Revenues from the proposed venture were supposed to save the House of Grimaldi from bankruptcy; the ruling family's persistent financial problems became acute after the loss of tax revenue from two breakaway towns and Roquebrune, which declared independence from Monaco in 1848 and refused to pay taxes on olive oil and fruit imposed by the Grimaldis. In 1854, Florestan's son and future Prince of Monaco, recruited a team of Frenchmen—writer Albert Aubert and businessman Napoleon Langlois—to devise a development plan and write a prospectus to attract 4 million francs needed to build a spa for the treatment of various diseases, a gambling casino modeled from the Bad Homburg casino, English-styled villas.
Granted the concession of 30 years to operate a bathing establishment and gaming tables and Langlois opened the first casino at 14 December 1856 in Villa Bellevu. Intended to be only a temporary location, the building was a modest mansion in La Condamine. In the late 1850s, Monaco was an unlikely place for a resort to succeed; the lack of roads needed to connect Monaco to Nice and the rest of Europe, the absence of comfortable accommodations for visitors, as well as the concessionaires' failure to publicize the new resort, resulted in far fewer customers than was anticipated. Unable to raise the capital needed to operate the money-losing enterprise and Langlois ceded their rights to Frossard de Lilbonne, who in turn passed it to Pierre Auguste Daval in 1857. During this initial period, the casino had been moved several times, until it ended up in the area called Les Spelugues. Construction at this site began on 13 May 1858 to designs of the Parisian architect Gobineau de la Bretonnerie and was completed in 1863.
Gobineau de la Bretonnerie designed the neighboring Hôtel de Paris. Although the casino began to make a profit in 1859, Daval was not up to the task. Just like his predecessors, he was incompetent and lacked the ability to bring the gambling enterprise to the scale envisioned by Princess Caroline. Frustrated, she dispatched her private secretary M. Eyneaud to Germany, hoping to recruit François Blanc, a French entrepreneur and operator of the Bad Homburg casino. Blanc declined the offer, it took a lot of time and persuasion on the part of Princess Caroline to convince the Blancs to move to Monaco. Princess Caroline appealed to Madame Blanc, whom she befriended during her first visit to Bad Homburg, with a suggestion that Monaco's mild climate would be good for Madame Blanc's ill health. In 1863 François Blanc agreed to take over Monaco's casino business. To manage the new venture, a company—the Societe des Bains de Mer et du Cercle des Etrangers—was formed with capital of 15 million francs. Among the prominent investors were Charles-Bonaventure-François Theuret, Bishop of Monaco, Cardinal Pecci, the future Pope Leo XIII.
Blanc became the single majority stockholder in the company and received a 50-year concession, which would last until 1913. Blanc used his connections to raise the required capital, began the massive construction. On Blanc's insistence, the Spelugues area where the gambling complex was located was renamed to make it sound more attractive to casino visitors. A few suggestions were considered, the name Monte Carlo was chosen in Prince Charles' honor. In 1878–79, the casino building was transformed and expanded to designs of Jules Dutrou and Charles Garnier, the architect who had designed the Paris opera house now known as the Palais Garnier. François Blanc knew Garnier, because Blanc had provided a loan of at least 4.9 million gold francs to the cash-strapped government of the French Third Republic, so that the opera house, started in 1861, could be completed. It had opened in 1875; the alterations to the Casino de Monte Carlo included the addition of a concert hall, located on the side of the casino facing the sea, the redesign and expansion of the gaming rooms and public spaces carried out by Dutrou on the side of the casino facing the Place du Casino, where the Hôtel de Paris Monte-Carlo and the Café de Paris were located.
