John Peter Altgeld
John Peter Altgeld was an American politician and the 20th Governor of Illinois, serving from 1893 until 1897. He was the first Democrat to govern that state since the 1850s, in 1896 he was a leader of the progressive wing of the Democratic Party, opposing President Grover Cleveland and the conservative Bourbon Democrats. He was defeated for reelection in 1896 in an intensely fought, born in Germany, Altgeld grew up on a farm in the American Midwest. After a stint in the Union Army as a youth, Altgeld studied law in Missouri, while working as a manual laborer, Altgeld eventually opened a law practice in Chicago, and became a real estate developer, and local judge before being elected governor. He was married to Emma Ford, often in poor health, he died at the age of 54, while working in the law office of Clarence Darrow. Altgeld was born in the town of Selters in the German Westerwald and his parents left Germany when he was three months old, bringing their infant son with them. They settled on a farm near Mansfield, Ohio.
He left home at age 16 to join the Union Army, lying about his age, Altgelds regiment served in Virginia as a reserve unit, doing labor and reconnaissance, participating in only one skirmish. Altgeld himself nearly died of fever and he worked on his fathers farm, studied in the library of a neighbor and at a private school in Lexington and for two years taught school. After a brief stint in an Ohio seminary, he walked to Missouri, becoming ill from the climate and the labor, Altgeld wandered to Kansas and Iowa before settling as a teacher and farmhand near Savannah, Missouri. There, he began to study law and was admitted to the Andrew County bar in 1871, in Savannah Altgeld first became involved in politics. He served as city attorney and was elected attorney, resigning after one year of a two-year term. In 1875, Altgeld moved to Chicago hoping to continue his career there. He frequently visited his home in Ohio and he was married to Emma Ford, the daughter of John Ford and Ruth Smith, in 1877 in Richland County, Ohio.
Their marriage was a one by all accounts but produced no children. Altgelds practice of law began to show success and he was managing an independent legal practice by 1880 and he became wealthy, from a series of real estate dealings and development projects, including residential and office properties in Chicago and a streetcar line in Newark, Ohio. His most notable project was the Unity Building, the 16-story office building that was at that time Chicagos tallest building. In January 1890, Altgeld bought a lot at what is now 127 North Dearborn Street in downtown Chicago and he indiscriminately contributed his own fortune toward the endeavor, and for a while the construction was moving more quickly than expected. However, this led to a $100,000 mistake and much of the framework of the building had to be rebuilt
Great Chicago Fire
The Great Chicago Fire was a conflagration that burned from Sunday, October 8, to early Tuesday, October 10,1871. The fire killed up to 300 people, destroyed roughly 3.3 square miles of Chicago and left more than 100,000 residents homeless. The fire started at about 9,00 p. m. on October 8, the shed next to the barn was the first building to be consumed by the fire, but city officials never determined the exact cause of the blaze. There has, been much speculation over the years, the most popular tale blames Mrs. OLearys cow, who allegedly knocked over a lantern, others state that a group of men were gambling inside the barn and knocked over a lantern. Still other speculation suggests that the blaze was related to fires in the Midwest that day. The fires spread was aided by the use of wood as the predominant building material in a style called balloon frame. More than two thirds of the structures in Chicago at the time of the fire were made entirely of wood, with most of the houses, all of the citys sidewalks and many roads were made of wood.
In 1871, the Chicago Fire Department had 185 firefighters with just 17 horse-drawn steam engines to protect the entire city. The initial response by the department was quick, but due to an error by the watchman, Matthias Schaffer. These factors combined to turn a small barn fire into a conflagration, when firefighters finally arrived at DeKoven Street, the fire had grown and spread to neighboring buildings and was progressing towards the central business district. Firefighters had hoped that the South Branch of the Chicago River, all along the river, were lumber yards and coal yards, and barges and numerous bridges across the river. As the fire grew, the southwest wind intensified and became superheated, causing structures to catch fire from the heat, around 11,30 p. m. flaming debris blew across the river and landed on roofs and the South Side Gas Works. With the fire across the river and moving rapidly towards the heart of the city, about this time, Mayor Roswell B. Mason sent messages to nearby towns asking for help.
