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Charleston, West Virginia

Charleston is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of West Virginia. Located at the confluence of the Elk and Kanawha rivers, the city had a population of 51,400 at the 2010 census and an estimated population of 47,215 in 2018; the Charleston metropolitan area as a whole had an estimated 211,037 residents in 2018. Charleston is the center of government and industry for Kanawha County, of which it is the county seat. Early industries important to Charleston included the first natural gas well. Coal became central to economic prosperity in the city and the surrounding area. Today, utilities, government and education play central roles in the city's economy; the first permanent settlement, Fort Lee, was built in 1788. In 1791, Daniel Boone was a member of the Kanawha County Assembly. Charleston is the home of the West Virginia Power minor league baseball team and the annual 15-mile Charleston Distance Run. Yeager Airport and the University of Charleston are in the city, West Virginia University, Marshall University, West Virginia State University have campuses in the area.

After the American Revolutionary War, pioneers began making their way out from the early settlements. Many migrated into the western part of Virginia. Capitalizing on its many resources made Charleston an important part of Virginia and West Virginia history. Today, Charleston is the largest city in the state capital. Charleston's history goes back to the 18th century. Thomas Bullitt was deeded 1,250 acres of land near the mouth of the Elk River in 1773, it was inherited by his brother, Cuthbert Bullitt, upon his death in 1778, sold to Col. George Clendenin in 1786; the first permanent settlement, Fort Lee, was built in 1787 by Col. Savannah Clendenin and his company of Virginia Rangers; this structure occupied the area, now the intersection of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard. Historical conjecture indicates that Charleston is named after Charles. "Charles Town" was shortened to "Charleston" to avoid confusion with another Charles Town in eastern West Virginia, named after George Washington's brother Charles.

Six years the Virginia General Assembly established Charleston. On the 40 acres that made up the town in 1794, 35 people inhabited seven houses. Charleston is part of Kanawha County; the origin of the word Kanawha, derives from the region's Iroquoian dialects meaning "water way" or "Canoe Way" implying the metaphor, "transport way", in the local language. It is the name of the river that flows through Charleston; the grammar of the "hard H" sound soon dropped out as new arrivals of various European languages developed West Virginia. The phrase has been a matter of Register. A two-story jail was the first county structure to be built, with the first floor dug into the bank of the Kanawha River. Daniel Boone, commissioned a lieutenant colonel of the Kanawha County militia, was elected to serve in 1791 in the Virginia House of Delegates; as told in historical accounts, Boone walked all the way to the state capital. By the early 19th century, salt brines were discovered along the Kanawha River, the first salt well was drilled in 1806.

This created great economic growth for the area. By 1808, 1,250 pounds of salt were being produced a day. An area adjacent to Charleston, Kanawha Salines, now Malden, would become the top salt producer in the world. In 1818, the Kanawha Salt Company, the first trust in the United States, went into operation. Captain James Wilson, while drilling for salt, struck the first natural gas well in 1815, it was drilled at the site, now the junction of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard. In 1817, coal was first discovered and became used as the fuel for the salt works; the Kanawha salt industry declined in importance after 1861, until the onset of World War I brought a demand for chemical products. The chemicals needed were sodium hydroxide, which could be made from salt brine; the town continued to grow until the Civil War began in 1861. After a popular vote, the state of Virginia seceded from the Union. However, like much of western Virginia, was divided in loyalty between the Union and the Confederacy.

On September 13, 1862, the Union and Confederate armies clashed in the Battle of Charleston. The Confederates won; the Union soldiers returned in force just six weeks and retook the city. They would occupy Charleston throughout the remainder of the war; the Northern hold on Charleston and most of the western part of Virginia created a problem for Abraham Lincoln. Virginia had seceded from the Union, but now the western part was under Union control. What to do with it? Lincoln solved the problem by issuing a Presidential Proclamation declaring West Virginia a separate state, he announced that West Virginia had returned to the Union, on June 20, 1863, the U. S. Congress recognized West Virginia as the 35th state. In addition the dispute over slavery, the North wanted to separate West Virginia from the rest of the state for economic reasons; the heavy industries in the North the steel business of the upper Ohio River region, were dependent on coal from the western Virginia mines. Federal units from Ohio marched into western Virginia quite early in the war to capture the coal mines and control transportation in the area.

Although a state now existed, choosing a state capital location proved to be difficult. For several years, the West Virginia capital intermittently traveled between Wheeling and Charleston. In 1877, the c

Ciro de Quadros

Ciro Carlos Araujo de Quadros was a Brazilian leader in the field of Public Health, in particular, the area of vaccines and preventable diseases. He was born in Brazil. De Quadros played a critical role in developing the strategies now used worldwide in the eradication of polio, he led the team. He received a Medical Doctor degree from the Federal University for Health Sciences, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1966, a M. P. H. degree from the National School of Public Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1968. In 2003, de Quadros joined the Sabin Vaccine Institute, a non-profit organization honoring the legacy of Albert Sabin, developer of the oral polio vaccine. De Quadros is instrumental in the Institute's international immunization advocacy programs, where he works on issues such as the introduction of new vaccines, e.g. rotavirus, human papilloma virus and others, on issues related to the sustainability of national immunization programs. He is on the faculty at Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health and the School of Medicine of the George Washington University.

He died of pancreatic cancer on May 28, 2014 at his home in Washington, D. C.. He published and presented at conferences throughout the world and received a number of international awards, including: the 1993 Prince Mahidol Award of Thailand the 2000 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal The Order of Rio Branco from his native Brazil election to the National Institute of Medicine 2011 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award of Development Cooperation for leading efforts to eliminate polio and measles from the western hemisphere and being one of the most important scientists in the eradication of smallpox around the world, his work has shown. Public Health Hero of the Americas award from the Pan-American Health Organization Geneva Forum for Health Award Featured in PAHO's Art for Research exhibit collection by photographer Theo Chalmers "Shaping the World", highlighting how research for health drives social and economic development; the collection Shaping the World, exhibited in Africa and throughout the Americas.

Sabin Vaccine Institute The burden of pneumococcal disease among Latin American and Caribbean children: review of the evidence. Rev Panam Salud Pública. 2009 Mar. Review. Accessed on: 11/08/2013 Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Latin America and the Caribbean: a regional analysis. Rev Panam Salud Pública. 2008 Nov. Accessed on: 11/08/2013 Identifying unit costs for use in regional economic evaluation: an illustrative analysis of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Latin America and the Caribbean. Rev Panam Salud Pública. 2009 Nov. Accessed on: 11/08/2013 Rational use of rubella vaccine for prevention of congenital rubella syndrome in the Americas. Review. Rev Panam Salud Pública. 1998 Sep. Accessed on: 11/08/2013 Accelerated rubella control and the prevention of congenital rubella syndrome. Rev Panam Salud Pública. 2002 Apr. Accessed on: 11/08/2013 Shaping the World, an art exhibit of the Pan American Health Organization highlighting how research for health improves people's life and human development, yields high returns on investment

Palestinians in Syria

Palestinians in Syria are people of Palestinian origin, most of whom have been residing in Syria after they were displaced from their homeland during the 1948 Palestinian exodus. Palestinians hold most of the same rights as the Syrian population. Most Palestinian refugees fled to Syria in 1948 and came from northern Palestine districts, Haifa, Acre and Nazareth; some refugees arrived in Syria via Lebanon, some came from Galilee and the Hula Valley onto the Golan Heights, others came directly from Palestine to Jordan to Syria. By the summer of 1948, there were about 70,000 Palestinian refugees in Syria, the majority concentrated along the border area with Israel; the refugees were housed in deserted military barracks in As-Suwayda, Aleppo and Hama. In 1949, Law no. 450 established the Palestine Arab Refugee Institution, replaced by the General Authority for Palestine Arab Refugees, to manage the Palestinian refugee affairs. GAPAR’s responsibilities were refugee registration, relief assistance, finding employment opportunities for the refugees, managing funds and contributions intended for them.

GAPAR, with UNRWA, jointly administer the camps. Around 526,000 Palestine refugees are registered with UNRWA. There are three unofficial camps for refugees. In 1967, Palestinian refugees fled the Quneitra Governorate in the Golan Heights, around 4,200 of them were housed in Daraa Emergency Camp. In 1970, as a result of Black September, some Palestinian refugees fled from Jordan to Syria. In 1982, in the wake of 1982 Lebanon War, a few thousand Palestinian refugees left Lebanon and found shelter in Syria; the initial influx of Palestinians was substantial, the government, through a series of laws paved the way for their integration into the Syrian socioeconomic structure while preserving their separate Palestinian identity. Due to the civil war in Syria that commenced in 2011, many Palestinians in Syria have been displaced, either within Syria, itself or they have fled the country, their propensity to fleeing includes having been under siege in refugee camps, while many have opted to make the dangerous journey to Europe as conditions remain hostile to Palestinians in neighboring Middle Eastern states.

According to UNRWA, more than half a million Palestinians resided in refugee camps in Syria before the war started. It is estimated that at least 125,000 prewar. According to the Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Monitor, Palestinians who lived in refugee camps in Syria have faced additional obstacles, since they have been made "refugees for the second time"; the Geneva-based organization reported that more than 160,000 Palestinian Syrian refugees had left their camps in Syria, migrating to neighboring or countries of the European Union. These include nearly 80,000 refugees who fled to Europe, 57,276 others who fled to neighboring countries, such as Lebanon and Turkey, another 7,000 Palestinian Syrian refugees who fled to Egypt and the Gaza Strip. A number of Palestinian groups are involved in the fighting alongside the Syrian government. 3,642 Palestinians have died during the seven years of war, 1,651 Palestinians have been detained and more than 300 Palestinians are unaccounted for. Residents of Palestinian camps are suffering from air raids, shelling and malnutrition.

It has been seen in the Damascus- area Yarmouk camp. The president of the United States, Donald J. Trump pulls back funding for the United Nations agency for Palestinian refugees. According to the spokesperson of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency or UNRWA, Chris Gunness stated that "Palestinians are among those worst affected by the Syrian conflict." He explained that 95 percent of the 438,000 Palestinians are in "critical need of sustained humanitarian assistance. The UNRWA is an agency that works for Palestine refugee and is funded by voluntary contributions, they receive their funding from the Regular budget of the United Nations. UNRWA was established by the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 302 IV of 8 December 1949 to carry out relief programs for Palestinian Refugees. Gunness states "The war in Syria has devastated lives with incalculable cruelty. In this situation, many of the services UNRWA provides are literally life-saving." Gunness is referring to emergency assistance and teaching staff that UNRWA provides.

Any pullback in funding has an effect on care for this population. The UNRWA educates 45,000 students a day, without funding this agency would no longer be able to assist students. 54 percent of UNRWA funds go to education, 17 percent goes to health, 16 percent goes to support services, 9 percent goes to relief and social services and 4 percent goes to infrastructure and camp improvement. The Trump administration announced that the United States will indefinitely withhold 65 million dollars of its planned 125 million contributions to the UNRWA. On 2 January 2018, Donald J. Trump wrote "It’s not just Pakistan that we pay billions of dollars for nothing, but many other countries, others; as an example, we pay the Palestinians hundred of millions of dollars a year and get no appreciation or respect. They don’t want to negotiate a long overdue…" Palestinians in Syria have the right to own more than one business or commercial enterprise as well as the right to lease properties; these rights extend to commerce.