In 1880–81, the casino was expanded again, to the east of Dutrou's Moorish Room, by the addition of the Trente-et-Quarante Gaming Room designed by Garnier. Subsequent additions and expansions, the remodeling of the Trente-et-Quarante Gaming Room into the Salle des Américains, have obliterated Garnier's contributions to this part of the casino, except for some ceiling decorations. In 1898–99 the Salle Garnier was remodeled by architect Henri Schmit in the stage area, so that it would be more suitable for opera and ballet performances. However, much of Garnier's original facade and the interior design of the auditorium itself remain intact. Despite all of the additions and modifications, the casino still has a distinctly Beaux Arts style. In 1921, the first Women’s Olympiad was held at the casino gardens; until the Casino de Monte-Carlo has been the primary source of income for the House of G
Quimper is a commune and capital of the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France. Quimper is the prefecture of the Finistère department; the city was built on the confluence of the Steir and Jet rivers. Route National 165, D785, D765 and D783 were constructed to intersect here, 62 km northwest of Lorient, 181 km west of Rennes, 486 km west-southwest of Paris; the name Quimper comes from the Breton kemper, meaning "confluent". Quimper is the ancient capital of Cornouaille, Brittany’s most traditional region, has a distinctive Breton Celtic character, its name is the Breton word kemper, meaning "confluence". The town developed at the confluence of the rivers Le L'Odet. Shops and flags celebrate the region's Celtic heritage. Quimper was settled during Roman times. By AD 495, the town had become a Bishopric, it subsequently became the capital of the counts of Cornouailles. In the eleventh century, it was united with the Duchy of Brittany. During the War of the Breton Succession, the town suffered considerable ruin.
In 1364, the duchy passed to the House of Montfort. The town has a rustic atmosphere, with footbridges spanning the rivers; the Church of Locmaria, a Romanesque structure, dates from the eleventh century. The Cathedral of Saint-Corentin, with its Gothic-style façade, was constructed between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries, it is the oldest Gothic structure in lower Brittany. Its two towers are 76 m; the fifteenth-century stained glass windows are exceptional. The cathedral is dedicated to Corentin. To the cathedral's west are the pedestrianized streets of Vieux Quimper, which have a wide array of crêperies, half-timbered houses, shops. Near the Episcopal palace, which now holds the Musée départemental Breton are the ruins of the town's fifteenth-century walls. Nearby is the Musée des beaux-arts de Quimper; the museum has a nineteenth-century façade and an rebuilt interior. It houses a collection of fourteenth to twenty-first century paintings that includes works by François Boucher, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Jean-Baptiste Oudry and Peter Paul Rubens, along with canvases by such Pont-Aven School painters as Émile Bernard, Maurice Denis, Georges Lacombe, Maxime Maufra and Paul Sérusier.
The town's best known product is Quimper tin-glazed pottery. It has been made here since 1690. Quimper has a museum devoted to faience; the town's eating establishments cider in Brittany. The town has been known for copper and bronze work, food items, galvanized ironware, leather and woolen goods, its inhabitants are called Quimpérois. The municipality launched a linguistic plan through Ya d'ar brezhoneg on 6 February 2008, to revive the teaching and use of Breton, the historic Celtic language of the region. In 2008, 4.61% of primary-school children attended bilingual schools. Quimper has several schools; these include two Diwan primary schools and one Diwan collège. In total, 287 students attended here a Diwan school in 2003–2004. Most French festivals are held in the summer season, but Quimper has a Winter Festival: Les Hivernautes. In the summer, you can find concerts on street corners, with pipers and accordion players. Quimper Cathedral; this cathedral has a remarkable bend in its middle. Churches an old town centre with mediaeval fortifications and houses Musée des Beaux-Arts Cornouaille Festival: traditional dance Faience museum Statue of Gradlon looking in the direction of Ys at Quimper Cathedral Public transport in Quimper is provided by QUB.