When the courthouse caught fire, he ordered the building to be evacuated, at 2,30 a. m. on the 9th, the cupola of the courthouse collapsed, sending the great bell crashing down. Some witnesses reported hearing the sound from a mile away, as more buildings succumbed to the flames, a major contributing factor to the fire’s spread was a meteorological phenomenon known as a fire whirl. As overheated air rises, it comes into contact with cooler air and these fire whirls are likely what drove flaming debris so high and so far. Such debris was blown across the branch of the Chicago River to a railroad car carrying kerosene. The fire had jumped the river a second time and was now raging across the north side
William Rainey Harper
William Rainey Harper was an American academic leader of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Harper helped to both the University of Chicago and Bradley University and served as the first president of both institutions. Harper was born on July 24,1856, in New Concord, Ohio1, very early in his life, Harper displayed skills years ahead of other children of his age, and he was labeled a child prodigy. By the age of eight, Harper began preparing for college-level courses, at the age of ten he enrolled in Muskingum College in his native New Concord, Ohio. At the age of fourteen, he graduated from Muskingum College, in 1872, Harper enrolled in Yale University to begin his postgraduate studies, and he completed these in 1876. Harper quickly assumed a series of faculty positions, including ones at Denison University, throughout his academic life, Harper wrote numerous textbooks. A strong supporter of lifelong learning, Harper was involved with the Chautauqua Institution in Chautauqua, New York, William Rainey Harper married Ella Paul Harper in 1875.
They were the parents of three sons, Samuel Northrup and Donald, and one daughter, Davida. In 1891, John D. Rockefeller selected thirty-five-year-old Harper to assist in organizing the University of Chicago, Harper had expert knowledge of every department of education as well as business acumen, and he was a very powerful public speaker. In hiring the faculty of the new university and selecting its students, Harper elevated the salaries of the faculty members above those of ordinary schoolteachers, and by doing so attracted the best scholars of all disciplines to the university. Harper founded the nations first departments of Egyptology and sociology at Chicago and he instituted the nations first extension school, enabling those who worked during the day to attend classes at night and on weekends. One of Harpers ideas, that many would benefit by taking the first two years of college in their hometowns, led to the founding of American community colleges, the agreement provided that either party could terminate the affiliation on proper notice.
Several University of Chicago professors disliked the program, as it required uncompensated additional labor from them, after Harpers death in 1906, the program was gradually discontinued, and it had passed into history by 1910. With his background as a Semiticist and Baptist clergyman, Harper believed that the Universitys programs should include religious study, accordingly, he arranged for the Baptist Theological Union Seminary to relocate from Morgan Park and become the University of Chicago Divinity School. In 1903 Harper founded the Religious Education Association, while at University of Chicago, Harper chaired a mayoral commission responsible for reorganizing Chicago Public Schools and standardizing the systems curriculum. Harper, being opposed to the employment of women as teachers, moved to block a raise for female teachers, the ensuing dispute contributed to the organizing of the Chicago Teachers Federation, the precursor to the Chicago Teachers Union. In 1896, Harper assisted Lydia Moss Bradley in founding Bradley Polytechnic Institute in Peoria, now known as Bradley University, Harper served as its first president.
Harper died on January 10,1906, of cancer at age 49 and he and his wife are interred at Rockefeller Memorial Chapel on campus at the University of Chicago
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Wisconsin is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous. The state capital is Madison, and its largest city is Milwaukee, the state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline, Wisconsin is known as Americas Dairyland because it is one of the nations leading dairy producers, particularly famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, especially paper products, information technology, and tourism are major contributors to the states economy. The word Wisconsin originates from the given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673, subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, and over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands.
English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in numbers during the early 19th century. The legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845, the Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure. Interpretations vary, but most implicate the river and the red sandstone that lines its banks, other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning red stone place, where the waters gather, or great rock. Wisconsin has been home to a variety of cultures over the past 12,000 years. The first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation and these early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting, agricultural societies emerged gradually over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE.
Toward the end of period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the Effigy Mound culture. Later, between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact, the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was probably the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
The Metropolitan District Railway was a passenger railway that served London from 1868 to 1933. Established in 1864 to complete the circle, an underground railway in London. The Metropolitan Railway operated all services until the District introduced its own trains in 1871, the railway was soon extended westwards through Earls Court to Fulham, Richmond and Hounslow. After completing the circle and reaching Whitechapel in 1884, it was extended to Upminster in Essex in 1902. To finance electrification at the beginning of the 20th century, American financier Charles Yerkes took it over, Electric propulsion was introduced in 1905, and by the end of the year electric multiple units operated all of the services. On 1 July 1933, the District Railway and the other UERL railways were merged with the Metropolitan Railway, former District Railway tracks and stations are used by the London Undergrounds District and Circle lines. In 1863, the Metropolitan Railway opened the worlds first underground railway, the line was built from Paddington beneath the New Road, connecting the main line railway termini at Paddington and Kings Cross.
Then it followed Farringdon Road to a station at Farringdon Street in Smithfield, the Mets early success prompted a flurry of applications to parliament in 1863 for new railways in London, many competing for similar routes. The House of Lords established a committee that recommended an inner circuit of railway that should abut, if not actually join. Proposals to extend west and south from Paddington to South Kensington, the District and the Met were closely associated and it was intended that they would soon merge. The District was established as a company to enable funds to be raised independently of the Met. The District had permission to extend westward from Brompton station and, on 12 April 1869. There were no stations and this service initially operated as a shuttle. By summer 1869 additional tracks had been laid between South Kensington to Brompton and from Kensington to a junction with the line to West Brompton, during the night of 5 July 1870 the District secretly built the disputed Cromwell curve connecting Brompton and Kensington.
East of Westminster, the section ran in the newly constructed Victoria Embankment built by the Metropolitan Board of Works along the north bank of the River Thames. The line was opened from Westminster to Blackfriars on 30 May 1870 with stations at Charing Cross, The Temple, the Met initially operated all services, receiving 55 per cent of the gross receipts for a fixed level of service. The District were charged for any extra trains and the Districts share of the income dropped to about 40 per cent, the Districts level of debt meant that merger was no longer attractive to the Met and its directors resigned from the Districts board. To improve its finances, the District gave the Met notice to terminate the operating agreement, on Saturday 1 July 1871, an opening banquet was attended by the Prime Minister William Gladstone, who was a shareholder
The name refers to the Dakota branch of the Sioux tribes which occupied the area at the time. Most of Dakota Territory was formerly part of the Minnesota and Nebraska territories, when Minnesota became a state in 1858, the leftover area between the Missouri River and Minnesotas western boundary fell unorganized. Three years President-elect Abraham Lincolns cousin-in-law, J. B. S, personally lobbied for territory status and the U. S. Congress formally created Dakota Territory. It became a territory on March 2,1861. Upon creation, Dakota Territory included much of present-day Montana and Wyoming as well as all of present-day North Dakota and South Dakota, the Department of the Northwest sent expeditions into Dakota Territory in 1863,1864 and 1865. It established forts in Dakota Territory to protect the settlements of the Territory and Minnesota. Following the Civil War, hostilities continued with the Sioux until the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie, by 1868, creation of new territories reduced Dakota Territory to the present boundaries of the Dakotas.
Territorial counties were defined in 1872, including Bottineau County, Cass County, during the existence of the organized territory, the population first increased very slowly and very rapidly with the Dakota Boom from 1870 to 1880. Because the Sioux were considered hostile and a threat to early settlers. Gradually, the population grew and the Sioux were not considered as severe a threat. The population increase can largely be attributed to the growth of the Northern Pacific Railroad, settlers who came to the Dakota Territory were from other western territories as well as many from northern and western Europe. These included large numbers of Norwegians, Swedes, commerce was originally organized around the fur trade. Furs were carried by steamboat along the rivers to the settlements, gold was discovered in the Black Hills in 1874 and attracted more settlers, setting off the last Sioux War. The population surge increased the demand for meat spurring expanded cattle ranching on the territorys vast open ranges, with the advent of the railroad agriculture intensified, wheat became the territorys main cash crop.
Economic hardship hit the territory in the 1880s due to lower wheat prices, the territorial capital was Yankton from 1861 until 1883, when it was moved to Bismarck. The Dakota Territory was divided into the states of North Dakota, the admission of two states, as opposed to one, was done for a number of reasons. The two population centers in the territory were in the northeast and southeast corners of the territory, on a national level, there was pressure from the Republican Party to admit two states to add to their political power in the Senate. Admission of new states was a party political battleground with each party looking at how the proposed new states were likely to vote
Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo is the most populous city in the state of North Dakota, accounting for over 15% of the state population. Fargo is the county seat of Cass County, according to the 2015 United States Census estimates, its population was 118,523. In 2014, Forbes magazine ranked Fargo as the fourth fastest-growing small city in the United States. Founded in 1871 and located on the Red River of the North floodplain, Fargo is a cultural, health care, educational, in addition, Fargo is home to North Dakota State University. Historically part of Sioux territory, the area that is present-day Fargo was a stopping point for steamboats traversing the Red River during the 1870s and 1880s. The city was originally named Centralia, but was renamed Fargo after Northern Pacific Railway director, the area started to flourish after the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the city became known as the Gateway to the West. During the 1880s, Fargo became the capital of the Midwest because of lenient divorce laws. A major fire struck the city on June 7,1893, but the city was immediately rebuilt with new buildings made of brick, new streets, and a water system.