Union membership in Syria is open to Palestinians. Palestinians are free to travel throughout Syria and have the right to establish residence in Syrian villages and cities. There is, however, a prominent gap in the land ownership laws. Unlike Syrian nationals, Palestinians may not purchase arable land; the 1965 Casablanca protocol

South Cumberland State Park

South Cumberland State Park is a state park in the middle and southeast portions of Tennessee on the Cumberland Plateau. The park is one of Tennessee's newer state parks, it is a collection of 10 areas in four counties. Distinct areas contained within the park include: Savage Gulf State Natural Area Fiery Gizzard Trail Grundy Forest State Natural Area Grundy Lakes Denny Cove Carter State Natural Area Foster Falls Sewanee Natural Bridge State Natural Area Hawkins Cove State Natural Area Sherwood ForestSavage Gulf State Natural Area has been named as a National Natural Landmark. Crossing in and out of the park's various sections, the Fiery Gizzard Trail is renowned for its beauty and diversity. Camping may done at the park's Foster Falls Campground, which includes 26 tent/pop-up camper sites and at 93 backcountry campsites throughout the park. Collins River South Cumberland State Park Tennessee Natural Areas - Savage Gulf Tennessee Natural Areas - Mr. and Mrs. Harry Lee Carter Natural Area Tennessee Natural Areas - Grundy Forest Tennessee Natural Areas - Hawkins Cove Friends of South Cumberland State Park

Betz Halloran

Mary Elizabeth Halloran is an American biostatistician who works as a professor of biostatistics, professor of epidemiology, adjunct professor of applied mathematics at the University of Washington. Halloran studied physics and philosophy of mathematics for two years as an undergraduate at Case Western Reserve University, from 1968 to 1970, before leaving school to join the counterculture movement in San Francisco. Deciding to study medicine, she returned to school, completing a bachelor's degree in general science at the University of Oregon in 1972, she traveled to Berlin to continue her studies at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics and the Free University of Berlin from 1973 to 1975, studied medicine at the University of Southampton in England in 1981, completed an M. D. at the Free University of Berlin in 1983. Her goal at that time was to practice medicine in the developing world, so she continued to study tropical diseases at the Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine in Hamburg in 1984, earned a master of public health degree from Harvard University in 1985.

In that program, she rekindled her interest in mathematical modeling, she stayed at Harvard as a graduate student, earning a D. Sc. in population sciences from Harvard in 1989. After postdoctoral research at Princeton University and Imperial College London, she joined Emory University as an assistant professor of epidemiology and biostatistics in 1989, was promoted to full professor in 1998. At Emory, she directed the Center for AIDS Research from 2002 to 2005, the Center for Highthroughput Experimental Design and Analysis from 2004 to 2005, she moved to the University of Washington in 2005. In 2009, she founded the Summer Institute in Statistics and Modeling in Infectious Diseases at the University of Washington, continues to serve as its director. Halloran studies the biostatistics of infectious diseases, she is a long-term collaborator with University of Florida researcher Ira Longini, with whom she studies the spread of influenza. She has been quoted as an expert on the mortality rates of other diseases such as ebola and cholera, the factors influencing those rates.

With Longini and Claudio J. Struchiner, she is a co-author of the book Design and Analysis of Vaccine Studies. In 1996, Halloran was elected as a fellow of the American Statistical Association, in 1997 she became a fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, in 2009 she became a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 2005 and 2006 she held the Dr. Ross Prentice Professorship of Biostatistics at the University of Washington

Brussels Gallery Weekend

The Brussels Gallery Weekend is an event dedicated to contemporary visual art in Brussels. This weekend occurs in September and is divided in two main tours. One throughout the main art galleries of the city and one, curated by an independent curator, in the main artistic institutions; the Weekend hosts professional gatherings, workshop visits and screenings. From September 6–9, Brussels Gallery Weekend holds its 11th edition; this year, 40 galleries, a dozen institutions and several artists run spaces will open their doors to the public. Once again, Brussels Gallery Weekend is a highlight on the international arts calendar, reinforcing Brussels’ reputation as a global contemporary art destination and shining a light on the diversity of approaches and actors that contribute to this. In 2017, more than 7000 visitors attended more attendance is expected this year. New in 2018 is a “meeting point,” which can be found in the Vanderborght building, which will host an exhibition dedicated to local artists without gallery representation.