The network consists of 7 urban bus routes, 16 suburban bus routes. During the summer months of July and August, an additional "beach" bus route is open to service; the Gare de Quimper is the terminus of a TGV high-speed train line from Paris, which passes through Le Mans and Vannes. Journey duration is 04h25. In addition, the following destinations are served by the TER Bretagne: Quimper – Brest Quimper – Rennes Quimper – Cornouaille Airport has flights to Paris and London City. Quimper was the birthplace of: Guillaume Hyacinthe Bougeant, Jesuit author Louis Billouart de Kervaségan, chevalier de Kerlérec, last French governor of Louisiana Élie Catherine Fréron and controversialist Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec, admiral, discoverer of the Kerguelen archipelago Rene-Marie Madec, Nawab of India. See René Madec René Laennec, inventor of the stethoscope Max Jacob, painter and critic Corentin Louis Kervran, scientist Philippe Poupon, sailor OBE Hélène Mansfield, Croesyceiliog Head Teacher Hélène Albert, Nobel Prize winner of Medicine William Stanger, footballer Jean Failler, writer Jacques Villeglé, mixed-media artist Jean-Claude Andro, novelist Jessica Cérival, athlete Jean-Michel Moal, accordionist of Red Cardell Dan Ar Braz, guitarist Quimper is twinned with: Limerick, Republic of Ireland Remscheid, Germany Falkirk, United Kingdom Ourense, Spain Yantai, China Foggia, Italy Ys Quimper faience Communes of the Finistère department François Bazin (sculpt
Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders. Inhabited since prehistoric times, the Pas-de-Calais region was populated in turn by the Celtic Belgae, the Romans, the Germanic Franks and the Alemanni. During the fourth and fifth centuries, the Roman practice of co-opting Germanic tribes to provide military and defence services along the route from Boulogne-sur-Mer to Cologne created a Germanic-Romance linguistic border in the region that persisted until the eighth century. Saxon colonization into the region from the fifth to the eighth centuries extended the linguistic border somewhat south and west so that by the ninth century most inhabitants north of the line between Béthune and Berck spoke a dialect of Middle Dutch, while the inhabitants to the south spoke Picard, a variety of Romance dialects; this linguistic border is still evident today in the patronyms of the region. Beginning in the ninth century, the linguistic border began a steady move to north and the east, by the end of the 15th century Romance dialects had displaced those of Dutch.
Pas-de-Calais is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the former provinces of Calaisis English, Boulonnais and Artois, this last part of the Spanish Netherlands; some of the costliest battles of World War I were fought in the region. The Canadian National Vimy Memorial, eight kilometres from Arras, commemorates the Battle of Vimy Ridge assault during the Battle of Arras and is Canada's most important memorial in Europe to its fallen soldiers. Pas-de-Calais was the target of Operation Fortitude during World War II, an Allied plan to deceive the Germans that the invasion of Europe at D-Day was to occur here, rather than in Normandy. Pas-de-Calais is in the current region of Hauts-de-France and is surrounded by the departments of Nord and Somme, the English Channel, the North Sea, it shares a nominal border with the English county of Kent halfway through the Channel Tunnel. Its principal towns are, on the coast, Boulogne-sur-Mer and Étaples, in Artois, Lens, Liévin and Saint-Omer.
The principal rivers are the following: Authie Canche Ternoise Liane Sensée Scarpe Deûle Lys Aa The economy of the department was long dependent on mining the coal mines near the town of Lens, Pas-de-Calais where coal was discovered in 1849. However, since World War II, the economy has become more diversified; the inhabitants of the department are called Pas-de-Calaisiens. Pas-de-Calais is one of the most densely populated departments of France, yet it has no large cities. Calais has only about 80,000 inhabitants, followed by Arras, Boulogne-sur-Mer, Lens and Liévin; the remaining population is concentrated along the border with the department of Nord in the mining district, where a string of small towns constitutes an urban area with a population of about 1.2 million. The centre and south of the department are more rural, but still quite populated, with many villages and small towns. Although the department saw some of the heaviest fighting of World War I, its population rebounded after both world wars.
