UNIMA was founded in Prague in 1929. In 1981, the French puppeteer Jacques Félix moved UNIMA's headquarters to Charleville-Mézières, location of the Festival Mondial des Théâtres de Marionnettes since 1972. UNIMA is affiliated to UNESCO and it is a member of the International Theatre Institute. There are National centers throughout the world, which include: UNIMA-USA founded by Jim Henson in 1966. In 1992 the Center for Puppetry Arts in Atlanta became the headquarters for UNIMA-USA UNIMA Australia UNIMA Pakistan British UNIMA UNIMA France - THEMAA World congresses have been held in: 1929: Prague 1929: Paris 1930: Liège 1933: Ljubljana 1957: Prague 1958: Bucharest 1960: Bochum-Braunschweig 1962: Warsaw 1966: Munich 1969: Prague 1972: Charleville-Mézières 1976: Moscow 1980: Washington D. C. 1984: Dresden 1988: Nagoya 1992: Ljubljana 1996: Budapest 2000: Magdeburg 2004: Rijeka 2008: Perth 2012: Chengdu 2016: Tolosa Puppetry World Puppetry Day Kenya Institute of Puppet Theatre "Union Internationale de la Marionnette".
Ardennes is a department in the Grand Est region of northeastern France named after the Ardennes area. Its prefecture is the town Charleville-Mézières; the inhabitants of the department are known as Ardennaises. The department is surrounded by the French departments of Aisne to the west, Marne to the south, Meuse to the east and by the Belgian province of Namur to the north, it is traversed in its northern part by the winding valley of the Meuse and it is in this part of the department that the majority of people and activities are focused. Charleville-Mézières and Sedan are the main urban centres; the department is part of the Academy of Reims and under the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal of Reims. The INSEE and Post Code is 08. With an area of 5,229 square kilometres, the Ardennes was the smallest of the four departments that made up the region Champagne-Ardenne, it presents a degree of geographical diversity. Ardennes owes its name to a vast natural area, the Ardennes, a plateau cut by the Meuse and its many tributaries which extend above the Walloon part of southern Belgium as well as Luxembourg and the north of the neighbouring department of Meuse.
The highest point of the department is 504 m and is situated on the southern slopes of the Croix Scaille. It is in this part of the Ardennes mountains that the Meuse winds through, known locally as "the valley". Flowing into the northern part of the Ardennes department it waters both upstream and downstream the main cities of Sedan, Charleville-Mézières, Nouzonville, it has numerous tributaries – the main ones in the department being the Semois and the Chiers. In the south of the department where the Aisne flows lies the vast treeless plain of Champagne chalk extended to the south-west by the small grain-growing region of Porcien, while Thiérache in the west and Argonne in the east are fringe grasslands with highly individualized soils; the Ardennes department does not have a uniform climate throughout its territory not during the winter period. From the north near Aisne and the border with Belgium, through the centre near the Canton of Omont, to the south of the valley of the Meuse, the climate is considered "degraded continental".
The rest of the department has "temperate continental" climate. All this stems from the location of the department, midway between the English Channel, the North Sea and the interior of Europe; this difference can be observed. Winter is more rigorous and there is a higher risk of snow at Rocroi and Sedan – all cities in the north of the department where the common characteristics of the degraded continental climate prevail; this nuance of climate is evident by the temperature difference with the adjoining regions. The Nord-Pas-de-Calais and the Parisian Basin benefit from the maritime influences of the English Channel, the Pas de Calais, the North Sea as well as the geophysical conditions in the presence of flat terrain; this climatic difference is pronounced in the presence of frost in the valleys of the Meuse, the plateau of Rocroi, around the Croix-Scaille where it can be marked and has the disadvantage of persisting longer in the year with a significant influence on the vegetation. Despite a high birth rate, the department continues to lose population: 300,000 in 2000 due to high unemployment.
The two world wars have each time resulted in a loss of population. There were 330,000 people at the end of the 19th century; that the major urban areas of the department are the most affected is characterized by a stagnation of the population – a population decline of up to 2% compared to 1999 in the city centres and suburbs. The communes, are gaining inhabitants; this is explained by the search for better living in the countryside which matches the desire of many people to build a small land-holding a house with land to the detriment of their proximity to their workplace. This contemporary concept favours commuting between Home and Work; this is the phenomenon of suburbanization which has become common in the whole of France from which Ardennes does not escape. On 1 January 2006, the Ardennes population stood at 295,653 inhabitants; the population is declining in urban areas but five times less than in rural areas. The limited decline in the urban space where two thirds of the Ardennes people live is the result of two opposite dynamics.