Selected by a committee of renowned galleries, participants are chosen for the excellence and audacity of their programs. «Our goal is to offer a reflection of the abundance of artistic quality in Brussels. There is such a richness in our capital; this is an opportunity for the public to appreciate the work of emerging and recognized artists from around the world. For us, the organizers, there is a real pride in presenting a program of this level,» explains Sybille du Roy, Director of the Brussels Gallery Weekend. New participating galleries include Alice Gallery and the Love Guru and Park View/Paul Soto. Early announcements of leading artists include Giancarlo Scaglia at Bernier-Eliades, a two-gallery exhibition by Sterling Ruby at Xavier Hufkens and Pierre Marie Giraud, Ed Adkins at dépendance, Tyrell Winston at Stems and Calder and Miró at Galerie de la Beraudière. Dutch architect Anne Holtrop, laureate of the prestigious international prize Iakov Chernikhov in 2014, can be discovered at Maniera.

In addition to this, the visitors will have the opportunity to discover art institutions as well as artists run spaces, always more flourishing in our capital. “The Brussels artistic landscape is changing, galleries are spreading out and artists run spaces are opening up all over the place. In the last few years Ixelles, St. Gilles, Molenbeek and downtown have all developed clusters of spaces; this expansion demonstrates the increase of actors and openness to local engagement that demonstrate the type of art hub Brussels is becoming,” added Sybille du Roy. New this year, the exhibition “Generation Brussels”, curated by Louis-Phillipe Van Eeckhoutte and located in the Vanderborght building, adds a place for unrepresented artists to engage with the Brussels Gallery Weekend public. Belgian curator Louis-Philippe Van Eeckhoutte worked for several years in a Belgian gallery and made his weapons in New York at Algus Greenspon, David Zwiner & Swiss Institute. «I contacted art schools, artists’ studios and various artistic spaces in Brussels to present a selection, both qualitative and diverse, of young artists,» says Louis-Philippe, «with this new initiative, we aim to build bridges between the old and the new generation, to provide more visibility to these promising talents”.

The names of the artists will be announced in September. As Sybille du Roy explains, “Providing for younger artists is an objective of the event, it reflects how galleries work for and aid artists, in this case by creating opportunities and training for the next generation of local talent”. In addition to this exhibition, a free pedagogical file can be downloaded from and guided tours given by Art History students are available. Enjoy the Brussels Gallery Weekend by taking advantage of thematic itineraries, downloadable from the website of the event and picking up a tear-proof Tyvek map with all the addresses of the 2018 edition. Particular attention has been paid to mobility: pedestrian and cycling routes are planned, as well as free Shuttles by Art Brussels to link up and downtown. Note a novelty for this edition: partnerships with Villo, Billy Bike and Uber were set up to offer preferential rates to the public of the event, thus facilitate traffic in the city.

Alice Gallery, La Patinoire Royale - Galerie Valérie Bach, Albert Baronian, Galerie de la Béraudière, Bernier/Eliades, Didier Claes Gallery, CLEARING, Damien and the Love Guru, dépendance, MLF | MARIE-LAURE FLEISCH, La Forest Divonne, Galerie Felix Frachon, Pierre Marie Giraud, Gladstone Gallery, Hopstreet Gallery, Xavier Hufkens, Victor Hunt Designaert Dealer, rodolphe janssen, Irène Laub Gallery, Harlan Levey Projects, LMNO, MANIERA, MARUANI MERCIER, Greta Meert, Meessen De Clercq, Mendes Wood DM, Jan Mot, Nathalie Obadia, Office Baroque, OV project, Park View/Paul Soto, QG Gallery, Almine Rech, Sorry We’re Closed, Galerie Templon, Vedovi Gallery, Waldburger Wouters, Galerie Zink Waldkirchen. Selected by a panel of renowned professionals, the selected galleries shined through the quality and audacity of their programs. Among the great names on display are Vedovi Gallery's three iconic masterpieces by Constantin Brancusi, who disappeared seventy years ago this year. In a different spirit, the Hufkens Gallery presented creations by Tracey Emin, a living artist whose exhibition set record attendance at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art in E