However, many of the mining towns have seen dramatic decreases in population, some up to half of their population. In the second round of the French presidential elections of 2017 Pas-de-Calais was one of only two departments in which the candidate of the Front National, Marine Le Pen, received a majority of the votes cast: 52.05%. There are two public universities in the department. Although it is one of the most populous departments of France, Pas-de-Calais did not contain a university until 1991 when the French government created two universities: ULCO on the western part of the department, Université d'Artois on the eastern part. Cantons of the Pas-de-Calais department Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department Arrondissements of the Pas-de-Calais department Battle of Vimy Ridge 7 Valleys Pas de Calais A whole wiki about the Pas-de-Calais Prefecture website General Council website Official Tourist website Short regional tourism guide Coats of arms of the municipalities in Pas-de-Calais
Charles Jeremiah Wells
Charles Jeremiah Wells was an English poet. His parents were Jane Sears. On 15 July 1825 he married the daughter of a school-teacher, their children were: Emily Jane Anna Maria Florence Hazlitt Charles James Llewellyn Florence Llewellyn Charles Deville He was born in Pentonville, London, on 25 January 1799. He was educated at Cowden Clarke's school at Edmonton, with Tom Keats, the younger brother of the poet, with RH Horne, he became acquainted with John Keats, was the friend who sent him some roses, to whom Keats wrote a sonnet on 29 June 1816: "When, O Wells! Thy roses came to me, My sense with their deliciousness was spelled. Wells soon afterwards played a practical joke on the dying Tom Keats, reappears in the elder poet's correspondence as "that degraded Wells." Both with Keats and Reynolds, Wells was in direct literary emulation, his early writings were the result of this. In 1822 he published Stories after Nature--or rather, in the manner of Boccaccio, tempered by that of Leigh Hunt. At the close of 1823, under the pseudonym of H. L. Howard, appeared the Biblical drama Of Joseph and his Brethren.
For the next three years Wells saw William Hazlitt, as he said, every night, but in 1827 the two men were estranged. When Hazlitt died, in September 1830, Wells took Horne to see his dead friend, afterwards raised a monument to the memory of Hazlitt in the church of St Annes, Soho, his two books passed unnoticed. Wells was now practising as a solicitor in London, but he thought that his health was failing and proceeded to South Wales, where he occupied himself with shooting and writing poetry until 1835, when he removed to Broxbourne in Hertfordshire. In 1841 he left England, he settled in Brittany, where he lived for some years. A story called Claribel appeared in 1845, one or two slight sketches but several tragedies and a great deal of miscellaneous verse belonging to these years are lost. Wells stated in a letter to Horne that he had composed eight or ten volumes of poetry during his life, but that, having failed to find a publisher for any of them, he burned the manuscripts at his wife's death.
The only work he had retained was a revised form of Joseph and his Brethren, praised in 1838 by Thomas Wade, again, with great warmth, by Horne, in his New Spirit of the Age, in 1844. The drama was once more forgotten, until in 1863 it was read and praised by Dante Gabriel Rossetti; the tide turned at last. Algernon Charles Swinburne wrote a study of it in the Fortnightly Review in 1875, the drama itself was reprinted in 1876. Between 1876 and 1878 Wells added various scenes, which came in the possession of Buxton Fornian, who published one of them in 1895. After leaving Quimper, Wells went to reside at Marseilles. Swinburne said that there are lines in Wells "which might more be mistaken by an expert, for the work of the young Shakespeare, than any to be gathered elsewhere in the fields of English poetry." In 1909 a reprint was published of Joseph and his Brethren, with Swinburne's essay, reminiscences by Walter Theodore Watts-Dunton. Tatchell, Molly: Charles Jeremiah Wells. In The Keats-Shelley Memorial Bulletin, No.
XXII, 1971, pp. 7–17. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Wells, Charles Jeremiah". Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. Cambridge University Press. Works written by or about Charles Jeremiah Wells at Wikisource
Charles Ponzi was an Italian swindler and con artist in the U. S. and Canada. His aliases include Charles Ponci and Charles P. Bianchi. Born and raised in Italy, he became known in the early 1920s as a swindler in North America for his money-making scheme, he promised clients a 50% profit within 45 days, or 100% profit within 90 days, by buying discounted postal reply coupons in other countries and redeeming them at face value in the United States as a form of arbitrage. In reality, Ponzi was paying earlier investors using the investments of investors. While this type of fraudulent investment scheme was not invented by Ponzi, it became so identified with him that it now is referred to as a "Ponzi scheme", his scheme ran for over a year. Ponzi may have been inspired by the scheme of William F. Miller, a Brooklyn bookkeeper who in 1899 used the same scheme to take in $1 million. Charles Ponzi was born in Lugo, Italy, in 1882, he told The New York Times he had come from a family in Italy. His ancestors had been well to do, his mother continued to use the title "Dona", but the family had subsequently fallen upon hard times and had little money.
He took a job as a postal worker early on, but soon was accepted into the University of Rome La Sapienza. His richer friends considered the university a "four-year vacation", he was inclined to follow them around to bars, cafés, the opera; this resulted in Ponzi spending all his money, four years he was broke and without a degree. During this time, a number of Italian boys were migrating to the United States and returning to Italy as rich people. Ponzi's family encouraged him to do the same thereby returning his family to its lost glory. On November 15, 1903, he arrived in Boston aboard the S. S. Vancouver. By his own account, Ponzi had $2.50 in his pocket, having gambled away the rest of his life savings during the voyage. "I landed in this country with $2.50 in cash and $1 million in hopes, those hopes never left me," he told The New York Times. He learned English and spent the next few years doing odd jobs along the East Coast taking a job as a dishwasher in a restaurant, where he slept on the floor.
He managed to work his way up to the position of waiter, but was fired for shortchanging the customers and theft. In 1907, after some years of failing to do well in the USA, Ponzi moved to Montreal and became an assistant teller in the newly opened Banco Zarossi, a bank started by Luigi "Louis" Zarossi to service the influx of Italian immigrants arriving in the city. By this time, Ponzi had a charming cheerful personality and spoke French and Italian, which Zuckoff says helped him get the job at Banco Zarossi, it was here that Ponzi first saw the scheme of "Robbing Peter to pay Paul". Zarossi paid 6% interest on bank deposits – double the going rate at the time – and was growing as a result. Ponzi rose to bank manager. However, he found out that the bank was in serious financial trouble because of bad real estate loans, that Zarossi was funding the interest payments not through profit on investments, but by using money deposited in newly opened accounts; the bank failed and Zarossi fled to Mexico with a large portion of the bank's money.
Ponzi stayed in Montreal and, for some time, lived at Zarossi's house helping the man's abandoned family, while planning to return to the United States and start over. As Ponzi was penniless, this proved to be difficult, he walked into the offices of a former Zarossi customer, Canadian Warehousing, finding no one there, wrote himself a check for $423.58 in a checkbook he found, forging the signature of a director of the company, Damien Fournier. Confronted by police who had taken note of his large expenditures just after the forged check was cashed, Ponzi held out his hands wrist up and said "I'm guilty", he ended up spending three years at St. Vincent-de-Paul Federal Penitentiary, a bleak facility located on the outskirts of Montreal. Rather than inform his mother of this development, he posted her a letter stating that he had found a job as a "special assistant" to a prison warden. After his release in 1911 he decided to return to the United States, but got involved in a scheme to smuggle Italian illegal immigrants across the border.
He was spent two years in Atlanta Prison. Here he became a translator for the warden, intercepting letters from mobster Ignazio "the Wolf" Lupo. Ponzi ended up befriending Lupo. Another prisoner, Charles W. Morse, became a true role model to Ponzi. Morse, a wealthy Wall Street businessman and speculator, fooled doctors during medical exams by eating soap shavings to give the appearance of ill-health. Morse was soon released from prison. Ponzi completed his prison term following Morse's release, having an additional month added to his term due to his inability to pay a $50 fine. After Ponzi's release from prison, he made his way back to Boston. While working at a mining camp as a nurse, he came up with the idea of going to a mining camp, starting a utility there that would supply water and power, selling its stock. During this time, a fellow nurse called. Despite not knowing her, Ponzi volunteered to two major operations to donate 220 square inches of his skin from his back and legs to Pearl; this resulted in pleurisy and similar complications and him losing his job.
Thereafter he continued to travel around looking for work, in Boston, he met Rose Maria Gnecco, a stenographer, to whom he proposed marriage. She came from a family of Italian-American im
François Blanc, nicknamed "The Magician of Homburg" and "The Magician of Monte Carlo", was a French entrepreneur and operator of casinos, including the Monte Carlo Casino in Monaco. His daughter, Marie-Félix, had issue. François was born on 12 December 1806 with his twin brother Louis, they grew up in a small town and were impressed every time circus came with a show - it seemed so interesting and simple so they followed the circus to learn all the tricks of the trade, boys were dreaming to become rich and successful and learnt so much and worked on different jobs. The brothers started to work in gambling business in Marseilles and earning some money brothers decided to develop their business and started to speculate on government pensions and got into real estate development. In that way they attracted attention to their business and were arrested, but not for a long time because law was not adopted yet for such cases, they were released and moved to Paris, but after King Louis Philippe passed new laws they had to move again - to Luxembourgh.
They ran profitable business there but it was just the first little step to their success in Hesse-Homburg near Frankfurt, where brothers signed a contract with a monarch because of debts of the city and in order to develop tourism industry. One innovation was the introduction of the single 0 style roulette wheel in 1843; this allowed Bad Homburg to compete against the casinos of Paris which offered the traditional wheel with both single and double zero house pockets. A legend says that François Blanc bargained with the devil to obtain the secrets of roulette; the legend is based on the fact that the sum of all the numbers on the roulette wheel is 666, the "Number of the Beast". The venture was a great success, Homburg became popular in a moment with a lot of entertainment, gambling houses, hotels - all the richest and famous came there for new emotions and fun. In a while François Blanc was given the name "The Magician of Homburg". Homburg could attract people only in summer months, during cold winter all the tourists preferred to rest in warmer places.
In the 1860s, the government of Frankfurt decided to abolish gambling as they felt that their region no longer needed its help in attracting tourists. It gave an idea to François to move to open all-year business, it happened that the Prince of Monaco had legalized gambling, so "The Magician of Homburg" became that first person to establish a casino operation in Monaco. To establish Monaco as a gambling mecca for the elite of Europe, he invested his money in roads, railways to make people come to Monaco as a new place of rest and fortune, his new King gave François a freedom, so he turned from "The Magician of Homburg" to "The Magician of Monte Carlo" and he left his mark in a history of Monaco. Blanc was twice married, his first wife was Madeleine-Victoire Huguelin. Together, they were the parents of: Camille Blanc, who married Elizabeth Lanxade in 1885. Charles Blanc, who died aged 24. After the death of his first wife, he remarried to Marie Charlotte Hensel, with whom he had: Louise Blanc, who married Prince Constantine Wincenty Maria Radziwiłł, a grandson of Prince Antoni Radziwiłł and Princess Louise of Prussia.
Edmond Blanc, who married Héloïse Marot and Marthe Galinier. Marie-Félix Blanc, who married Prince Roland Bonaparte. Blanc died in Loèche-les-Bains on 27 July 1877. Through his daughter Louise, he was the grandfather of Louise Adela Radziwiłł and Prince Léon Radziwiłł, who married Princess Dolores Radziwiłł and Antonine de Gramont. Through his daughter Marie-Félix, he was the grandfather of Princess Marie Bonaparte, who married Prince George of Greece and Denmark, the second son of George I of Greece and Olga Konstantinovna of Russia, is remembered chiefly for having once saved the life of the future Emperor of Russia, Nicholas II in 1891 during their visit to Japan together. François Blanc at Find a Grave
Le Havre, is an urban French commune and city in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northwestern France. It is situated on the right bank of the estuary of the river Seine on the Channel southwest of the Pays de Caux. Modern Le Havre remains influenced by its employment and maritime traditions, its port is the second largest in France, after that of Marseille, for total traffic, the largest French container port. The name Le Havre means "the harbour" or "the port", its inhabitants are known as Havraises. Administratively the commune is located in the Normandy region and, with Dieppe, is one of the two sub-prefectures of the Seine-Maritime department. Le Havre is the capital of the canton. Le Havre is the most populous commune of Upper Normandy, although the total population of the greater Le Havre conurbation is smaller than that of Rouen, it is the second largest subprefecture in France. The city and port were founded by King Francis I in 1517. Economic development in the Early modern period was hampered by religious wars, conflicts with the English and storms.
It was from the end of the 18th century that Le Havre started growing and the port took off first with the slave trade other international trade. After the 1944 bombings the firm of Auguste Perret began to rebuild the city in concrete; the oil and automotive industries were dynamic during the Trente Glorieuses but the 1970s marked the end of the golden age of ocean liners and the beginning of the economic crisis: the population declined, unemployment increased and remains at a high level today. Changes in years 1990–2000 were numerous; the right won the municipal elections and committed the city to the path of reconversion, seeking to develop the service sector and new industries. The Port 2000 project increased the container capacity to compete with ports of northern Europe, transformed the southern districts of the city, ocean liners returned. In 2005 UNESCO inscribed the central city of Le Havre as a World Heritage Site; the André Malraux Modern Art Museum is the second of France for the number of impressionist paintings.
The city has been awarded two flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Le Havre is a major French city located some 50 kilometres west of Rouen on the shore of the English Channel and at the mouth of the Seine. Numerous roads link to Le Havre with the main access roads being the A29 autoroute from Amiens and the A13 autoroute from Paris linking to the A131 autoroute. Administratively, Le Havre is a commune in the Normandy region in the west of the department of Seine-Maritime; the urban area of Le Havre corresponds to the territory of the Agglomeration community of Le Havre which includes 17 communes and 250,000 people. It occupies the south-western tip of the natural region of Pays de Caux where it is the largest city. Le Havre is sandwiched between the coast of the Channel from south-west to north-west and the estuary of the Seine to the south. Le Havre belongs to the Paris Basin, formed in the Mesozoic period; the Paris Basin consists of sedimentary rocks.
The commune of Le Havre consists of two areas separated by a natural cliff edge: one part in the lower part of the town to the south including the harbour, the city centre and the suburbs. It was built on former marshland and mudflats; the soil consists of several metres of silt deposited by the Seine. The city centre was rebuilt after the Second World War using a metre of flattened rubble as a foundation; the upper town to the north, is part of the cauchois plateau: the neighbourhood of Dollemard is its highest point. The plateau is covered with a fertile silt; the bedrock consists of a large thickness of chalk measuring up to 200 m deep. Because of the slope the coast is affected by the risk of landslides. Due to its location on the coast of the Channel, the climate of Le Havre is temperate oceanic. Days without wind are rare. There are maritime influences throughout the year. According to the records of the meteorological station of the Cap de la Heve, the temperature drops below 0 °C on 24.9 days per year and it rises above 25 °C on 11.3 days per year.
The average annual sunshine duration is 1,785.8 hours per year. Precipitation is distributed with a maximum in autumn and winter; the months of June and July are marked by some thunderstorms on average 2 days per month. One of the characteristics of the region is the high variability of the temperature during the day; the prevailing winds are from the southwest sector for strong winds and north-north-east for breezes, snowstorms occur in winter in January and February. The absolute speed record for wind at Le Havre – Cap de la Heve was recorded on 16 October 1987 at 180 kilometres per hour; the main natural hazards are floods and storm surges. The lower town is subject to a rising water table; the lack of watercourses within the commune prevents flooding from overflows. Le Havre's beach may experience flooding known as "flooding from storms"; these are caused by the combination of strong winds, high waves, a large tidal range. Weather Data for Le Havre A study by Aphekom comparing ten large French cities showed that Le Havre is the least polluted urban commune of France.
Le Havre is the third best city in France with more than 100,000 inhabitants for air quality. A Carbon accounting showed i