Semi-urban communes have gained 0.5% of inhabitants per year over the period 1999–2006 at the expense of urban centres which lost 0.6% per year. For thirty years the population has lagged in the main cities of Ardennes. Between 1999 and 2006, the annual decline was 0.2% for Sedan and Rethel, 1.8% for Revin, 1% for Charleville-Mézières. The most unfavourable rural population change came from degradation of rural employment centres, such as Fumay or Vouziers and to a lesser extent that of their periphery; this was mitigated by a small increase in population in other rural communes. Population of main towns in 2014 The department is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790 under the Act of 22 December 1789, it includes part of
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin; the kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a great power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a military power under Frederick William, known as "The Great Elector". Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more known as Frederick the Great, the third son of Frederick William I. Frederick the Great was instrumental in starting the Seven Years' War, holding his own against Austria, Russia and Sweden and establishing Prussia's role in the German states, as well as establishing the country as a European great power.
After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a major power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles, many wars; because of its power, Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states under its rule, although whether Austria would be included in such a unified German domain was an ongoing question. After the Napoleonic Wars led to the creation of the German Confederation, the issue of more unifying the many German states caused revolution throughout the German states, with each wanting their own constitution. Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful member states and Austria; the North German Confederation, which lasted from 1867 to 1871, created a closer union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent. The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War but many of its laws were used in the German Empire.
The German Empire lasted from 1871 to 1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony, this was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. The war united all the German states against a common enemy, with the victory came an overwhelming wave of nationalism which changed the opinions of some of those, against unification. In 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the legal predecessor of the unified German Reich and as such a direct ancestor of today's Federal Republic of Germany; the formal abolition of Prussia, carried out on 25 February 1947 by the fiat of the Allied Control Council referred to an alleged tradition of the kingdom as a bearer of militarism and reaction, made way for the current setup of the German states. However, the Free State of Prussia, which followed the abolition of the Kingdom of Prussia in the aftermath of World War I, was a major democratic force in Weimar Germany until the nationalist coup of 1932 known as the Preußenschlag.
The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, which has become one of the largest cultural organisations in the world. In 1415 a Hohenzollern Burgrave came from the south to the March of Brandenburg and took control of the area as elector. In 1417 the Hohenzollern was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. After the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic towns of the German states, including Prussia, suffered many economic setbacks. Many of the Prussian towns could not afford to attend political meetings outside of Prussia; the towns were poverty stricken, with the largest town, having to borrow money from elsewhere to pay for trade. Poverty in these towns was caused by Prussia's neighbours, who had established and developed such a monopoly on trading that these new towns could not compete; these issues led to feuds, trade competition and invasions. However, the fall of these towns gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west, allowed the urban middle class of Brandenburg to prosper.
It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, as it faced two dangers that the other German territories did not, partition from within and the threat of invasion by its neighbours. It prevented partition by enacting the Dispositio Achillea, which instilled the principle of primogeniture to both the Brandenburg and Franconian territories; the second issue was resolved through expansion. Brandenburg was surrounded on every side by neighbours whose boundaries were political. Any neighbour could consume Brandenburg at any moment; the only way to defend herself was to absorb her neighbours. Through negotiations and marriages Brandenburg but expanded her borders, absorbing neighbours and eliminating the threat of attack; the Hohenzollerns were made rulers of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1518. In 1529 the Hohenzollerns secured the reversion of the Duchy of Pomerania after a series of conflicts, acquired its eastern part following the Peace of Westphalia. In 1618 the Hohenzollerns inherited the Duchy of Prussia, since 1511 ruled by Hohenzollern Albrecht of Brandenburg Prussia, who in 1525 converted the Teutonic Order ruled state to a Protestant Duchy by accepting fiefdom of the crown of Poland.