More than 246 new buildings were built within 1 year, there were several rumors concerning the cause of the fire. The North Dakota Agricultural College was founded in 1890 as North Dakotas land-grant university, in 1960, NDAC became known as North Dakota State University. Early in the century, the industry flourished, and in 1905. Fargo-Moorhead boomed after World War II and the city grew rapidly despite being hit by a violent tornado in 1957, the tornado destroyed a large portion of the north end of the city. Ted Fujita, famous for his Fujita tornado scale, analyzed pictures of the Fargo tornado and these were the first major scientific descriptive terms associated with tornadoes. The coming of two interstates revolutionized travel in the region and pushed growth of Fargo to the south and west of the city limits. In 1972, the West Acres Shopping Center, currently the largest shopping mall in North Dakota, was constructed near the intersection of the two Interstates and this mall would become the catalyst for retail growth in the area.
Fargo has continued to expand rapidly but steadily, since the mid-1980s, the bulk of new residential growth has occurred in the south and southwest areas of the city due to geographic constraints on the north side. The citys major retail districts on the southwest side have likewise seen rapid development, downtown Fargo has been gentrified due in part to investments by the city and private developers in the Renaissance Zone. Most older neighborhoods, such as Horace Mann, have either avoided decline or been revitalized through housing rehabilitation promoted by planning agencies to strengthen the citys core, NDSU has grown rapidly into a major research university, and forms a major component of the citys identity and economy
Underground Electric Railways Company of London
The Underground Electric Railways Company of London Limited, known operationally as the Underground for much of its existence, was established in 1902. It was the parent company from 1902 of the District Railway, the UERL is a precursor of todays London Underground, its three tube lines form the central sections of todays Bakerloo and Piccadilly lines. The UERL struggled financially in the first years after the opening of its lines, a policy of expansion by acquisition was followed before World War I, so that the company came to operate the majority of the underground railway lines in and around London. It controlled large bus and tram fleets, the profits from which subsidised the financially weaker railways, in the 1920s, competition from small unregulated bus operators reduced the profitability of the road transport operations, leading the UERLs directors to seek government regulation. The first deep-level tube railway, the City & South London Railway, construction had started on one other line and stopped following a financial crisis.
The rest of the companies were struggling to raise funding, the District Railway was a sub-surface underground railway which had opened in 1868. Its steam-hauled services operated around the Inner Circle and on branches to Hounslow, Richmond, Whitechapel, by 1901, the DR was struggling to compete with emerging motor bus and electric tram companies and the CLR which were eroding its passenger traffic. To become more competitive, the DR was contemplating a programme of electrification and it had parliamentary approval for a congestion-relieving deep-level line that was to run beneath its existing route between Gloucester Road and Mansion House. Yerkes had unsuccessfully attempted to bribe the city council and Illinois state legislature into granting him a 100-year franchise for the tramway system, following a public backlash, he sold his Chicago investments and turned his attention to opportunities in London. Yerkes first acquisition in London was the Charing Cross, Perks was a large shareholder in Yerkes next target, the Metropolitan District Railway, usually known as the District Railway or DR.
By March 1901, the syndicate had acquired a controlling interest in the DR, Yerkes established the Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company on 15 July 1901 with himself as managing director. The company raised £1 million to carry out the works including the construction of the generating station. In September 1901, Perks became the DRs chairman, the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway was a tube railway company which had been purchased by the DR in 1898, but had remained a separate financial entity. It had permission to construct a line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus, at South Kensington it was to connect to the deep level line planned by the DR. On 12 September 1901, the DR-controlled board of the B&PCR sold the company to the MDETC, in the same month, the B&PCR took over the Great Northern and Strand Railway, a tube railway with permission to build a line from Strand to Finsbury Park. The routes of the B&PCR and GN&SR were subsequently linked and combined with part of the DRs tube route to create the Great Northern, Yerkes final purchase was the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway in March 1902 for £360,000.
The BS&WR had permission to construct a line from Paddington to Elephant & Castle and, unlike his other tube railway purchases, construction work had started in 1898. With a varied collection of companies under his control, Yerkes established the UERL in April 1902 to take control of all and manage the planned works
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
Yerkes Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin operated by the University of Chicago Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The observatory, which calls itself the birthplace of modern astrophysics, was founded in 1897 by astronomer George Ellery Hale, the observatory houses a 40 refracting telescope, the largest ever successfully used for astronomy. And a collection of over 170,000 photographic plates, the director of the observatory is Doyle Al Harper. Yerkes Observatorys 100 cm refracting telescope was built by the refracting telescope company Alvan Clark & Sons and it is the largest refracting telescope used for scientific research. The mounting and tube for the 100-centimeter telescope was exhibited at the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago before being installed in the observatory, the grinding of the lens was completed later. The observatory houses 100 cm and 61 cm reflecting telescopes, several smaller telescopes are used for educational purposes.
Research conducted at Yerkes includes work on the medium, globular cluster formation, infrared astronomy. The University of Chicago maintains a center in the observatory. In 2012 the engineers completed work on the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera, researchers use the Yerkes collection of over 170,000 archival photographic plates that date back to the 1890s. In March 2005, the University of Chicago announced plans to sell the observatory, two purchasers had expressed an interest, Mirbeau, an East Coast developer that wanted to build luxury homes, and Aurora University, which has a campus straddling the Williams Bay property. About 70 homes were to be developed on the upper Yerkes property surrounding the historic observatory and these grounds had been designed more than 100 years previously by John Olmsted, the brother of famed landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of New Yorks Central Park. Ultimately, Williams Bays refusal to change the zoning from education to residential caused Mirbeau to abandon its development plans, in view of the public controversy surrounding the development proposals, the university suspended these plans in January 2007.
The study group began its work in February 2007 and issued its final report November 30,2007 and it suggested that some lakefront and woods parcels could be sold for residential development. List of largest optical refracting telescopes List of observatories Media related to Yerkes Observatory at Wikimedia Commons Yerkes Observatory and history from the National Park Service. Save Yerkes Yerkes Study Group Geneva Lake Conservancy
Northern Liberties, Philadelphia
Northern Liberties is a neighborhood in Philadelphia, United States. Northern Liberties is located north of Center City and is bordered by Girard Avenue to the north, Callowhill Street to the south, North 6th Street to the west, and the Delaware River to the east. The historical boundaries were different, with Vine Street as the southern border. The creek now flows as a sewer under the following streets, Laurel, Cambridge. Originally a portion of the Northern Liberties Township, the district first gained limited autonomy from the township by an Act of Assembly on March 9,1771, the Act provided for the appointment of persons to regulate streets, direction of buildings, etc. During the Yellow Fever epidemics of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Under the Act of Consolidation,1854, the district ceased to exist and it holds the status as a famous red-light district in the United States. Prior to annexation, the township was created as a densely populated alternative to nearby Philadelphia.
Because of this, it was known colloquially as Philadelphias first suburb. However, the Southwark neighborhood claims this distinction as well, artisan immigrants from Germany settled in the Northern Liberties in great numbers in the 19th century. In the first decades of the 20th century, the area saw an influx of immigrants from Eastern Europe, numbers of Slovak and Romanians left the challenges they faced in the waning years of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Slovaks established St. Agnes Slovak Roman Catholic Church at the intersection of Fourth, the Romanians who settled in the area established Holy Trinity Romanian Orthodox Church at the intersection of American and Brown Streets, where they and their descendants continue to worship. From 1860 to 1987, the Christian Schmidt Brewing Company was located in Northern Liberties, in 1985, the Northern Liberties Historic District was created, dedicated to preserving the Italianate architecture, Greek revival, and Federal style buildings which characterizes the area.
The historic district is bounded by Brown and Galloway, Green and Wallace, the district encompasses 209 contributing buildings. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1985, in recent years, Northern Liberties has become a major enclave of young professionals, students and design professionals. Large improvement and revitalization projects have been recently, causing a large jump in property values. The neighborhoods proximity to Center City has made it one of the citys most desirable development districts, like most Philadelphia neighborhoods, the housing stock is primarily made up of rowhouses, although new development in recent times has brought apartment and condominium complexes. Northern Liberties contains two privately owned but public parks, both established and owned by non-profits run by the neighbors, orianna Hill Park is known as an off-leash area for dogs, the other, Liberty Lands, is a 2-acre park and playground