It was ruled in a personal union with Brandenburg
Tulle is a commune in central France. It is the capital of the department of Corrèze, in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, it is the episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tulle. It is the third-largest town in the former region of Limousin, after Brive-la-Gaillarde. Known sometimes as "the town on seven hills", Tulle rose to prominence through the development of its manufacturing sector; the Gauls settled an oppidum at the site of what is now the Puy St Clair because it was a site surrounded by cliffs and so easy to get off. After the conquest, the city moved downwards, to the Trech district and the Romans established a temple to honor Tutela, goddess of protection of property and persons; the name of the city comes from this goddess. She was honoured here because it was a ford over the Corrèze where passed a old road between Brittany and the Mediterranean sea. In the seventh century was built a monastery dedicated to St. Michael; the local population settled around the buildings. The first monastery, destroyed by the Viking invasions in 846, was rebuilt but disappeared in the eleventh century.
Pope Urban II, in Tulle in 1095, granted protection for a new religious building. The first stone of the new abbey was laid in 1130. In 1317, Pope John XXII created the Diocese of Tulle. During the Hundred Years' War, the English took the city in 1346 and are driven from the city by the local militia, the city falls again in 1369, but English are expelled by the local militia again; the city was pillaged by Rodrigo de Villandrando during this time and the Black Death affected the city but according to legend, St. Clair healed people; the abbey was abandoned with the secularization of 1514. During the wars of religion, Tulle was for Catholics, the city resisted the first time against the Huguenots in 1577, but the troops of the Vicomte de Turenne took a bloody revenge in 1585, they put the city in sackcloth and devastation, after an assault that the Protestant poet Agrippa d'Aubigne recounted. Mutilation and looting were much more severe during the Revolution: the cathedral and the abbey buildings were converted into munitions factory, all fittings, including iron retaining the dome for recovery were torn, causing the collapse of the dome of the apse, the transept and the north gallery of the cloister.
The church was reopened for worship in 1803, but only regained its title of cathedral in 1823. From 1917 to 1922, Tulle was in the spotlight of the French press because of a news item. Over 100 anonymous letters were sent; the sender was Angele Laval, a spurned and insane woman. This fact inspired Clouzot for his film Le Cocteau for his play La Machine à écrire. During the Second World War, the 2nd SS Division Das Reich division of the Waffen SS perpetrated a reprisal massacre of civilians in Tulle, following the killing and maiming of some 40 German soldiers in Tulle on 8 June 1944 by the Maquis resistance movement. On 9 June 1944 a large number of male civilians were rounded up by the SS. Of these, 97 were randomly selected and hanged from lamp posts and balconies in the town. Additionally, another 321 captives were sent to forced labour camps in Germany where 101 lost their lives. In total, the actions of the Wehrmacht, the Waffen-SS, the SD claimed the lives of 213 civilian residents of Tulle.
In the last stages of the Algerian War and its aftermath, four military officers involved in instigating a failed coup aimed at deposing President de Gaulle were held in the prison at Tulle. De Gaulle referred at the time to "those idiotic generals playing ball in Tulle Prison"; the four were Edmond Jouhaud, Maurice Challe and André Zeller. The last of them to be released was Salan, amnestied on 15 June 1968 in the wake of "The Events" of May 1968. Tulle's role as a centre for lace making is highlighted by an "international lace festival" held each August; the town is home to the Maugein accordion factory, which once employed 200, though this figure is now much reduced. Near to this there was, till a significant armaments manufacturing business, but its site is now marked only by an armaments museum. Located in another part of town is a car parts plant owned by the American Borg-Warner company, employing 300 people. Tulle is the seat of the general council of the Corrèze Tulle is the seat of the canton of Tulle, which consists of the commune of Tulle Tulle is the prefecture of the Corrèze department Mayors of Tulle since 1949 were: Jean Massoulier Jean Montalat for the SFIO Georges Mouly for the RPR Jean Combasteil for the PCF Raymond-Max Aubert for the RPR François Hollande for the PS Bernard Combes for the PS Tulle's MP in the National Assembly of France for nearly 15 years was the Socialist François Hollande, elected President of the Republic in 2012.
Hollande served as mayor of the town. Demographic trends since 1793 Normal school of teachers ISMIB IUT of Nouvelle-Aquitaine: departments Health and Environment and Industrial Engineering and Maintenance Lycée Edmond Perrier: establishment of secondary and higher education and general; the school offers a Scientific CPGE. Institute of Nursing Education Gendarmerie training school CFA of the 13 vents Festival Nuits de Nacre since 1984 with a s
Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period for a given location on Earth expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is expressed in hours per year, or in hours per day; the first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites of health resorts; this takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar light on human well-being. It is used to promote tourist destinations. If the Sun were to be above the horizon 50% of the time for a standard year consisting of 8,760 hours, apparent maximal daytime duration would be 4,380 hours for any point on Earth.
However, there are physical and astronomical effects. Namely, atmospheric refraction allows the Sun to be still visible when it physically sets below the horizon. For that reason, average daytime is longest in polar areas, where the apparent Sun spends the most time around the horizon. Places on the Arctic Circle have the longest total annual daytime, 4,647 hours, while the North Pole receives 4,575; because of elliptic nature of the Earth's orbit, the Southern Hemisphere is not symmetrical: the Antarctic Circle, with 4,530 hours of daylight, receives five days less of sunshine than its antipodes. The Equator has a total daytime of 4,422 hours per year. Given the theoretical maximum of daytime duration for a given location, there is a practical consideration at which point the amount of daylight is sufficient to be treated as a "sunshine hour". "Bright" sunshine hours represent the total hours when the sunlight is stronger than a specified threshold, as opposed to just "visible" hours. "Visible" sunshine, for example, occurs around sunrise and sunset, but is not strong enough to excite the sensor.
Measurement is performed by instruments called sunshine recorders. For the specific purpose of sunshine duration recording, Campbell–Stokes recorders are used, which use a spherical glass lens to focus the sun rays on a specially designed tape; when the intensity exceeds a pre-determined threshold, the tape burns. The total length of the burn trace is proportional to the number of bright hours. Another type of recorder is the Jordan sunshine recorder. Newer, electronic recorders have more stable sensitivity than that of the paper tape. In order to harmonize the data measured worldwide, in 1962 the World Meteorological Organization defined a standardized design of the Campbell–Stokes recorder, called an Interim Reference Sunshine Recorder. In 2003, the sunshine duration was defined as the period during which direct solar irradiance exceeds a threshold value of 120 W/m². Sunshine duration follows a general geographic pattern: subtropical latitudes have the highest sunshine values, because these are the locations of the eastern sides of the subtropical high pressure systems, associated with the large-scale descent of air from the upper-level tropopause.
Many of the world's driest climates are found adjacent to the eastern sides of the subtropical highs, which create stable atmospheric conditions, little convective overturning, little moisture and cloud cover. Desert regions, with nearly constant high pressure aloft and rare condensation—like North Africa, the Southwestern United States, Western Australia, the Middle East—are examples of hot, dry climates where sunshine duration values are high; the two major areas with the highest sunshine duration, measured as annual average, are the central and the eastern Sahara Desert—covering vast desert countries such as Egypt, Libya and Niger—and the Southwestern United States. The city claiming the official title of the sunniest in the world is Yuma, with over 4,000 hours of bright sunshine annually, but many climatological books suggest there may be sunnier areas in North Africa. In the belt encompassing northern Chad and the Tibesti Mountains, northern Sudan, southern Libya, Upper Egypt, annual sunshine duration is estimated at over 4,000 hours.
There is a smaller, isolated area of sunshine maximum in the heart of the western section of the Sahara Desert around the Eglab Massif and the Erg Chech, along the borders of Algeria and Mali where the 4,000-hour mark is exceeded, too. Some places in the interior of the Arabian Peninsula receive 3,600–3,800 hours of bright sunshine annually; the largest sun-baked region in the world is North Africa. The sunniest month in the world is December in Eastern Antarctica, with 23 hours of bright sun daily. Conversely, higher latitudes lying in stormy westerlies have much cloudier and more unstable and rainy weather, have the lowest values of sunshine duration annually. Temperate oceanic climates like those in northwestern Europe, the western coast of Canada, areas of New Zealand's South Island are examples of cool, wet, humid climates where cloudless sunshine duration values are low; the areas with the lowest sunshine duration annually lie over the polar oceans, as well as parts of northern Europe, southern Alaska, northern Russia, areas near the Sea of
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona